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Chapter 22 : Genetics

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Genetics, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

The author and John Roth have both continued to use in two ways: as a tool in genetics and in general biology and as a bacterium with interesting metabolism and pathogenicity. Thus, they were both interested in the same types of research problems, and though they did not work in the same place, their joint interests led to first publication together in 1966. The author considers three of the many ways in which John has made major contributions to the field. (i) John has had a major role in supporting stock centers, including the Genetic Stock Centre (SGSC) and the Coli Genetic Stock Center (CGSC), and in developing strains and systems for genetic analysis in . John has made the strains available to others through his own collection of strains and through the SGSC. (ii) John had a major role in the construction and updating of the linkage map of . Typhimurium LT2. (iii) John has provided great help to others, often without getting direct recognition, in publishing information about and about genetics in general. The author and John had not been surprised to find that strains of Typhimurium had maintained the same order of the I-CeuI fragments, for they already knew from the linkage maps that the "core" genes of unrelated strains such as K-12 and . Typhimurium LT2 had the same order.

Citation: Sanderson K. 2011. Genetics, p 219-226. In Maloy S, Hughes K, Casadesús J (ed), The Lure of Bacterial Genetics. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816810.ch22

Key Concept Ranking

Genetic Elements
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Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis
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Salmonella enterica
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Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Comparison of the I-CeuI cleavage maps and positions of selected genes in Typhimurium LT2 and Typhi Ty2 ( ). Arrows beside the operons indicate the postulated direction of transcription. The arc with arrowheads at both ends indicates a segment of the Typhi Ty2 genome within the I-CeuI-A fragment that is inverted relative to Typhimurium LT2. Open arrowheads indicate three insertions in the Typhi Ty2 genome.

Citation: Sanderson K. 2011. Genetics, p 219-226. In Maloy S, Hughes K, Casadesús J (ed), The Lure of Bacterial Genetics. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816810.ch22
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Partial digestion of DNA of strains of Typhi with endonuclease I-CeuI, separation by PFGE, and staining with ethidium bromide. The gel is on the left. The proposed fragments are on the right, with their composition and sizes (in kb). Lane 1, strain SARB63 (fragment order CBEFDG; genome type 25); lane 2, SARB64 (fragment order BDCEFG; genome type 19); lane 3, 27566 (fragment order ECBFDG; genome type 26); lane 4, SA4864 (fragment order BCFDEG; genome type 6); lane 5, SA4665 (fragment order GFCEDB; genome type 16); lane 6, Ty2 (fragment order GCEFDB; genome type 9). (Modified from Fig. 2 in reference )

Citation: Sanderson K. 2011. Genetics, p 219-226. In Maloy S, Hughes K, Casadesús J (ed), The Lure of Bacterial Genetics. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816810.ch22
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Order and orientation of I-CeuI fragments in 136 independent wild-type strains of Typhi. The sizes (in kb) of the fragments based on the sizes in strain CT18 are at the top. The order of I-CeuI fragments B to G was determined by PFGE (as in Fig. 2 ) and was confirmed by PCR. The I-CeuI-A fragment (2,422 kb) is joined to form a circle. The orientation of fragments B, D, E, F, and G was inferred from the polarity of the genes and confirmed by PCR. The fragments for K-12 and Typhimurium LT2 and the orientation of operons are indicated at the bottom. The chromosomes of the genome types are shown in the A+C+ orientation (uninverted); the open square in fragment A indicates (proline requirment), and the open triangle (histidine requirement). Since both I-CeuI-C and I-CeuI-A are flanked by inverted operons, these fragments could be inverted. The number of strains of each genome type with each of the four types of orientation was determined from PCR data. The dot in the I-CeuI-C fragment indicates the location of T indicates the terminus of replication. (Modified from Fig. 4 in reference .)

Citation: Sanderson K. 2011. Genetics, p 219-226. In Maloy S, Hughes K, Casadesús J (ed), The Lure of Bacterial Genetics. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816810.ch22
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References

