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Chapter 1 : Systematics of the Genus and Its Type Species

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Abstract:

This chapter focuses on the genetic diversity of species as assessed by sequence analysis of DNA. In 1935, a comprehensive study was conducted with numerous yeasts, which included 22 strains of pathogenic and nonpathogenic isolated from humans. Prior to the discovery of the genus , the teleomorph of and , yeast taxonomists had speculated that belonged to the Basidiomycota for the following reasons. First, it is the only basidiomycetous genus that contains human pathogens that produce life-threatening infection of the central nervous system in immunocompromised as well as immunocompetent patients. Second, is the only genus in the phylum Basidiomycota that produces long chains of basidiospores on the apex of the holobasidia by repetitive basipetal budding. Third, the genus contains two groups of species, one with and one without ontogenetic yeast stages. Due to taxonomic confusion about the status of the type species of the genus , as well as the widely recognized importance of and as human pathogens, the genus was neotypified by . This revision implies that if one uses a modern phylogenetic genus concept, only those anamorphic species that belong to the clade should be classified as species, e.g., , , and . Among the Tremellales, species classified as occur intermingled with species of diverse genera such as , , , , , , , and .

Citation: Kwon-Chung K, Boekhout T, Wickes B, Fell J. 2011. Systematics of the Genus and Its Type Species , p 3-15. In Heitman J, Kozel T, Kwon-Chung K, Perfect J, Casadevall A (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816858.ch1

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FIGURE 1

Otto Busse (1867–1922).

Citation: Kwon-Chung K, Boekhout T, Wickes B, Fell J. 2011. Systematics of the Genus and Its Type Species , p 3-15. In Heitman J, Kozel T, Kwon-Chung K, Perfect J, Casadevall A (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816858.ch1
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FIGURE 2

Francesco Sanfelice (1861–1945).

Citation: Kwon-Chung K, Boekhout T, Wickes B, Fell J. 2011. Systematics of the Genus and Its Type Species , p 3-15. In Heitman J, Kozel T, Kwon-Chung K, Perfect J, Casadevall A (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816858.ch1
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FIGURE 3

Ferdinand Curtis (1858–1937).

Citation: Kwon-Chung K, Boekhout T, Wickes B, Fell J. 2011. Systematics of the Genus and Its Type Species , p 3-15. In Heitman J, Kozel T, Kwon-Chung K, Perfect J, Casadevall A (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816858.ch1
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FIGURE 4

Basidial morphology of (A) , (B) , and (C) . (A and B courtesy of R. A. Samson and Antonie van Leeuwenhoek.) Bar = 5 μm.

Citation: Kwon-Chung K, Boekhout T, Wickes B, Fell J. 2011. Systematics of the Genus and Its Type Species , p 3-15. In Heitman J, Kozel T, Kwon-Chung K, Perfect J, Casadevall A (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816858.ch1
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FIGURE 5

Phylogenetic tree of representative members of the Tremellomycetes to demonstrate the diversity of the genus within the four orders of the class. Neighbor joining analysis of the D1/D2 region of the LSU rDNA. Numbers at the branch nodes represent bootstrap percentages (>50%) from 1,000 full heuristic replicates (PAUP 4.0b10). Diamond symbol indicates species that have been isolated from clinical sources. The genus is shaded for emphasis.

Citation: Kwon-Chung K, Boekhout T, Wickes B, Fell J. 2011. Systematics of the Genus and Its Type Species , p 3-15. In Heitman J, Kozel T, Kwon-Chung K, Perfect J, Casadevall A (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816858.ch1
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FIGURE 6

Yeast morphology of diverse non species of that may occur in clinical samples. Cells were grown in yeast nitrogen base with 2% glucose for 48 h at 25°C. (A) CBS 139; (B) CBS 140; (C) CBS 142; (D) CBS 155; (E) CBS 570; (F) CBS 571; (G) CBS 943; (H) CBS 2206; (I) CBS 2288; (J) CBS 6955. Bar = 5 μm.

Citation: Kwon-Chung K, Boekhout T, Wickes B, Fell J. 2011. Systematics of the Genus and Its Type Species , p 3-15. In Heitman J, Kozel T, Kwon-Chung K, Perfect J, Casadevall A (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816858.ch1
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