1887

Chapter 18 : Emerging Infectious Plant Diseases

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Emerging Infectious Plant Diseases, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816803/9781555815257_Chap18-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816803/9781555815257_Chap18-2.gif

Abstract:

This chapter provides insights into the types of biotic threats to plants, the nature of the U.S. plant health infrastructure, the resources available to address and mitigate losses due to emerging plant diseases, and whether they arise as a result of the arrival of exotic pathogens, the mutation of endemic pathogens, or the intentional dissemination of pathogens by perpetrators wishing to cause harm. Pathogens of plants, like those of animal and human hosts, belong to a number of different taxa including fungi, oomycetes, bacteria, viruses, nematodes, protozoa, and even parasitic plants. Technologies relying on more complex chemistry and instrumentation, such as PCR, microarrays, or sequence-based assays, may provide definitive identification of a pathogen but lack portability and thus are more often deployed in clinical laboratories. Natural means of spread include weather, biological features such as aerodynamic spore morphology, the involvement of biological vectors, moving water, and even being borne on seeds or pollen, which are adapted for their own dissemination. These mechanisms, and their implications for disease epidemiology, are discussed in the chapter. Emerging, infectious plant diseases have long been of concern not only to growers and plant pathologists but also to legislators and policy makers. Although plant diseases generally do not cause immediate, acute, or lethal consequences for humans, they can and do result in significant economic harm, as trade is affected, and rural communities and downstream industries experience the impacts of crop quarantines, trade embargoes, and loss of income.

Citation: Fletcher J, Luster D, Bostock R, Burans J, Cardwell K, Gottwald T, McDaniel (deceased) L, Royer M, Smith K. 2010. Emerging Infectious Plant Diseases, p 337-366. In Scheld W, Grayson M, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 9. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816803.ch18

Key Concept Ranking

Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy
0.40797246
0.40797246
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 1.
Figure 1.

The plant disease triangle.

Citation: Fletcher J, Luster D, Bostock R, Burans J, Cardwell K, Gottwald T, McDaniel (deceased) L, Royer M, Smith K. 2010. Emerging Infectious Plant Diseases, p 337-366. In Scheld W, Grayson M, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 9. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816803.ch18
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2.
Figure 2.

Hypothetical temporal increase of disease. (A) Monocyclic (solid line) and polycyclic (dashed line) increases; (B) polyetic increase, i.e., a multiyear epidemic.

Citation: Fletcher J, Luster D, Bostock R, Burans J, Cardwell K, Gottwald T, McDaniel (deceased) L, Royer M, Smith K. 2010. Emerging Infectious Plant Diseases, p 337-366. In Scheld W, Grayson M, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 9. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816803.ch18
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 3.
Figure 3.

Extent of spread of Asian soybean rust in the United States as of December 2005 (1 year after discovery and 14 months after putative introduction by Hurricane Ivan in September 2004) (A) and November 2009 (B). Light-shaded areas indicate recently scouted (not cumulative for the year) surveillance plots; dark-shaded areas are positive for rust. Both images captured, with permission, from http://sbr.ipmPIPE.org, accessed 8 November 2009, courtesy of the IPM PIPE program.

Citation: Fletcher J, Luster D, Bostock R, Burans J, Cardwell K, Gottwald T, McDaniel (deceased) L, Royer M, Smith K. 2010. Emerging Infectious Plant Diseases, p 337-366. In Scheld W, Grayson M, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 9. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816803.ch18
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 4.
Figure 4.

The NPDN. Shading shows the five regional divisions; stars indicate regional hub labs and the central database at the Center for Environmental Regulatory Information Systems at Purdue University.

