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Chapter 9 : Solid-Phase Fermentation: Aerobic and Anaerobic
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The science of solid-phase fermentation (SPF) draws on the same ancient origins that are the foundation of the field of biotechnology and of the modern methods used to grow microorganisms. The chapter discusses advantages and disadvantages of SPF. Complex microbial growth phenomena are associated with solid substrates that are typically heterogeneous and porous with void spaces. The moisture content of the solid substrate strongly influences microbial growth. SPFs with foods vary based on geography and dietary customs, but most often are classified according to substrate such as cereal, dairy, fish, fruit and vegetable, meat, starch crop, and legume products. De Vrije et al. have discussed the relevance of SPF to the production of commercial products containing Fusarium oxysporum, Gliocladium catenulatum, Phlebiopsis gigantea, and the Trichoderma spp. T. harzianum, T. polysporum, and T. viride, as well as that for the promising biocontrol agent Coniothyrium minitans. Key SPF process variables are related to the microorganism and its preparation, the choice of substrate and its pretreatment, and environmental factors which determine how the microorganism and the substrate interact, often in a large-scale bioreactor. The chapter provides general procedures for SPF. Bioreactors, or fermentors, have been used in small-and large-scale SPF to produce diverse metabolites and enzyme products. While laboratory-scale SPF employs flasks, jars, roller bottles, columns, and petri dishes, common bioreactor/ fermentor systems used for industrial scale-up are tray fermentors, packed-bed fermentors and fluidized-bed fermentors.
Key Concept Ranking
- Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy
The macroscale and microscale processes that occur within an SPF bioreactor (Adapted from reference 149 .)
Time course of lovastatin production by A. terreus in SPF (A) and LPF (B). Note the different scales in lovastatin concentration. pH evolution is shown in the upper part. (Adapted from reference 13 .)
Production of bioactive natural products by SPF a
Medium formulations for small-scale fermentation with solid-substrate system in 2.8-liter Fernbach flasks a