Chapter 14 : “Emerging” Neglected Tropical Diseases

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

“Emerging” Neglected Tropical Diseases, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816803/9781555815257_Chap14-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816803/9781555815257_Chap14-2.gif


The vector-borne neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), such as the filarial infections (lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis) and the kinetoplastid infections (leishmaniasis, human African trypanosomiasis [HAT], and Chagas’ disease), often exhibit features that are characteristic of emerging infections. Among some key factors responsible for the emergence or reemergence of selected NTDs are conflict and human migration, urbanization and deforestation, and climate change. The chapter discusses each of these factors and their impact on the emergence and reemergence of specific NTDs in detail. The most common manifestation is cutaneous leishmaniasis, which is usually caused by , , and related species in the Americas and and in Africa, Asia, and Europe. Trachoma is another NTD that has reemerged in the context of conflict and insecurity. Caused by ocular infection with certain serovars of the bacterium , trachoma is the leading infectious cause of preventable blindness worldwide. Today in Latin America, urbanization has become an important social force for the emergence of both cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis. The effect of rising world temperatures on the NTDs is seen primarily on the geographical distribution of vectors and reservoir hosts. Some of the factors related to the emergence or reemergence of these diseases are discussed and include conflict, deforestation, urbanization, and climate change.

Citation: Vanjani R, Hotez P, Diemert D. 2010. “Emerging” Neglected Tropical Diseases, p 273-285. In Scheld W, Grayson M, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 9. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816803.ch14

Key Concept Ranking

Human African Trypanosomiasis
Chagas' Disease
Lymphatic Filariasis
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Number of reported cases of HAT (bar graph) and the number of people screened (line graph) from 1939 to 2004. The implementation of novel control strategies circa 1939 helped bring the sleeping sickness epidemic under control ( ).

Citation: Vanjani R, Hotez P, Diemert D. 2010. “Emerging” Neglected Tropical Diseases, p 273-285. In Scheld W, Grayson M, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 9. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816803.ch14
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2.
Figure 2.

Distribution of HAT in Africa along the conflict-ridden tsetse belt ( ).

Citation: Vanjani R, Hotez P, Diemert D. 2010. “Emerging” Neglected Tropical Diseases, p 273-285. In Scheld W, Grayson M, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 9. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816803.ch14
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Abel, P. M.,, G. Kiala,, V. Loa,, M. Behrend,, J. Musolf,, H. Fleischmann,, J. Theophile,, S. Krishna, and, A. Stich. 2004. Retaking sleeping sickness control in Angola. Trop. Med. Int. Health 9:141148.
2. Alvar, J.,, P. Aparicio,, A. Aseffa,, M. Den Boer,, C. Canavate,, J. P. Dedet,, L. Gradoni,, R. Ter Horst,, R. Lopez-Velez, and, J. Moreno. 2008. The relationship between leishmaniasis and AIDS: the second 10 years. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 21:334359.
3. Alvar, J.,, S. Bashaye,, D. Argaw,, I. Cruz,, P. Aparicio,, A. Kassa,, G. Orfanos,, F. Parreno,, O. Babaniyi,, N. Gudeta,, C. Canavate, and, C. Bern. 2007. Kala-azar outbreak in Libo Kemkem, Ethiopia: epidemiologic and parasitologic assessment. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 77:275282.
4. Antoniou, M.,, C. Haralambous,, A. Mazeris,, F. Pratlong,, J. P. Dedet, and, K. Soteriadou. 2008. Leishmania donovani leishmaniasis in Cyprus. Lancet Infect. Dis. 8:67.
5. Ashford, D. A.,, R. M. Kaiser,, R. A. Spiegel,, B. A. Perkins,, R. S. Weyant,, S. L. Bragg,, B. Plikaytis,, C. Jarquin,, J. O. De Lose Reyes, and, J. J. Amador. 2000. Asymptomatic infection and risk factors for leptospirosis in Nicaragua. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 63:249254.
6. Ashford, R. W. 2000. The leishmaniases as emerging and reemerging zoonoses. Int. J. Parasitol. 30:12691281.
7. Beard, C. B.,, G. Pye,, F. J. Steurer,, R. Rodriguez,, R. Campman,, A. T. Peterson,, J. Ramsey,, R. A. Wirtz, and, L. E. Robinson. 2003. Chagas disease in a domestic transmission cycle, southern Texas, USA. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 9:103105.
