1887

Chapter 51 : Genomics and DNA Variation: Determinants of Susceptibility and Outcomes in Microbial Diseases

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Genomics and DNA Variation: Determinants of Susceptibility and Outcomes in Microbial Diseases, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816834/9781555814977_Chap51-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816834/9781555814977_Chap51-2.gif

Abstract:

Microbial infection has been one of the leading contributors to morbidity and mortality throughout human history. Even today, diseases such as bacterial pneumonia, cholera, diphtheria, plague, tuberculosis (TB), typhoid fever, and typhus continue to exact their toll, particularly in developing countries. Studies of genetic susceptibility to microbial disease have largely focused on candidate genes. In most cases, the genetic determinants for susceptibility to particular infectious diseases appear to be confined to very specific pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). Studies on the host genetics of viral infections have not been limited to the analysis of susceptibility to disease. In the case of HIV infection, the most frequently studied outcomes are mortality following HIV and progression from seroconversion toward full-blown AIDS. The challenge of identifying TB susceptibility loci is substantial, as there is considerable difficulty in correctly classifying TB cases and controls due to the phenomenon of "latent" TB, which ultimately leads to significant loss of statistical power and underestimation of genetic effect sizes. The importance of mannose-binding lectin (MBL) in limiting fungal infections is clear even in small clinical studies; haplotypes resulting in low serum MBL levels confer marked susceptibility to invasive aspergillosis. The immediate future of genetic susceptibility studies of infectious diseases is clear. The elucidation of novel pathways in susceptibility or resistance to malaria and bacteremia could help in the development of more-efficacious vaccines in the distant future.

Citation: Khor C, Chapman S, Hill A. 2011. Genomics and DNA Variation: Determinants of Susceptibility and Outcomes in Microbial Diseases, p 787-802. In Persing D, Tenover F, Tang Y, Nolte F, Hayden R, van Belkum A (ed), Molecular Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816834.ch51

Key Concept Ranking

Immune Systems
0.45228344
Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha
0.43461612
Infectious Diseases
0.43416354
Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
0.4113184
0.45228344
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555816834.ch51
1. Acevedo-Whitehouse, K.,, J. Vicente,, C. Gortazar,, U. Höfle,, I. G. Fernández-de-Mera, and, W. Amos. 2005. Genetic resistance to bovine tuberculosis in the Iberian wild boar. Mol. Ecol. 14:32093217.
2. Agnese, D. M.,, J. E. Calvano,, S. J. Hahm,, S. M. Coyle,, S. A. Corbett,, S. E. Calvano, and, S. F. Lowry. 2002. Human toll-like receptor 4 mutations but not CD14 polymorphisms are associated with an increased risk of gram-negative infections. J. Infect. Dis. 186:15221525.
3. Akira, S.,, and K. Takeda. 2004. Toll-like receptor signalling. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 4:499511.
4. Alcaïs, A.,, A. Alter,, G. Antoni,, M. Orlova,, V. T. Nguyen,, M. Singh,, P. R. Vanderborght,, K. Katoch,, M. T. Mira,, H. T. Vu,, T. H. Ngyuen,, N. B. Nguyen,, M. Moraes,, N. Mehra,, E. Schurr, and, L. Abel. 2007. Stepwise replication identifies a low-producing lymphotoxin-α allele as a major risk factor for early-onset leprosy. Nat. Genet. 39:517522.
5. Allen, S. J.,, A. O’Donnell,, N. D. Alexander,, M. P. Alpers,, T. E. Peto,, J. B. Clegg, and, D. J. Weatherall. 1997. α+-Thalassemia protects children against disease caused by other infections as well as malaria. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94:1473614741.
6. Alter, A.,, L. de Léséleuc,, N. Van Thuc,, V. H. Thai,, N. T. Huong,, N. N. Ba,, C. C. Cardoso,, A. V. Grant,, L. Abel,, M. O. Moraes,, A. Alca ïs, and, E. Schurr. 2010. Genetic and functional analysis of common MRC1 exon 7 polymorphisms in leprosy susceptibility. Hum. Genet. 127:337348.
