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Chapter 49 : Continuous Culture

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Continuous Culture, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

The major applications of continuous culture are, however, still found in fundamental studies and process optimization at laboratory scale. This chapter provides a brief introduction to the general concept and theory of different types of continuous culture. The design and operation of equipment and experiments are discussed from an application point of view. Depending on the control parameter and the operation mode, continuous culture can be classified into four general types. The general concept and theory of four types of continuous culture are described in a detailed manner. A chemostat is usually started as a batch culture. The specific growth rate of a chemostat culture can be determined from a material balance for biomass: net increase in biomass = biomass in incoming medium + growth - output - death. Generally speaking, auxostats have the following advantages over conventional chemostats. First, auxostats permit stable operation in the “high-gain” areas near the maximum growth rate. Second, they reach steady state more rapidly at high dilution rates than the open-loop chemostat. Third, population selection pressures in an auxostat lead to cultures that grow rapidly. Finally, it is possible to design a dual set point auxostat that controls two growth parameters simultaneously. Nutrient reservoirs for continuous culture should have ports for feeding, addition and/or mixing of heat-labile nutrients and substrate, venting, and sparging of the medium. In particular, recent developments in implementing continuous culture in microfluidics or microdevices are worth mentioning and are briefly summarized in this chapter.

Citation: Zeng A, Sun J. 2010. Continuous Culture, p 685-699. In Baltz R, Demain A, Davies J, Bull A, Junker B, Katz L, Lynd L, Masurekar P, Reeves C, Zhao H (ed), Manual of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816827.ch49

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Continuous Culture
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Wastewater Treatment
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pH Control
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Temperature Control
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Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Schematic diagram of four types of continuous culture.

Citation: Zeng A, Sun J. 2010. Continuous Culture, p 685-699. In Baltz R, Demain A, Davies J, Bull A, Junker B, Katz L, Lynd L, Masurekar P, Reeves C, Zhao H (ed), Manual of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816827.ch49
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Steady-state values of biomass and growth-limiting substrate concentration in a chemostat according to equations 9 and 10. Parameters: μ = 1.0 h; = 0.01 g/liter; = 0.5 g/g.

Citation: Zeng A, Sun J. 2010. Continuous Culture, p 685-699. In Baltz R, Demain A, Davies J, Bull A, Junker B, Katz L, Lynd L, Masurekar P, Reeves C, Zhao H (ed), Manual of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816827.ch49
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Typical profiles and reasons for continuous cultures deviating from chemostat behavior. The biomass curve of a corresponding chemostat culture (see Fig. 2 ) is also shown for comparison. (A) Effect of wall growth. is the amount of growing biomass attached to the reactor surface per unit volume of culture. (B) Effect of imperfect mixing. (C) Effect of maintenance metabolism. ms is the maintenance requirement for substrate (g/g • h). (D) Effect of growth inhibition by product(s) and/or substrate.

Citation: Zeng A, Sun J. 2010. Continuous Culture, p 685-699. In Baltz R, Demain A, Davies J, Bull A, Junker B, Katz L, Lynd L, Masurekar P, Reeves C, Zhao H (ed), Manual of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816827.ch49
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Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

Steady-state limiting-nutrient concentration, S̅, and dilution rate, , as functions of biomass concentration in a turbidostat culture. Growth parameters are as given in the legend to Fig. 2 .

Citation: Zeng A, Sun J. 2010. Continuous Culture, p 685-699. In Baltz R, Demain A, Davies J, Bull A, Junker B, Katz L, Lynd L, Masurekar P, Reeves C, Zhao H (ed), Manual of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816827.ch49
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Image of FIGURE 5
FIGURE 5

A typical setup of a bench-scale continuous-culture system. The feeding rate and the culture volume are controlled by a weight control unit.

Citation: Zeng A, Sun J. 2010. Continuous Culture, p 685-699. In Baltz R, Demain A, Davies J, Bull A, Junker B, Katz L, Lynd L, Masurekar P, Reeves C, Zhao H (ed), Manual of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816827.ch49
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Image of FIGURE 6
FIGURE 6

Diagram of a drip tube.

Citation: Zeng A, Sun J. 2010. Continuous Culture, p 685-699. In Baltz R, Demain A, Davies J, Bull A, Junker B, Katz L, Lynd L, Masurekar P, Reeves C, Zhao H (ed), Manual of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816827.ch49
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Image of FIGURE 7
FIGURE 7

Control scheme for the reactor volume of a continuous culture that uses a liquid level controller backed up by an effluent gas system. (Modified from reference .)

Citation: Zeng A, Sun J. 2010. Continuous Culture, p 685-699. In Baltz R, Demain A, Davies J, Bull A, Junker B, Katz L, Lynd L, Masurekar P, Reeves C, Zhao H (ed), Manual of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816827.ch49
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Image of FIGURE 8
FIGURE 8

Schematic diagram of a back-flushing configuration for a cell recycle reactor with membrane microfiltration. The permeate in the reservoir is back-flushed through the membrane module by using pressurized nitrogen gas or air and controlled by a timer.

Citation: Zeng A, Sun J. 2010. Continuous Culture, p 685-699. In Baltz R, Demain A, Davies J, Bull A, Junker B, Katz L, Lynd L, Masurekar P, Reeves C, Zhao H (ed), Manual of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816827.ch49
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Image of FIGURE 9
FIGURE 9

Transient behavior of a steady state after step changes in a continuous culture operated at a constant dilution rate. The culture is subjected to metabolic overflow and growth inhibition by substrate and products. The substrate concentration in the feed ( ) is increased from (A) 0.334 to 0.550 (in dimensionless units), (B) 0.334 to 0.400, and (C) 0.334 to 0.335. The relative time is numerically equal to the number of reactor volume exchanges (residence times) ( ).

Citation: Zeng A, Sun J. 2010. Continuous Culture, p 685-699. In Baltz R, Demain A, Davies J, Bull A, Junker B, Katz L, Lynd L, Masurekar P, Reeves C, Zhao H (ed), Manual of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816827.ch49
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Image of FIGURE 10
FIGURE 10

Steady-state concentrations of biomass (A), substrate in reactor (B), and product (C) in a continuous culture at a constant feed substrate concentration but varied dilution rates (dimensionless feed substrate concentration, = 0.2). This culture is subject to metabolic overflow and growth inhibition by product. Multiple steady states are found in a given range of dilution rates. Depending on the operation mode, different steady states can be obtained under identical operation conditions ( ).

Citation: Zeng A, Sun J. 2010. Continuous Culture, p 685-699. In Baltz R, Demain A, Davies J, Bull A, Junker B, Katz L, Lynd L, Masurekar P, Reeves C, Zhao H (ed), Manual of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, Third Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816827.ch49
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