8. Bern, C.,, J. H. Maguire, and, J. Alvar. 2008. Complexities of assessing the disease burden attributable to leishmaniasis. PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis. 2:e313.
9. Berrang-Ford, L.,, O. Berke,, L. Abdelrahman,, D. Waltner-Toews, and, J. McDermott. 2006. Spatial analysis of sleeping sickness, southeastern Uganda, 1970–2003. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 12:813820.
10. Beyrer, C.,, J. C. Villar,, V. Suwanvanichkij,, S. Singh,, S. D. Baral, and, E. J. Mills. 2007. Neglected diseases, civil conflicts, and the right to health. Lancet 370:619627.
11. Bharti, A. R.,, J. E. Nally,, J. N. Ricaldi,, M. A. Matthias,, M. M. Diaz,, M. A. Lovett,, P. N. Levett,, R. H. Gilman,, M. R. Willig,, E. Gotuzzo, and, J. M. Vinetz. 2003. Leptospirosis: a zoonotic disease of global importance. Lancet Infect. Dis. 3:757771.
12. Bogdan, C.,, G. Schonian,, A. L. Banuls,, M. Hide,, F. Pratlong,, E. Lorenz,, M. Rollinghoff, and, R. Mertens. 2001. Visceral leishmaniasis in a German child who had never entered a known endemic area: case report and review of the literature. Clin. Infect. Dis. 32:302306.
13. Brun, R.,, J. Blum,, F. Chappuis, and, C. Burri. 2009. Human African trypanosomiasis. Lancet 375:148159.
14. Click Lambert, R.,, K. N. Kolivras,, L. M. Resler,, C. C. Brewster, and, S. L. Paulson. 2008. The potential for emergence of Chagas disease in the United States. Geospat. Health 2:227239.
15. Collin, S.,, R. Davidson,, K. Ritmeijer,, K. Keus,, Y. Melaku,, S. Kipngetich, and, C. Davies. 2004. Conflict and kala-azar: determinants of adverse outcomes of kala-azar among patients in southern Sudan. Clin. Infect. Dis. 38:612619.
16. Costa, C. H. 2008. Characterization and speculations on the urbanization of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. Cad. Saude Publica 24:29592963.
17. Darne, S.,, and S. A. Sinclair. 2006. A sandfly in Surrey? A case of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the United Kingdom without history of recent travel to an endemic area. Clin. Exp. Dermatol. 31:1556.
18. de Raadt, P. 2005. The History of Sleeping Sickness. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
19. Desai, S.,, U. van Treeck,, M. Lierz,, W. Espelage,, L. Zota,, A. Sarbu,, M. Czerwinski,, M. Sadkowska-Todys,, M. Avdicova,, J. Reetz,, E. Luge,, B. Guerra,, K. Nockler, and, A. Jansen. 2009. Resurgence of field fever in a temperate country: an epidemic of leptospirosis among seasonal strawberry harvesters in Germany in 2007. Clin. Infect. Dis. 48:691697.
20. Desjeux, P. 2001. The increase in risk factors for leishmaniasis worldwide. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 95:239243.
21. Despommier, D. D.,, R. W. Gwadz,, P. J. Hotez, and, C. A. Knirsch (ed.). 2005. Parasitic Diseases, 5th ed., p. 3238. Apple Trees Productions, New York, NY.
22. Dhanda, V.,, P. K. Das,, R. Lal,, R. Srinivasan, and, K. D. Ramaiah. 1996. Spread of lymphatic filariasis, re-emergence of leishmaniasis & threat of babesiosis in India. Indian J. Med. Res. 103:4654.
23. Dujardin, J. C.,, L. Campino,, C. Canavate,, J. P. Dedet,, L. Gradoni,, K. Soteriadou,, A. Mazeris,, Y. Ozbel, and, M. Boelaert. 2008. Spread of vector-borne diseases and neglect of leishmaniasis, Europe. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 14:10131018.
24. Ekwanzala, M.,, J. Pepin,, N. Khonde,, S. Molisho,, H. Bruneel, and, P. De Wals. 1996. In the heart of darkness: sleeping sickness in Zaire. Lancet 348:14271430.