Citation: Fletcher J, Luster D, Bostock R, Burans J, Cardwell K, Gottwald T, McDaniel (deceased) L, Royer M, Smith K. 2010. Emerging Infectious Plant Diseases, p 337-366. In Scheld W, Grayson M, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 9. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816803.ch18
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555816803.ch18
1. Agrios, G. 1997. Plant Pathology, 5th ed. Academic Press, Philadelphia, PA.
2. Andrade, D.,, Z. Pan,, W. Dannevik, and, J. Zidek. 2009. Modeling soybean rust spore escape from infected canopies: model description and preliminary results. J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol. 48:789803.
3. Anonymous. 2008. CBP Fact Sheet: Protecting America’s Agricultural Resources. U.S. Customs and Border Protection, U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Washington, DC. http://www.cbp.gov/linkhandler/cgov/newsroom/fact_sheets/printer_fact_sheets/agriculture.ctt/agriculture.pdf. Accessed October 2008.
4. Anonymous. 2005. The Cooperative Agricultural Pest Survey: Detecting plant pests and weeds nationwide. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. http://www.aphis.usda.gov/publications/plant_health/content/printable_version/pub_phcapsdetecting.pdf. Accessed 30 May 2008.
5. Anonymous. 2009. USDA Manual for Agricultural Clearance. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. http://www.aphis.usda.gov/import_export/plants/manuals/ports/downloads/mac.pdf.
6. Anonymous. 2009. USDA Agriculture Quarantine Inspection Monitoring (AQIM) Handbook). Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. http://www.aphis.usda.gov/import_export/plants/manuals/ports/downloads/aqim_handbook.pdf.
7. Anonymous. 2009. USDA Fresh Fruits and Vegetables Import Manual. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. http://www.aphis.usda.gov/import_export/plants/manuals/ports/downloads/fv.pdf.
8. Anonymous. 2009. USDA Nursery Stock Restrictions. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. http://www.aphis.usda.gov/import_export/plants/manuals/ports/downloads/nursery_stock.pdf.
9. Barnes, C. W.,, L. J. Szabo, and, V. C. Bowersox. 2009. Identifying and quantifying Phakopsora pachyrhizi spores in rain. Phytopathology 99:328338.
10. Bassanezi, R. B.,, and T. R. Gottwald. Epidemiology of HLB and potential pathways for introduction. In Memorias del Taller Internacional sobre Plagas Cuarentenarias de los Cítricos/Proceedings of International Workshop on Citrus Quarantine Pests, Villahermosa México, July 27–31, 2009, in press. SENASICA, Mexico City, Mexico.
11. Bromfield, K. R. 1984. Soybean Rust. Monograph no. 11. American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, MN.
12. Brown, P. 2001. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. BMJ 322:841844.
13. Bushnell, W. R.,, and A. P. Roelfs. 1984. The Cereal Rusts, vol. 1. Origins, Specificity, Structure, and Physiology. Academic Press, Orlando, FL.
14. Cardwell, K. F.,, and W. Hoffman. 2008. Early Detection and Diagnosis of High Consequence Plant Pests—Intentional vs Natural Introduction. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ.
15. Elphinstone, J. G. 2005. The current bacterial wilt situation: a global overview, p.9–28. In C. Allen,, P. Prior and, C. A. Hayward (ed.), Bacterial Wilt Disease and the Ralstonia solanacearum Species Complex. APS Press, St. Paul, MN.
16. Ferguson, N. M.,, C. A. Donnelly, and, R. M. Anderson. 2001. The foot-and-mouth epidemic in Great Britain: pattern of spread and impact of interventions. Science 292:11551160.
17. Fletcher, J.,, C. L. Bender,, B. Budowle,, W. T. Cobb,, S. E. Gold,, C. A. Ishimaru,, D. G. Luster,, U. K. Melcher,, R. L. Murch,, H. Scherm,, R. C. Seem,, J. L. Sherwood,, B. Sobral, and, S. A. Tolin. 2006. Plant pathogen forensics: capabilities, needs and recommendations. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 70:450471.
18. Fletcher, J.,, and J. Stack. 2007. Agricultural biosecurity: threats and impacts for plant resources, p. 86–94. In S. M. Lemon,, M. A. Hamburg,, P. F. Sparling,, E. R. Choffnes, and, A. Mack (ed.), Global Infectious Disease Survellance and Detection: Assessing the Challenges—Finding Solutions. Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, National Academies Press, Washington, DC.
19. Gottwald, T. 2006. Epidemiology of sharka disease in North America. Bull. OEPP 36:269286.
20. Gottwald, T. R. 2007. Citrus canker and citrus huanglongbing, two exotic bacterial diseases threatening the citrus industries of the Western Hemisphere. Outlooks Pest Manag. 18:274279.
