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Chapter 10 : Sensing and Responding to Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species

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Abstract:

This chapter provides an overview of what is known about the regulation and defenses against reactive oxygen species and nitrogen species. In and a subset of enteric bacteria, SoxR only controls the expression of SoxS, an AraC-type transcription regulator. Structural and spectral studies of oxidized SoxR bound to DNA show that the activated protein introduces a significant distortion into the DNA in order to activate transcription, as has been observed for other MerR family members. In and , OxyR regulates numerous genes whose expression is induced by exposure to HO and that make sense in terms of a defense against peroxides, including genes encoding catalase and the AhpC peroxiredoxin together with the AhpF reductase, the iron-sequestering protein Dps, and the disulfide bond reducing enzymes thioredoxin and glutaredoxin. In the denitrifying organism , the single subunit quinol-oxidizing respiratory free radical nitric oxide (NO) reductase is encoded by the gene, which is co-transcribed with under the control of the transcription activator encoded by the divergently transcribed gene. In higher eukaryotes, the major receptor for NO is the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC). DosS (DevS) and DosT are paralogous histidine kinases from that each contain a heme cofactor bound to an N-terminal GAF domain. In all cases, the redox-active centers contain reactive metals or cysteine or histidine residues, although the types of modifications that occur are surprisingly varied.

Citation: Storz G, Spiro S. 2011. Sensing and Responding to Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species, p 157-173. In Storz G, Hengge R (ed), Bacterial Stress Responses, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816841.ch10

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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1.

Modification of regulatory proteins by reactive oxygen species

Citation: Storz G, Spiro S. 2011. Sensing and Responding to Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species, p 157-173. In Storz G, Hengge R (ed), Bacterial Stress Responses, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816841.ch10
Generic image for table
Table 2.

Protection against reactive oxygen species

Citation: Storz G, Spiro S. 2011. Sensing and Responding to Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species, p 157-173. In Storz G, Hengge R (ed), Bacterial Stress Responses, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816841.ch10
Generic image for table
Table 3.

Modification of regulatory proteins by NO or -nitrosothiols

Citation: Storz G, Spiro S. 2011. Sensing and Responding to Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species, p 157-173. In Storz G, Hengge R (ed), Bacterial Stress Responses, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816841.ch10
Generic image for table
Table 4.

Protection against reactive nitrogen species

Citation: Storz G, Spiro S. 2011. Sensing and Responding to Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species, p 157-173. In Storz G, Hengge R (ed), Bacterial Stress Responses, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816841.ch10

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