25. Ford, L. B. 2007. Civil conflict and sleeping sickness in Africa in general and Uganda in particular. Confl. Health 1:6.
26. Franke, C. R.,, C. Staubach,, M. Ziller, and, H. Schluter. 2002. Trends in the temporal and spatial distribution of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis in the state of Bahia, Brazil, from 1985 to 1999. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 96:236241.
27. Franke, C. R.,, M. Ziller,, C. Staubach, and, M. Latif. 2002. Impact of the El Nino/Southern Oscillation on visceral leishmaniasis, Brazil. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8:914917.
28. Garfield, R. M.,, T. Frieden, and, S. H. Vermund. 1987. Health-related outcomes of war in Nicaragua. Am. J. Public Health 77:615618.
29. Garifallou, A.,, L. F. Schnur,, J. D. Stratigos,, M. Hadziandoniou,, M. Savigos,, N. Stavrianeas, and, C. Serie. 1984. Leishmaniasis in Greece II. Isolation and identification of the parasite causing cutaneous leishmaniasis in man. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 78:369375.
30. Gbakima, A. A.,, M. A. Appawu,, S. Dadzie,, C. Karikari,, S. O. Sackey,, A. Baffoe-Wilmot,, J. Gyapong, and, A. L. Scott. 2005. Lymphatic filariasis in Ghana: establishing the potential for an urban cycle of transmission. Trop. Med. Int. Health 10:387392.
31. Gonzalez, C.,, O. Wang,, S. E. Strutz,, C. Gonzalez-Salazar,, V. Sanchez-Cordero, and, S. Sarkar. 2010. Climate change and risk of leishmaniasis in North America: predictions from ecological niche models of vector and reservoir species. PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis. 4:e585.
32. Grisard, E. C.,, M. Steindel,, J. J. Shaw,, E. A. Ishikawa,, C. J. Carvalho-Pinto,, I. Eger-Mangrich,, H. K. Toma,, J. H. Lima,, A. J. Romanha, and, D. A. Campbell. 2000. Characterization of Leishmania sp. strains isolated from autochthonous cases of human cutaneous leishmaniasis in Santa Catarina State, southern Brazil. Acta Trop. 74:8993.
33. Gubler, D. J.,, P. Reiter,, K. L. Ebi,, W. Yap,, R. Nasci, and, J. A. Patz. 2001. Climate variability and change in the United States: potential impacts on vector- and rodent-borne diseases. Environ. Health Perspect. 109(Suppl. 2):223233.
34. Haile, T.,, and S. D. Anderson. 2006. Visceral leishmaniasis in northern Ethiopia. East Afr. Med. J. 83:389392.
35. Heukelbach, J.,, F. A. de Oliveira,, G. Hesse, and, H. Feldmeier. 2001. Tungiasis: a neglected health problem of poor communities. Trop. Med. Int. Health 6:267272.
36. Hotez, P.,, E. Ottesen,, A. Fenwick, and, D. Molyneux. 2006. The neglected tropical diseases: the ancient afflictions of stigma and poverty and the prospects for their control and elimination. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 582:2333.
37. Hotez, P. J. 2006. The “biblical diseases” and U.S. vaccine diplomacy. Brown World Affairs J. 12:247258.
38. Hotez, P. J. 2008. Forgotten People, Forgotten Diseases: the Neglected Tropical Diseases and Their Impact on Global Health and Development. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
39. Hotez, P. J.,, M. E. Bottazzi,, C. Franco-Paredes,, S. K. Ault, and, M. R. Periago. 2008. The neglected tropical diseases of Latin America and the Caribbean: a review of disease burden and distribution and a roadmap for control and elimination. PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis. 2:e300.
40. Hotez, P. J.,, A. Fenwick,, L. Savioli, and, D. H. Molyneux. 2009. Rescuing the bottom billion through control of neglected tropical diseases. Lancet 373:15701575.
41. Hotez, P. J.,, and A. Kamath. 2009. Neglected tropical diseases in sub-saharan Africa: review of their prevalence, distribution, and disease burden. PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis. 3:e412.