7. Anderson, R. M.,, and R. M. May. 1992. Infectious Diseases of Humans Dynamics and Control. Oxford University Press, Oxford, United Kingdom.
8. Arbour, N. C.,, E. Lorenz,, B. C. Schutte,, J. Zabner,, J. N. Kline,, M. Jones,, K. Frees,, J. L. Watt, and, D. A. Schwartz. 2000. TLR4 mutations are associated with endotoxin hyporesponsiveness in humans. Nat. Genet. 25:187191.
9. Baldwin, A. S., Jr. 1996. The NF-κB and IκB proteins: new discoveries and insights. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 14:649681.
10. Ball, T. B.,, H. Ji,, J. Kimani,, P. McLaren,, C. Marlin,, A. V. Hill, and, F. A. Plummer. 2007. Polymorphisms in IRF-1 associated with resistance to HIV-1 infection in highly exposed uninfected Kenyan sex workers. AIDS 21:10911101.
11. Bayer, M. E.,, B. S. Blumberg, and, B. Werner. 1968. Particles associated with Australia antigen in the sera of patients with leukaemia, Down’s Syndrome and hepatitis. Nature 218:10571059.
12. Bellamy, R.,, C. Ruwende,, T. Corrah,, K. P. McAdam,, H. C. Whittle, and, A. V. Hill. 1998. Variations in the NRAMP1 gene and susceptibility to tuberculosis in West Africans. N. Engl. J. Med. 338:640644.
13. Berkley, J. A.,, B. S. Lowe,, I. Mwangi,, T. Williams,, E. Bauni,, S. Mwarumba,, C. Ngetsa,, M. P. Slack,, S. Njenga,, C. A. Hart,, K. Maitland,, M. English,, K. Marsh, and, J. A. Scott. 2005. Bacteremia among children admitted to a rural hospital in Kenya. N. Engl. J. Med. 352:3947.
14. Broder, S. 2002. Genomics and DNA variation: determinants of susceptibility and outcomes in microbial diseases, p. 679–691. In D. H. Persing,, F. C. Tenover,, J. Versalovic,, Y. W. Tang,, E. R. Unger,, D. A. Relman, and, T. J. White (ed.), Molecular Microbiology: Diagnostic Principles and Practice. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
15. Carrington, M.,, G. W. Nelson,, M. P. Martin,, T. Kissner,, D. Vlahov,, J. J. Goedert,, R. Kaslow,, S. Buchbinder,, K. Hoots, and, S. J. O’Brien. 1999. HLA and HIV-1: heterozygote advantage and B*35-Cw*04 disadvantage. Science 283:17481752.
16. Carvalho, A.,, A. C. Pasqualotto,, L. Pitzurra,, L. Romani,, D. W. Denning, and, F. Rodrigues. 2008. Polymorphisms in Toll-like receptor genes and susceptibility to pulmonary aspergillosis. J. Infect. Dis. 197:618621.
17. Castiblanco, J.,, D. C. Varela,, N. Castaño-Rodríguez,, A. Rojas-Villarraga,, M. E. Hincapié, and, J. M. Anaya. 2008. TIRAP (MAL) S180L polymorphism is a common protective factor against developing tuberculosis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Infect. Genet. Evol. 8:541544.
18. Chapman, S. J.,, C. C. Khor,, F. O. Vannberg,, A. Frodsham,, A. Walley,, N. A. Maskell,, C. W. Davies,, S. Segal,, C. E. Moore,, S. H. Gillespie,, P. Denny,, N. P. Day,, D. W. Crook,, R. J. Davies, and, A. V. Hill. 2007. IκB genetic polymorphisms and invasive pneumococcal disease. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 176:181187.
19. Chen, F.,, V. Castranova,, X. Shi, and, L. M. Demers. 1999. New insights into the role of nuclear factor-κB, a ubiquitous transcription factor in the initiation of diseases. Clin. Chem. 45:717.