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1. Altman, E.,, J. R. Roth,, A. Hessel, and, K. E. Sanderson. 1996. Transposons currently in use in genetic analysis of Salmonella typhimurium, p. 26132626. In F. C. Neidhardt,, R. Curtiss III, , J. L. Ingraham, , E. C. C. Lin, , K. B. Low, , B, Magasanik, , W. S. Reznikoff, , M. Riley, , M. Schechter, and, H. E. Umbarger (ed.), Escherichia coli and Salmonella: Cellular and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed., vol. 2. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
2. Anderson, R. P.,, G. M. Charles, and, J. R. Roth. 1976. Tandem duplications of the histidine operon observed following generalized transduction in Salmonella typhimurium. J. Mol. Biol. 105:201218.
3. Anderson, R. P., and, J. R. Roth. 1981. Spontaneous tandem genetic duplications in Salmonella typhimurium arise by unequal recombination between ribosomal RNA (rrn) cistrons. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 78:31133117.
4. Benson, N. R., and, B. S. Goldman. 1992. Rapid mapping in Salmonella typhimurium with Mud-P22 prophages. J. Bacteriol. 174:16731681.
5. Demerec, M. 1964. Clustering of functionally related genes in Salmonella typhimurium. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 51:10571060.
6. Elliot, T., and, J. R. Roth. 1988. Characterization of Tn10dCAM: a transposition-defective Tn10 specifying chloramphenicol resistance. Mol. Gen. Genet. 213:332338.
7. Helm, R. A.,, G. Lee,, H. D. Christman, and, S. Maloy. 2003. Genomic rearrangements at rrn operons in Salmonella. Genetics 165:951959.
8. Hughes, K. T.,, B. M. Olivera, and, J. R. Roth. 1987. Rec dependence of Mu transposition from P22-transduced fragments. J. Bacteriol. 169:403409.
9. Hughes, K. T., and, J. R. Roth. 1984. Conditionally transposition-defective derivative of Mu dl(Amp Lac). J. Bacteriol. 159:130137.
10. Hughes, K. T., and, J. R. Roth. 1988. Transitory cis complementation: a general method for providing transposase to defective transposons. Genetics 119:912.
11. Kleckner, N.,, J. R. Roth, and, D. Botstein. 1977. Genetic engineering in vivo using translocatable drug-resistance elements. J. Mol. Biol. 116:125159.
12. Kothapalli, S.,, S. Nair,, S. Alokam,, T. Pang,, R. Khakhria,, D. Woodward,, W. Johnson,, B. A. Stocker,, K. E. Sanderson, and, S.-L. Liu. 2005. Diversity of genome structure in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi populations. J. Bacteriol. 187:26382650.
13. Liu, G. R.,, W.-Q. Liu,, R. N. Johnston,, K. E. Sanderson,, S.-X. Li, and, S.-L. Liu. 2006. Genome plasticity and ori-ter rebalancing in Salmonella typhi. Mol. Biol. Evol. 223:365371.
14. Liu, S.-L.,, A. Hessel, and, K. E. Sanderson. 1993. Genomic mapping with I-Ceu I, an intron-encoded endonuclease specific for genes for ribosomal RNA, in Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, and other bacteria. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90:68746878.
15. Liu, S.-L.,, A. Hessel, and, K. E. Sanderson. l993. The XbaI-BlnI-CeuI genomic cleavage map of Salmonella typhimurium LT2, determined by double digestion, end-labelling, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. J. Bacteriol. 175:41044120.
16. Liu, S.-L., and, K. E. Sanderson. 1995. I-CeuI reveals conservation of the genome of independent strains of Salmonella typhimurium. J. Bacteriol. 177:33553357.
17. Liu, S.-L., and, K. E. Sanderson. 1995. Rearrangements in the genome of the bacterium Salmonella typhi. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92:10181022.
18. Liu, S.-L., and, K. E. Sanderson. 1996. The genome of Salmonella typhi is highly plastic. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93:1030310308.
19. Liu, S.-L., and, K. E. Sanderson. 1998. Homologous recombination between rrn operons rearranges the chromosome in host-specialized species of Salmonella. FEMS Lett. 159:275281.
20. Mahan, M. J., and, J. R. Roth. 1991. Ability of a bacterial chromosome segment to invert is dictated by included material rather than flanking sequence. Genetics 129:10211032.
21. McClelland, M.,, K. E. Sanderson,, J. Spieth,, S. W. Clifton,, P. Latreille,, L. Cortney,, S. Porwollik,, J. Ali,, M. Dante,, F. Du,, S. Hou,, D. Layman,, S. Leonard,, C. Nguyen,, L. Scott,, A. Holmes,, N. Grewal,, E. Mulvaney,, E. Ryan,, H. Sun,, L. Florea,, W. Miller,, T. Stoneking,, M. Nhan,, W. Waterston, and, R. K. Wilson. 2001. Complete genome sequence of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Nature 413:852856.
22. Roth, J. R.,, N. Benson,, T. Galitski,, K. Haack,, J. G. Lawrence, and, L. Miesel. 1996. Rearrangements of the bacterial chromosome: formation and applications, p. 22562276. In F. C. Neidhardt, , R. Curtiss III, , J. L. Ingraham, , E. C. C. Lin, , K. B. Low,, B. Magasanik, , W. S. Reznikoff, , M. Riley, , M. Schaechter, and, H. E. Umbarger (ed.), Escherichia coli and Salmonella: Cellular and Molecular Biology. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
23. Roth, J., and, K. E. Sanderson. 1966. Orientation of the isoleucine-valine loci in Salmonella typhimurium. Genetics 53:971976.
24. Sanderson, K. E., and, M. Demerec. 1965. The linkage map of Salmonella typhimurium. Genetics 51: 897913.
25. Sanderson, K. E.,, A. Hessel, and, K. E. Rudd. 1995. The genetic map of Salmonella typhimurium, edition VIII. Microbiol. Rev. 59:241303.
26. Sanderson, K. E.,, H. Ross,, L. Ziegler, and, P. H. Makela. 1972. F+, F’, and Hfr strains of Salmonella typhimurium and S. abony. Bacteriol. Rev. 36:608637.
27. Sanderson, K. E., and, J. R. Roth. 1983. The linkage map of Salmonella typhimurium, edition VI. Microbiol. Rev. 47:410453.
28. Sanderson K. E., and, J. R. Roth. 1988. Linkage map of Salmonella typhimurium, edition VII. Microbiol Rev. 52:485532.
29. Segall, A.,, M. Mahan, and, J. R. Roth. 1988. Rearrangement of the bacterial chromosome: forbidden inversion. Science 241:13141318.
30. Zinder, N. D. 1960. Sexuality and mating in Salmonella. Science 131:924926.

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