42. Hotez, P. J.,, D. H. Molyneux,, A. Fenwick,, J. Kumaresan,, S. E. Sachs,, J. D. Sachs, and, L. Savioli. 2007. Control of neglected tropical diseases. N. Engl. J. Med. 357:10181027.
43. Hutchinson, O. C.,, E. M. Fevre,, M. Carrington, and, S. C. Welburn. 2003. Lessons learned from the emergence of a new Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense sleeping sickness focus in Uganda. Lancet Infect. Dis. 3:4245.
44. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 2001. Climate change 2001: the scientific basis—technical summary of the working group I report, p. 70. In J. T. Houghton,, Y. Ding,, D. J. Griggs,, M. Noguer,, P. J. van der Linden,, X. Dai,, K. Maskell, and, C. A. Johnson (ed.), Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
45. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 2007. Summary for policymakers, p. 1–18. In S. Solomon,, D. Qin,, M. Manning,, Z. Chen,, M. Marquis,, K. Averyt,, M. M. B. Tignor, and, H. L. Miller, Jr. (ed.), Climate Change 2007: the Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
46. Kattenberg, A.,, F. Giorgi,, H. Grassl, et al. 1996. Climate models’ projections of future climate, p. 285–357. In J. T. Houghton,, L. G. Meira-Filho,, B. A. Callander,, N. Harris,, A. Kattenberg,, K. Maskell, et al. (ed.), Climate Change 1995. The Science of Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
47. King, J. D.,, J. Ngondi,, G. Gatpan,, B. Lopidia,, S. Becknell, and, P. M. Emerson. 2008. The burden of trachoma in Ayod County of Southern Sudan. PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis. 2:e299.
48. Kolaczinski, J. H.,, A. Hope,, J. A. Ruiz,, J. Rumunu,, M. Richer, and, J. Seaman. 2008. Kala-azar epidemiology and control, southern Sudan. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 14:664666.
49. Lyons, M. 1992. The Colonial Disease: a Social History of Sleeping Sickness in Northern Zaire, 1900–1940, 1st ed. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
50. Maciel, E. A.,, A. L. de Carvalho,, S. F. Nascimento,, R. B. de Matos,, E. L. Gouveia,, M. G. Reis, and, A. I. Ko. 2008. Household transmission of leptospira infection in urban slum communities. PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis. 2:e154.
51. Mangal, T. D.,, S. Paterson, and, A. Fenton. 2008. Predicting the impact of long-term temperature changes on the epidemiology and control of schistosomiasis: a mechanistic model. PLoS One 3:e1438.
52. Marlet, M. V.,, D. K. Sang,, K. Ritmeijer,, R. O. Muga,, J. Onsongo, and, R. N. Davidson. 2003. Emergence or re-emergence of visceral leishmaniasis in areas of Somalia, north-eastern Kenya, and south-eastern Ethiopia in 2000–01. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 97:515518.
53. Marlet, M. V.,, F. Wuillaume,, D. Jacquet,, K. W. Quispe,, J. C. Dujardin, and, M. Boelaert. 2003. A neglected disease of humans: a new focus of visceral leishmaniasis in Bakool, Somalia. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 97:667671.
54. Mathur, P.,, J. C. Samantaray,, M. Vajpayee, and, P. Samanta. 2006. Visceral leishmaniasis/human immunodeficiency virus co-infection in India: the focus of two epidemics. J. Med. Microbiol. 55:919922.
55. Ministério da Saúde. 2006. Manual de Vigilância e Controle da Leishmaniose Visceral. Ministério da Saúde, Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde, Departamento de Vigilância Epidemiológica, Brasília, Brazil.
56. Molina, R.,, J. M. Lohse,, F. Pulido,, F. Laguna,, R. Lopez-Velez, and, J. Alvar. 1999. Infection of sand flies by humans coinfected with Leishmania infantum and human immunodeficiency virus. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 60:5153.
57. Moore, A.,, and M. Richer. 2001. Re-emergence of epidemic sleeping sickness in southern Sudan. Trop. Med. Int. Health 6:342347.
58. Moore, A.,, M. Richer,, M. Enrile,, E. Losio,, J. Roberts, and, D. Levy. 1999. Resurgence of sleeping sickness in Tambura County, Sudan. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 61:315318.