20. Cooke, G. S.,, and A. V. Hill. Genetics of susceptibility to human infectious disease. Nat. Rev. Genet. 2:967977.
21. Courtois, G.,, A. Smahi,, J. Reichenbach,, R. Döffinger,, C. Cancrini,, M. Bonnet,, A. Puel,, C. Chable-Bessia,, S. Yamaoka,, J. Feinberg,, S. Dupuis-Girod,, C. Bodemer,, S. Livadiotti,, F. Novelli,, P. Rossi,, A. Fischer,, A. Israël,, A. Munnich,, F. Le Deist, and, J. L. Casanova. 2003. A hypermorphic IκBα mutation is associated with autosomal dominant anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia and T cell immunodeficiency. J. Clin. Invest. 112:11081115.
22. Crosdale, D. J.,, K. V. Poulton,, W. E. Olier,, W. Thomson, and, D. W. Denning. 2001. Mannose-binding lectin gene polymorphisms as a susceptibility factor for chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis. J. Infect. Dis. 184:653656.
23. Davila, S.,, F. E. Froeling,, A. Tan,, C. Bonnard,, G. J. Boland,, H. Snippe,, M. L. Hibberd, and, M. Seielstad. 2010. New genetic associations detected in a host response study to hepatitis B vaccine. Genes Immun. 11:232238.
24. Dean, M.,, M. Carrington,, C. Winkler,, G. A. Huttley,, M. W. Smith,, R. Allikmets,, J. J. Goedert,, S. P. Buchbinder,, E. Vittinghoff,, E. Gomperts,, S. Donfield,, D. Vlahov,, R. Kaslow,, A. Saah,, C. Rinaldo,, R. Detels, and, S. J. O’Brien. 1996. Genetic restriction of HIV-1 infection and progression to AIDS by a deletion allele of the CKR5 structural gene. Hemophilia Growth and Development Study, Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, Multicenter Hemophilia Cohort Study, San Francisco City Cohort, ALIVE Study. Science 273:18561862.
25. Flint, J.,, A. V. Hill,, D. K. Bowden,, S. J. Oppenheimer,, P. R. Sill,, S. W. Serjeantson,, J. Bana-Koiri,, K. Bhatia,, M. P. Alpers,, A. J. Boyce, et al. 1986. High frequencies of α-thalassaemia are the result of natural selection by malaria. Nature 321:744750.
26. Frodsham, A. J.,, L. Zhang,, U. Dumpis,, N. A. Taib,, S. Best,, A. Durham,, B. J. Hennig,, S. Hellier,, S. Knapp,, M. Wright,, M. Chiaramonte,, J. I. Bell,, M. Graves,, H. C. Whittle,, H. C. Thomas,, M. R. Thursz, and, A. V. Hill. 2006. Class II cytokine receptor gene cluster is a major locus for hepatitis B persistence. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103:91489153.
27. Fry, A. E.,, M. J. Griffiths,, S. Auburn,, M. Diakite,, J. T. Forton,, A. Green,, A. Richardson,, J. Wilson,, M. Jallow,, F. Sisay-Joof,, M. Pinder,, N. Peshu,, T. N. Williams,, K. Marsh,, M. E. Molyneux,, T. E. Taylor,, K. A. Rockett, and, D. P. Kwiatkowski. 2008. Common variation in the ABO glycosyltransferase is associated with susceptibility to severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Hum. Mol. Genet. 17:567576.
28. Garlanda, C.,, E. Hirsch,, S. Bozza,, A. Salustri,, M. De Acetis,, R. Nota,, A. Maccagno,, F. Riva,, B. Bottazzi,, G. Peri,, A. Doni,, L. Vago,, M. Botto,, R. De Santis,, P. Carminati,, G. Siracusa,, F. Altruda,, A. Vecchi,, L. Romani, and, A. Mantovani. 2002. Non-redundant role of the long pentraxin PTX3 in antifungal innate immune response. Nature 420:182186.