21. Gottwald T. R.,, J. V. da Graca, and, R. B. Bassanezi. 2007. Citrus huanglongbing: the pathogen, its epidemiology, and impact. Plant Health Prog. doi:10.1094/PHP-2007-0906-01-RV.
22. Gottwald, T. R.,, and M. Irey. 2007. Post-hurricane analysis of citrus canker II: predictive model estimation of disease spread and area potentially impacted by various eradication protocols following catastrophic weather events. Plant Health Prog. doi:10.1094/PHP-2007-0405-01-RS.
23. Gottwald, T. R.,, J. H. Graham, and, T. S. Schubert. 2002. Citrus canker: the pathogen and its impact. Plant Health Prog. doi:10.1094/PHP-2002-0812-01-RV.
24. Gottwald, T. R.,, G. Hughes,, J. H. Graham,, X. Sun, and, T. Riley. 2001. The citrus canker epidemic in Florida—the scientific basis of regulatory/eradication policy for an invasive plant pathogen. Phytopathology 91:3034.
25. Gottwald, T. R.,, X. Sun,, T. D. Riley,, J. H. Graham,, F. Ferrandino, and, E. L. Taylor. 2001. Geo-referenced, spatiotemporal analysis of the urban citrus canker epidemic in Florida. Phytopathology 92:361377.
26. Gullino, M. L.,, J. Fletcher,, A. Gamliel, and, J. P. Stack. 2008. Crop biosecurity: definitions and role in food safety and food security, p. 1–10. In M. L. Gullino,, J. Fletcher,, A. Gamliel, and, J. P. Stack (ed.), Crop Biosecurity: Assuring Our Global Food Supply. Springer Science + Business Media B.V., Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
27. Hartman, G. L.,, M. R. Miles, and, R. D. Frederick. 2005. Breeding for resistance to soybean rust. Plant Dis. 89:664666.
28. Ingram, D. S.,, and P. H. Williams (ed.). 1991. Advances in Plant Pathology, vol. 7. Phytophthora infestans, the Cause of Late Blight of Potato. Academic Press, Philadelphia, PA.
29. Irey, M.,, T. R. Gottwald,, J. H. Graham,, T. D. Riley, and, G. Carlton. 2006. Post-hurricane analysis of citrus canker spread and progress towards the development of a predictive model to estimate disease spread due to catastrophic weather events. Plant Health Prog. doi:10.1094/PHP-2006-0822-01-RS.
30. Isard, S. A.,, J. M. Russo, and, E. D. DeWolf. 2006. The establishment of a national pest information platform for extension and education. Plant Health Prog. http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/php/elements/sum2.aspx?id=5508. Retrieved 30 May 2008. doi:10.1094/PHP-2006-0915-01-RV.
31. Jin, Y.,, and L. Szabo. 2008. Detection of virulence to resistance gene Sr24 within race TTKS of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici. Plant Dis. 92:923926.
32. Jin, Y.,, L. J. Szabo,, M. N. Rouse,, T. Fetch, Jr.,, Z. A. Pretorius,, R. Wanyera, and, P. Njau. 2009. Detection of virulence to resistance gene Sr36 within the TTKS race lineage of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici. Plant Dis. 93:367370.
33. Johnson, D. D.,, G. K. Flaskerud,, R. D. Taylor, and, V. Satyanarayana. 1998. Economic Impacts of Fusarium Head Blight in Wheat. Agricultural Economics Reports, no. 23437. Department of Agribusiness and Applied Economics, North Dakota State University, Fargo.
34. Li, S. 2009. Reaction of soybean rust-resistant lines identified in Paraguay to Mississippi isolates of Phakopsora pachyrhizi. Crop Sci. 49:887894.
35. Li, S.,, and L. D. Young. 2009. Evaluation of selected genotypes of soybean for resistance to Phakopsora pachyrhizi. Plant Health Prog. doi:10.1094/PHP-2009-0615-01-RS.
36. Lohr, S. L. 1999. Sampling: Design and Analysis, 1st ed. Duxbury Press, Pacific Grove, CA.
37. Madden, L. V. 2001. What are the nonindigenous plant pathogens that threaten U.S. crops and forests? http://www.apsnet.org/online/feature/exotic/. Accessed 1 November 2009.
38. Madden, L. V.,, and M. Wheelis. 2003. The threat of plant pathogens as weapons against U.S. crops. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 41:155176.
39. Magarey, R. D.,, W. E. Dolezal, and, T. J. Moore. 2009. Worldwide monitoring systems: the need for public and private collaboration, p. 349–355. In U. Gisi,, I. Chet, and, M. L. Gullino (ed.), Plant Pathology in the 21st Century, vol. 1. Recent Developments in Management of Plant Diseases. Springer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
40. Marelli, J.-P. 2008. Solanum lycopersicum as a Model System To Study Pathogenicity Mechanisms of Moniliophthora perniciosa, the Causal Agent of Witches’ Broom Disease of Theobroma cacao. Ph.D. thesis, Pennsylvania State University, State College.
41. Miles, M. R.,, R. D. Frederick, and, G. L. Hartman. 2006. Evaluation of soybean germplasm for resistance to Phakopsora pachyrhizi. Plant Health Prog. doi:10.1094/PHP-2006-01-4-01-RS.
42. Miles, M. R.,, J. D. Ray,, J. R. Smith,, R. D. Frederick, and, G. L. Hartman. 2008. Adult plant evaluation of soybean accessions for resistance to Phakopsora pachyrhizi in the field and greenhouse in Paraguay. Plant Dis. 92:96105.