59. Mott, K. E.,, P. Desjeux,, A. Moncayo,, P. Ranque, and, P. de Raadt. 1990. Parasitic diseases and urban development. Bull. W. H. O. 68:691698.
60. Murphy, J. M.,, D. M. Sexton,, D. N. Barnett,, G. S. Jones,, M. J. Webb,, M. Collins, and, D. A. Stainforth. 2004. Quantification of modelling uncertainties in a large ensemble of climate change simulations. Nature 430:768772.
61. National Programme to Eliminate Filariasis. 2004. Annual Report for the National Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (PELF), Myanmar. Myanmar Ministry of Public Health, Yangon, Myanmar. http://www.searo.who.int/LinkFiles/New_Lymphatic_Filariasis_Annual_Report_Myanmar_2004.pdf.
62. Naucke, T. J.,, and C. Schmitt. 2004. Is leishmaniasis becoming endemic in Germany? Int. J. Med. Microbiol. 293(Suppl. 37):179181.
63. Ngondi, J.,, F. Ole-Sempele,, A. Onsarigo,, I. Matende,, S. Baba,, M. Reacher,, F. Matthews,, C. Brayne, and, P. M. Emerson. 2006. Prevalence and causes of blindness and low vision in southern Sudan. PLoS Med. 3:e477.
64. Oumeish, O. Y. 1999. Cutaneous leishmaniasis: a historical perspective. Clin. Dermatol. 17:249254.
65. Pereira, G. F. M.,, and H. H. R. Fonseca. 1994. Leishmaniose tegumentar americana: epidemiologia e controle. Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop. 27:4550.
66. Peterson, A. T.,, and J. Shaw. 2003. Lutzomyia vectors for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Southern Brazil: ecological niche models, predicted geographic distributions, and climate change effects. Int. J. Parasitol. 33:919931.
67. Phiri, K.,, C. J. Whitty,, S. M. Graham, and, G. Ssembatya-Lule. 2000. Urban/rural differences in prevalence and risk factors for intestinal helminth infection in southern Malawi. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 94:381387.
68. Ramsey, J. M.,, A. L. Alvear,, R. Ordonez,, G. Munoz,, A. Garcia,, R. Lopez, and, R. Leyva. 2005. Risk factors associated with house infestation by the Chagas disease vector Triatoma pallidipennis in Cuernavaca metropolitan area, Mexico. Med. Vet. Entomol. 19:219228.
69. Reis, R. B.,, G. S. Ribeiro,, R. D. Felzemburgh,, F. S. Santana,, S. Mohr,, A. X. Melendez,, A. Queiroz,, A. C. Santos,, R. R. Ravines,, W. S. Tassinari,, M. S. Carvalho,, M. G. Reis, and, A. I. Ko. 2008. Impact of environment and social gradient on Leptospira infection in urban slums. PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis. 2:e228.
70. Reithinger, R.,, S. Brooker, and, J. H. Kolaczinski. 2007. Visceral leishmaniasis in eastern Africa—current status. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 101:11691170.
71. Ripert, C. 2003. Schistosomiasis due to Schistosoma intercalatum and urbanization in central Africa. Bull. Soc. Pathol. Exot. 96:183186.
72. Salomon, O. D.,, M. G. Quintana, and, M. Zaidenberg. 2008. Urban distribution of Phlebotominae in a cutaneous leishmaniasis focus, Argentina. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 103:282287.
73. Sanders, E. J.,, J. G. Rigau-Perez,, H. L. Smits,, C. C. Deseda,, V. A. Vorndam,, T. Aye,, R. A. Spiegel,, R. S. Weyant, and, S. L. Bragg. 1999. Increase of leptospirosis in dengue-negative patients after a hurricane in Puerto Rico in 1996 [correction of 1966]. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 61:399404.
74. Schmunis, G. A. 2007. Epidemiology of Chagas disease in non-endemic countries: the role of international migration. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 102(Suppl. 1):7585.
75. Schmunis, G. A.,, and Z. E. Yadon. 2010. Chagas disease: a Latin American health problem becoming a world health problem. Acta Trop. 115:1421.
76. Seaman, J.,, A. J. Mercer, and, E. Sondorp. 1996. The epidemic of visceral leishmaniasis in western Upper Nile, southern Sudan: course and impact from 1984 to 1994. Int. J. Epidemiol. 25:862871.