29. Grau, G. E.,, P. F. Piguet,, P. Vassalli, and, P. H. Lambert. 1989. Tumor-necrosis factor and other cytokines in cerebral malaria: experimental and clinical data. Immunol. Rev. 112:4970.
30. Hawn, T. R.,, A. Verbon,, K. D. Lettinga,, L. P. Zhao,, S. S. Li,, R. J. Laws,, S. J. Skerrett,, B. Beutler,, L. Schroeder,, A. Nachman,, A. Ozinsky,, K. D. Smith, and, A. Aderem. 2003. A common dominant TLR5 stop codon polymorphism abolishes flagellin signaling and is associated with susceptibility to Legionnaires’ disease. J. Exp. Med. 198:15631572.
31. Hawn, T. R.,, S. J. Dunstan,, G. E. Thwaites,, C. P. Simmons,, N. T. Thuong,, N. T. Lan,, H. T. Quy,, T. T. Chau,, N. T. Hieu,, S. Rodrigues,, M. Janer,, L. P. Zhao,, T. T. Hien,, J. J. Farrar, and, A. Aderem. 2006. A polymorphism in Toll-interleukin 1 receptor domain containing adaptor protein is associated with susceptibility to meningeal tuberculosis. J. Infect. Dis. 194:11271134.
32. Hibberd, M. L.,, M. Sumiya,, J. A. Summerfield,, R. Booy, and, M. Levin. 1999. Association of variants of the gene for mannose-binding lectin with susceptibility to meningococcal disease. Meningococcal Research Group. Lancet 353:10491053.
33. Hill, A. V. 2006. Aspects of genetic susceptibility to human infectious diseases. Annu. Rev. Genet. 40:409486.
34. Inohara, N.,, and G. Nunez. 2003. NODs: intracellular proteins involved in inflammation and apoptosis. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 3:371382.
35. International Meningococcal Genetics Consortium, S. Davila,, V. Wright,, C. C. Khor,, K. S. Sim,, A. Binder,, W. B. Breunis,, D. Inwald,, S. Nadel,, H. Betts,, E. D. Carrol,, R. de Groot,, P. W. Hermans,, J. Hazelzet,, M. Emonts,, C. C. Lim,, T. W. Kuijpers,, F. Martinon-Torres,, A. Salas,, W. Zenz,, M. Levin, and, M. L. Hibberd. 2010. Genome-wide association study identifies variants in the CFH region associated with host susceptibility to meningococcal disease. Nat. Genet. [Epub ahead of print.]
36. Janssen, R.,, A. van Wengen,, M. A. Hoeve,, M. ten Dam,, M. van der Burg,, J. van Dongen,, E. van de Vosse,, M. van Tol,, R. Bredius,, T. H. Ottenhoff,, C. Weemaes,, J. T. van Dissel, and, A. Lankester. 2004. The same IκBα mutation in two related individuals leads to completely different clinical syndromes. J. Exp. Med. 200:559568.
37. Khor, C. C.,, S. J. Chapman,, F. O. Vannberg,, A. Dunne,, C. Murphy,, E. Y. Ling,, A. J. Frodsham,, A. J. Walley,, O. Kyrieleis,, A. Khan,, C. Aucan,, S. Segal,, C. E. Moore,, K. Knox,, S. J. Campbell,, C. Lienhardt,, A. Scott,, P. Aaby,, O. Y. Sow,, R. T. Grignani,, J. Sillah,, G. Sirugo,, N. Peshu,, T. N. Williams,, K. Maitland,, R. J. Davies,, D. P. Kwiatkowski,, N. P. Day,, D. Yala,, D. W. Crook,, K. Marsh,, J. A. Berkley,, L. A. O’Neill, and, A. V. Hill. 2007. A Mal functional variant is associated with protection against invasive pneumococcal disease, bacteremia, malaria and tuberculosis. Nat. Genet. 39:523528.
