Chapter 15 : Virulence Mechanisms of : Convergence and Divergence

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This chapter describes what we have learned so far as well as many outstanding questions regarding the virulence of . It documents the available evidence for convergence and/or divergence of virulence mechanisms in the closely related pathogen, . The chapter summarizes some key features that distinguish from . These distinguishing features reveal major differences in shape, antigenicity, and assimilation abilities that might underpin differences in the virulence mechanisms of and . The availability of gene manipulation systems has accelerated characterization of gene functions and evaluations of their relevance in virulence. A systematic study of host-pathogen interactions is critically dependent upon the availability of genetic tools for manipulation of the pathogens and tractable animal models to investigate the host factors critical in the infectious processes. The chapter also discusses primary and accessory determinants of virulence. The primary determinants are capsule, melanin, thermal tolerance, psuperoxide dismutase, trehalose, and phenotype switchinghospholipases. Accessory determinants include mating locus, transcription factor STE12α, protein kinase A (PKA), comparative genomics, extracellular secretory products, ecological fitness, and antifungal susceptibility profiles. A better understanding of virulence mechanisms would lead to more effective therapeutic options and the possible development of a vaccine strategy, especially for areas of high incidence and for veterinary use.

Citation: Chaturvedi S, Chaturvedi V. 2011. Virulence Mechanisms of : Convergence and Divergence, p 189-201. In Heitman J, Kozel T, Kwon-Chung K, Perfect J, Casadevall A (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816858.ch15
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Generic image for table

Comparison of features that distinguish from

Citation: Chaturvedi S, Chaturvedi V. 2011. Virulence Mechanisms of : Convergence and Divergence, p 189-201. In Heitman J, Kozel T, Kwon-Chung K, Perfect J, Casadevall A (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816858.ch15
Generic image for table

Notable structural-functional differences between and

Citation: Chaturvedi S, Chaturvedi V. 2011. Virulence Mechanisms of : Convergence and Divergence, p 189-201. In Heitman J, Kozel T, Kwon-Chung K, Perfect J, Casadevall A (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816858.ch15

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