77. Senior, K. 2008. Climate change and infectious disease: a dangerous liaison? Lancet Infect. Dis. 8:9293.
78. Singer, S. R.,, N. Abramson,, H. Shoob,, O. Zaken,, G. Zentner, and, C. Stein-Zamir. 2008. Ecoepidemiology of cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreak, Israel. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 14:14241426.
79. Smith, D. H.,, J. Pepin, and, A. H. Stich. 1998. Human African trypanosomiasis: an emerging public health crisis. Br. Med. Bull. 54:341355.
80. Stanghellini, A.,, and T. Josenando. 2001. The situation of sleeping sickness in Angola: a calamity. Trop. Med. Int. Health 6:330334.
81. Steverding, D. 2008. The history of African trypanosomiasis. Parasit. Vectors 1:3.
82. Sundar, S. 2001. Drug resistance in Indian visceral leishmaniasis. Trop. Med. Int. Health 6:849854.
83. Triteeraprapab, S.,, K. Kanjanopas,, S. Suwannadabba,, S. Sangprakarn,, Y. Poovorawan, and, A. L. Scott. 2000. Transmission of the nocturnal periodic strain of Wuchereria bancrofti by Culex quinquefasciatus: establishing the potential for urban filariasis in Thailand. Epidemiol. Infect. 125:207212.
84. Triteeraprapab, S.,, I. Nuchprayoon,, C. Porksakorn,, Y. Poovorawan, and, A. L. Scott. 2001. High prevalence of Wuchereria bancrofti infection among Myanmar migrants in Thailand. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 95:535538.
85. Van Nieuwenhove, S.,, V. K. Betu-Ku-Mesu,, P. M. Diabakana,, J. Declercq, and, C. M. Bilenge. 2001. Sleeping sickness resurgence in the DRC: the past decade. Trop. Med. Int. Health 6:335341.
86. Weekly Epidemiological Record. 2000. Leptospirosis, India. Report of the investigation of a post-cyclone outbreak in Orissa, November 1999. Wkly. Epidemiol. Rec. 75:217223.
87. Weekly Epidemiological Record. 2002. Urbanization: an increasing risk factor for leishmaniasis. Wkly. Epidemiol. Rec. 77:365370.
88. Werneck, G. L. 2008. Forum: geographic spread and urbanization of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. Introduction. Cad. Saude Publica 24:29372940.
89. World Health Organization. 1997. Future Approaches to Trachoma Control: Report of a Global Scientific Meeting (17–20 June 1996) WHO/PBL/96.56. Program for the Prevention of Blindness and Deafness, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
90. Wright, N. A.,, L. E. Davis,, K. S. Aftergut,, C. A. Parrish, and, C. J. Cockerell. 2008. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Texas: a northern spread of endemic areas. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 58:650652.
91. Ximenes, R. A.,, B. Southgate,, P. G. Smith, and, L. Guimaraes Neto. 2000. Migration and urban schis-tosomiasis. The case of Sao Lourenco da Mata, northeast of Brazil. Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Sao Paulo 42:209217.
92. Yang, G. J.,, J. Utzinger,, L. P. Sun,, Q. B. Hong,, P. Vounatsou,, M. Tanner, and, X. N. Zhou. 2007. Effect of temperature on the development of Schistosoma japonicum within Oncomelania hupensis, and hibernation of O. hupensis. Parasitol. Res. 100:695700.
93. Yang, G. J.,, P. Vounatsou,, X. N. Zhou,, M. Tanner, and, J. Utzinger. 2005. A potential impact of climate change and water resource development on the transmission of Schistosoma japonicum in China. Paras-sitologia 47:127134.
94. Zapor, M. J.,, and K. A. Moran. 2005. Infectious diseases during wartime. Curr. Opin. Infect. Dis. 18:395399.
95. Zhou, X. N.,, G. J. Yang,, K. Yang,, X. H. Wang,, Q. B. Hong,, L. P. Sun,, J. B. Malone,, T. K. Kristensen,, N. R. Bergquist, and, J. Utzinger. 2008. Potential impact of climate change on schistosomiasis transmission in China. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 78:188194.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error