38. Khor, C. C.,, F. O. Vannberg,, S. J. Chapman,, H. Guo,, S. H. Wong,, A. J. Walley,, D. Vukcevic,, A Rautanen,, T. C. Mills,, K. C. Chang,, K. M. Kam,, A. C. Crampin,, B. Ngwira,, C. C. Leung,, C. M. Tam,, C. Y. Chan,, J. J. Sung,, W. W. Yew,, K. Y. Toh,, S. K. Tay,, D. Kwiatkowski,, C. Lienhardt,, T. T. Hien,, N. P. Day,, N. Peshu,, K. Marsh,, K. Maitland,, J. A. Scott,, T. N. Williams,, J. A. Berkley,, S. Floyd,, N. L. Tang,, P. E. Fine,, D. L. Goh, and, A. V. Hill. 2010. CISH and susceptibility to infectious diseases. New Engl. J. Med. 362:20922101.
39. Knight, J. C.,, I. Udalova,, A. V. Hill,, B. M. Greenwood,, N. Peshu,, K. Marsh, and, D. Kwiatkowski. 1999. A polymorphism that affects OCT-1 binding to the TNF promoter region is associated with severe malaria. Nat. Genet. 22:145150.
40. Koch, A.,, M. Melbye,, P. Sørensen,, P. Homøe,, H. O. Madsen,, K. Mølbak,, C. H. Hansen,, L. H. Andersen,, G. W. Hahn, and, P. Garred. 2001. Acute respiratory tract infections and mannose-binding lectin insufficiency during early childhood. JAMA 285:13161321.
41. Krishnegowda, G.,, A. M. Hajjar,, J. Zhu,, E. J. Douglass,, S. Uematsu,, S. Akira,, A. S. Woods, and, D. C. Gowda. 2005. Induction of proinflammatory responses in macrophages by the glycosylphosphatidylinositols of Plasmodium falciparum: cell signaling receptors, glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) structural requirement, and regulation of GPI activity. J. Biol. Chem. 280:86068616.
42. Ladhani, S. N.,, S. Davila,, M. L. Hibberd,, P. T. Heath,, M. E. Ramsay,, M. P. Slack,, A. J. Pollard, and, R. Booy. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in Mal/TIRAP and interleukin-10 genes are associated with susceptibility to invasive Haemophilus influenzae serotype b (Hib) infection in immunised children. In press.
43. Loots, G. G.,, R. M. Locksley,, C. M. Blankespoor,, Z. E. Wang,, W. Miller,, E. M. Rubin, and, K. A. Frazer. 2000. Identification of a coordinate regulator of interleukins 4, 13, and 5 by cross-species sequence comparisons. Science 288:136140.
44. Ma, X.,, Y. Liu,, B. B. Gowen,, E. A. Graviss,, A. G. Clark, and, J. M. Musser. 2007. Full-exon resequencing reveals Toll-like receptor variants contribute to human susceptibility to tuberculosis disease. PLoS One 2:e1318.
45. Malik, S.,, L. Abel,, H. Tooker,, A. Poon,, L. Simkin,, M. Girard,, G. J. Adams,, J. R. Starke,, K. C. Smith,, E. A. Graviss,, J. M. Musser, and, E. Schurr. 2005. Alleles of the NRAMP1 gene are risk factors for pediatric tuberculosis disease. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102:1218312188.
46. Martin, M. P.,, Y. Qi,, X. Gao,, E. Yamada,, J. N. Martin,, F. Pereyra,, S. Colombo,, E. E. Brown,, W. L. Shupert,, J. Phair,, J. J. Goedert,, S. Buchbinder,, G. D. Kirk,, A. Telenti,, M. Connors,, S. J. O’Brien,, B. D. Walker,, P. Parham,, S. G. Deeks,, D. W. McVicar, and, M. Carrington. 2007. Innate partnership of HLA-B and KIR3DL1 subtypes against HIV-1. Nat. Genet. 39:733740.
47. McGuire, W.,, A. V. Hill,, C. E. Allsopp,, B. M. Greenwood, and, D. Kwiatkowski. 1994. Variation in the TNF-α promoter region associated with susceptibility to cerebral malaria. Nature 371:508510.
