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Chapter 17 : One World—One Health
A spectrum of new infectious diseases has emerged recently, including avian influenza, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Ebola hemorrhagic fever, and novel H1N1 influenza, causing major economic losses, straining international relations, and diminishing trust in existing public health infrastructures. The theme of One World--One Health (a registered trademark of the Wildlife Conservation Society [WCS]) is an effort to bridge the gap in our current infectious disease surveillance and response mechanisms that engages stakeholders through projects and multidisciplinary symposia, and has generated guidelines for future efforts, such as the Manhattan Principles. The Aedes albopictus mosquito is an alien species to Italy that is now widespread, introduced in the 1990s from the importation of American tires. The growing livestock industry due to rising global protein demand is an increasingly important source of emerging infectious diseases. Policy makers in organizations such as the WHO, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, and the World Animal Health Organization (WHO) are also increasingly endorsing the One World--One Health concept. While the World Animal Health Organization has traditionally focused on livestock health, it is now expanding the list of animal diseases that must be reported by its member countries to include zoonotic and wildlife diseases such as chytridiomycosis in amphibians.