Chapter 34 : Biomass-Converting Enzymes and Their Bioenergy Applications

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In this chapter, the basic structure, property, and function of biomass active enzymes are introduced, with emphasis on those most relevant to the development of cellulosic bioenergy, e.g., major cellulases and hemicellulases. The most significant topological feature of cellobiohydrolase (CBH’s) catalytic module is the tunnel structure, which may cover the entirety or part of the active site. β-glucosidase BGs in general have a pocket-shaped active site, which allows them to bind to the nonreducing Glc unit and clip it from cellobiose or cellodextrin. Hemicellulases hydrolyze hemicellulose, a group of complex polysaccharides consists of different units, linkages, intramolecular architectures, or intermolecular interactions. Common hemicelluloses include β-glucan (not cellulose), xylan, xyloglucan, arabinoxylan, mannan, galactomannan, arabinan, galactan, polygalacturonan, which are degraded in nature by β-glucanase, xylanase, xyloglucanase, mannanase, arabinase, galactanase, polygalacturonase, glucuronidase, acetyl esterase, and other enzymes. Most cellulolytic microbes produce an array of hemicellulases along with cellulases. For enzymatic hydrolysis of complex biomass substrates, however, such side chain removal may have mixed effects, because “polished” homo-mannan may lose water solubility and stick to cellulose, thus impeding the action of cellulases. Pectic polysaccharides are complex plant cell wall components consisting of poly-α-galacturonic acids (GalU) or polyrhamnogalacturonic acids with variable methylation/ acetylation (on backbone GalU) and carbohydrate side chains (containing mainly Ara and Gal) linked to backbone rhamnosyl units. Seeking the best stoichiometry and synergism among different cellulases, hemicellulases, other enzymes, or accessory proteins is vital for the development of bioenergy enzymes.

Citation: Xu F. 2010. Biomass-Converting Enzymes and Their Bioenergy Applications, p 495-508. In Baltz R, Demain A, Davies J, Bull A, Junker B, Katz L, Lynd L, Masurekar P, Reeves C, Zhao H (ed), Manual of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816827.ch34

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Cell Wall Components
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