48. Mead, S.,, M. P. Stumpf,, J. Whitfield,, J. A. Beck,, M. Poulter,, T. Campbell,, J. B. Uphill,, D. Goldstein,, M. Alpers,, E. M. Fisher, and, J. Collinge. 2003. Balancing selection at the prion protein gene consistent with prehistoric kurulike epidemics. Science 300:640643.
49. Mira, M. T.,, A. Alcaï’s,, V. T. Nguyen,, M. O. Moraes,, C. Di Flumeri,, H. T. Vu,, C. P. Mai,, T. H. Nguyen,, S. B. Nguyen,, X. K. Pham,, E. N. Sarno,, A. Alter,, A. Montpetit,, M. E. Moraes,, J. R. Moraes,, C. Doré,, C. J. Gallant,, P. Lepage,, A. Verner,, E. van de Vosse,, T. J. Hudson,, L. Abel, and, E. Schurr. 2004. Susceptibility to leprosy is associated with PARK2 and PACRG. Nature 427:636640.
50. Modiano, D.,, G. Luoni,, B. S. Sirima,, J. Simporé,, F. Verra,, A. Konaté,, E. Rastrelli,, A. Olivieri,, C. Calissano,, G. M. Paganotti,, L. D’Urbano,, I. Sanou,, A. Sawadogo,, G. Modiano, and, M. Coluzzi. 2001. Haemoglobin C protects against clinical Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Nature 414:305308.
51. Modiano, D.,, V. Petrarca,, B. S. Sirima,, I. Nebié,, D. Diallo,, F. Esposito, and, M. Coluzzi. 1996. Different response to Plasmodium falciparum malaria in West African sympatric ethnic groups. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93:1320613211.
52. Moraes, M. O.,, C. C. Cardoso,, P. R. Vanderborght, and, A. G. Pacheco. 2006. Genetics of host response in leprosy. Lepr. Rev. 77:189202.
53. Ottenhoff, T. H.,, S. Neuteboom,, D. G. Elferink, and, R. R. de Vries. 1986. Molecular localization and polymorphism of HLA class II restriction determinants defined by Mycobacterium leprae-reactive helper T cell clones from leprosy patients. J. Exp. Med. 164:19231939.
54. Palmer, M. S.,, A. J. Dryden,, J. T. Hughes, and, J. Collinge. 1991. Homozygous prion protein genotype predisposes to sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Nature 352:340342.
55. Pizza, M.,, J. Donnelly, and, R. Rappuoli. 2008. Factor Hbinding protein, a unique meningococcal vaccine antigen. Vaccine 26(Suppl. 8):I4648.
56. Ramasawmy, R.,, E. Cunha-Neto,, K. C. Fae,, S. C. Borba,, P. C. Teixeira,, S. C. Ferreira,, A. C. Goldberg,, B. Ianni,, C. Mady, and, J. Kalil. 2009. Heterozygosity for the S180L variant of MAL/TIRAP, a gene expressing an adaptor protein in the Toll-like receptor pathway, is associated with lower risk of developing chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy. J. Infect. Dis. 199:18381845.
57. Roy, S.,, K. Knox,, S. Segal,, D. Griffiths,, C. E. Moore,, K. I. Welsh,, A. Smarason,, N. P. Day,, W. L. McPheat,, D. W. Crook,, A. V. Hill, and Oxford Pneumoccocal Surveillance Group. 2002. MBL genotype and risk of invasive pneumococcal disease: a case-control study. Lancet 359:15691573.
58. Ruwende, C.,, S. C. Khoo,, R. W. Snow,, S. N. Yates,, D. Kwiatkowski,, S. Gupta,, P. Warn,, C. E. Allsopp,, S. C. Gilbert,, N. Peschu, et al. 1995. Natural selection of hemi- and heterozygotes for G6PD deficiency in Africa by resistance to severe malaria. Nature 376:246249.