43. Morel, W. P. 2001. Roya de la Soja. Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia, Subsecretaria de Agricultura, Dirección de Investigación Agrícola, Centro Regional de Investigación Agrícola, Capitan Miranda, Itapúa, Paraguay.
44. Nutter, F. W.,, Jr., and L. V. Madden. 2005. Plant disease as a possible consequence of biological attacks, p. 793–818. In R. A. Greenfield and, M. S. Bronze (ed.), Biological Terrorism. Horizon Scientific Press, Norwich, United Kingdom.
45. Paul, C.,, and G. L. Hartman. 2009. Sources of soybean rust resistance challenged with single-spored isolates of Phakopsora pachyrhizi. Crop Sci. 49:17811785.
46. Pedley, K. F. 2009. PCR-based assays for the detection of Puccinia horiana on chrysanthemums. Plant Dis. 93:12521258.
47. Pretorius, Z. A.,, R. J. Kloppers, and, R. D. Frederick. 2001. First report of soybean rust in South Africa. Plant Dis. 85:1288.
48. Rogers, S. M.,, R. Hunger, and, J. Fletcher. 2009. An agricultural biosecurity decision tool: is it natural or intentional? Phytopathology 99:S109.
49. Rossi, R. L. 2003. First report of Phakopsora pachyrhizi, the causal organism of soybean rust, in the province of Misiones, Argentina. Plant Dis. 87:102.
50. Scherm, H. 1996. On the velocity of epidemic waves in model plant disease epidemics. Ecol. Modell. 87:217222.
51. Schneider, R. W.,, C. A. Hollier,, H. K. Whitham,, M. E. Palm,, J. M. McKemy,, J. R. Hernandez,, L. Levy, and, R. DeVries-Paterson. 2005. First report of soybean rust caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi in the continental United States. Plant Dis. 89:773.
52. Schubert, T. S.,, S. A. Rizivi,, X. Sun,, T. R. Gottwald,, J. H. Graham, and, W. N. Dixon. 1999. Meeting the challenge of eradicating citrus canker again in Florida. Plant Dis. 85:340356.
53. Stack, J.,, K. Cardwell,, R. Hammerschmidt,, J. Byrne,, R. Loria,, K. Snover-Clift,, W. Baldwin,, G. Wisler,, H. Beck,, R. Bostock,, C. Thomas, and, E. Luke. 2006. The National Plant Diagnostic Network. Plant Dis. 90:128136.
54. Stack, J. P.,, and J. Fletcher. 2007. Plant biosecurity infrastructure for disease surveillance and diagnostics, p. 95–101. In S. M. Lemon,, M. A. Hamburg,, P. F. Sparling,, E. R. Choffnes, and, A. Mack (ed.), Global Infectious Disease Survellance and Detection: Assessing the Challenges—Finding Solutions. Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences, National Academies Press, Washington, DC.
55. Suffert, F.,, E. Latxague, and, I. Sache. 2009. Plant pathogens as agroterrorist weapons: assessment of the threat for European agriculture and forestry. Food Secur. 1:221232.
56. Twizeyimana, M.,, P. S. Ojiambo,, T. Ikotun,, J. L. Ladipo,, G. L. Hartman, and, R. Bandyopadhyay. 2008. Evaluation of soybean germplasm for resistance to soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi) in Nigeria. Plant Dis. 92:947952.
57. Wanyera, R.,, M. G. Kinyua,, Y. Jin, and, R. P. Singh. 2006. The spread of stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, with virulence on Sr31 in wheat in eastern Africa. Plant Dis. 90:113.
58. Wheelis, M.,, R. Casagrande, and, L. V. Madden. 2002. Biological attack on agriculture: Low-tech, high impact bioterrorism. Bioscience 52:569576.
59. Whitby, S. M. 2002. Biological Warfare against Crops. Palgrave, Basingstoke, United Kingdom.
60. Williamson, L.,, K. Nakaho,, B. Hudelson, and, C. Allen. 2002. Ralstonia solanacearum race 3, biovar 2 strains isolated from geranium are pathogenic on potato. Plant Dis. 86:987991.
61. Yorinori, J. T.,, W. M. Paiva,, R. D. Frederick,, L. M. Costamilan,, P. F. Bertagnoli,, G. L. Hartman,, C. V. Godoy, and, J. J. Nunes. 2005. Epiemics of soybean rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi) in Brazil and Paraguay from 2001 to 2003. Plant Dis. 89:675677.
62. Yorinori, J. T.,, W. M. Paiva,, R. D. Frederick, and, F. T. P. Fernandez. 2002. Ferrugem da soja (Phakopsora pachyrhizi) no Brasil e no Paraguai, nas safras 2000/01 e 2001/02, abstr. 94. In Resumos Da II Congreso Brasilerio de Soja e Mercosoja 2002, Embrapa Soja, Londrina, Brazil.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1.

NPDRS recovery plans completed or under development

Citation: Fletcher J, Luster D, Bostock R, Burans J, Cardwell K, Gottwald T, McDaniel (deceased) L, Royer M, Smith K. 2010. Emerging Infectious Plant Diseases, p 337-366. In Scheld W, Grayson M, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 9. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816803.ch18

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error