59. Sakuntabhai, A.,, C. Turbpaiboon,, I. Casadémont,, A. Chuansumrit,, T. Lowhnoo,, A. Kajaste-Rudnitski,, S. M. Kalayanarooj,, K. Tangnararatchakit,, N. Tangthaworn-chaikul,, S. Vasanawathana,, W. Chaiyaratana,, P. T. Yenchitsomanus,, P. Suriyaphol,, P. Avirutnan,, K. Chokephaibulkit,, F. Matsuda,, S. Yoksan,, Y. Jacob,, G. M. Lathrop,, P. Malasit,, P. Desprès, and, C. Julier. 2005. A variant in the CD209 promoter is associated with severity of dengue disease. Nat. Genet. 37:507513.
60. Schneider, M. C.,, B. E. Prosser,, J. J. Caesar,, E. Kugelberg,, S. Li,, Q. Zhang,, S. Quoraishi,, J. E. Lovett,, J. E. Deane,, R. B. Sim,, P. Roversi,, S. Johnson,, C. M. Tang, and, S. M. Lea. 2009. Neisseria meningitidis recruits factor H using protein mimicry of host carbohydrates. Nature 458:890893.
61. Smirnova, I.,, N. Mann,, A. Dols,, H. H. Derkx,, M. L. Hibberd,, M. Levin, and, B. Beutler. 2003. Assay of locus-specific genetic load implicates rare Toll-like receptor 4 mutations in meningococcal susceptibility. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100:60756080.
62. Sorensen, T. I.,, G. G. Nielsen,, P. K. Andersen, and, T. W. Teasdale. 1988. Genetic and environmental influences on premature death in adult adoptees. N. Engl. J. Med. 318:727732.
63. Summerfield, J. A.,, M. Sumiya,, M. Levin, and, M. W. Turner. 1997. Association of mutations in mannose binding protein gene with childhood infection in consecutive hospital series. BMJ 314:12291232.
64. Takeda, K.,, and S. Akira. 2005. Toll-like receptors in innate immunity. Int. Immunol. 17:114.
65. Takeda, K.,, T. Kaisho, and, S. Akira. 2003. Toll-like receptors. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 21:335376.
66. Tergaonkar, V.,, R. G. Correa,, M. Ikawa, and, I. M. Verma. 2005. Distinct roles of IκB proteins in regulating constitutive NF-κB activity. Nat. Cell Biol. 7:921923.
67. Thursz, M. R.,, H. C. Thomas,, B. M. Greenwood, and, A. V. Hill. 1997. Heterozygote advantage for HLA class-II type in hepatitis B virus infection. Nat. Genet. 17:1112.
68. Thye, T.,, F. O. Vannberg,, S. Wong,, E. Owusu-Dabo,, I. Osei,, J. Gyapong,, P. C. Hill,, F. Sisay-Joof,, A. Enimil,, A. Chinbuah,, S. Floyd,, D. Warndorff,, L. Sichali,, S. Malema,, A. Crampin,, B. Ngwira,, Y. Y. Teo,, K. Small,, K. Rockett,, D. Kwiatkowski,, P. E. Fine,, G. Sirugo,, M. Newport,, C. Lienhardt,, R. Adegbola,, T. Corrah,, A. Ziegler,, A. Morris,, C. Meyer,, R. Horstmann, and, A. V. Hill. 2010. Genome-wide association analyses identifies a susceptibility locus for tuberculosis on chromosome 18q11.2. Nat. Genet. [Epub ahead of print.]
69. Turner, M. W. 1998. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) in health and disease. Immunobiology 199:327339.
70. Willcox, M. 1983. The haemoglobin pattern of sickle cell and haemoglobin C β+-thalassaemia in Liberia. J. Med. Genet. 20:430432.
71. Williams, T. N.,, S. Wambua,, S. Uyoga,, A. Macharia,, J. K. Mwacharo,, C. R. Newton, and, K. Maitland. 2005. Both heterozygous and homozygous α+ thalassemias protect against severe and fatal Plasmodium falciparum malaria on the coast of Kenya. Blood 106:368371.
72. Williams, T. N.,, T. W. Mwangi,, S. Wambua,, T. E. Peto,, D. J. Weatherall,, S. Gupta,, M. Recker,, B. S. Penman,, S. Uyoga,, A. Macharia,, J. K. Mwacharo,, R. W. Snow, and, K. Marsh. 2005. Negative epistasis between the malaria-protective effects of α+-thalassemia and the sickle cell trait. Nat. Genet. 37:12531257.
73. Winkler, C.,, W. Modi,, M. W. Smith,, G. W. Nelson,, X. Wu,, M. Carrington,, M. Dean,, T. Honjo,, K. Tashiro,, D. Yabe,, S. Buchbinder,, E. Vittinghoff,, J. J. Goedert,, T. R. O’Brien,, L. P. Jacobson,, R. Detels,, S. Donfield,, A. Willoughby,, E. Gomperts,, D. Vlahov,, J. Phair, and, S. J. O’Brien. 1998. Genetic restriction of AIDS pathogenesis by an SDF-1 chemokine gene variant. ALIVE Study, Hemophilia Growth and Development Study (HGDS), Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS), Multicenter Hemophilia Cohort Study (MHCS), San Francisco City Cohort (SFCC). Science 279:389393.
74. Wong, S. H.,, S. Gochhait,, D. Malhotra,, F. H. Pettersson,, Y. Y. Teo,, C. C. Khor,, A. Rautanen,, S. J. Chapman,, T. C. Mills,, A. Srivastava,, A. Rudko,, M. B. Freidin,, V. P. Puzyrev,, S. Ali,, S. Aggarwal,, R. Chopra,, B. S. Reddy,, V. K. Garg,, S. Roy,, S. Meisner,, S. K. Hazra,, B. Saha,, S. Floyd,, B. J. Keating,, C. Kim,, B. P. Fairfax,, J. C. Knight,, P. C. Hill,, R. A. Adegbola,, H. Hakonarson,, P. E. Fine,, R. M. Pitchappan,, R. N. Bamezai,, A. V. Hill, and, F. O. Vannberg. 2010. Leprosy and the adaptation of human toll-like receptor 1. PLoS Pathog. 6:e1000979.
75. Zhang, F. R.,, W. Huang,, S. M. Chen,, L. D. Sun,, H. Liu,, Y. Li,, Y. Cui,, X. X. Yan,, H. T. Yang,, R. D. Yang,, T. S. Chu,, C. Zhang,, L. Zhang,, J. W. Han,, G. Q. Yu,, C. Quan,, Y. X. Yu,, Z. Zhang,, B. Q. Shi,, L. H. Zhang,, H. Cheng,, C. Y. Wang,, Y. Lin,, H. F. Zheng,, X. A. Fu,, X. B. Zuo,, Q. Wang,, H. Long,, Y. P. Sun,, Y. L. Cheng,, H. Q. Tian,, F. S. Zhou,, H. X. Liu,, W. S. Lu,, S. M. He,, W. L. Du,, M. Shen,, Q. Y. Jin,, Y. Wang,, H. Q. Low,, T. Erwin,, N. H. Yang,, J. Y. Lin,, X. Zhao,, Y. L. Jiao,, L. G. Mao,, G. Yin,, Z. X. Jiang,, X. D. Wang,, J. P. Yu,, Z. H. Hu,, C. H. Gong,, Y. Q. Liu,, R. Y. Liu,, D. M. Wang,, D. Wei,, J. X. Liu,, W. K. Cao,, H. Z. Cao,, Y. P. Li,, W. G. Yan,, S. Y. Wei,, K. J. Wang,, M. L. Hibberd,, S. Yang,, X. J. Zhang, and, J. J. Liu. 2009. Genomewide association study of leprosy. New Engl. J. Med. 361:26092618.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Human genomic polymorphisms related to susceptibility and outcomes of microbial diseases

Citation: Khor C, Chapman S, Hill A. 2011. Genomics and DNA Variation: Determinants of Susceptibility and Outcomes in Microbial Diseases, p 787-802. In Persing D, Tenover F, Tang Y, Nolte F, Hayden R, van Belkum A (ed), Molecular Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816834.ch51

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error