1887

Chapter 15 : Virulence Mechanisms of : Convergence and Divergence

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Virulence Mechanisms of : Convergence and Divergence, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816858/9781555815011_Chap15-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816858/9781555815011_Chap15-2.gif

Abstract:

This chapter describes what we have learned so far as well as many outstanding questions regarding the virulence of . It documents the available evidence for convergence and/or divergence of virulence mechanisms in the closely related pathogen, . The chapter summarizes some key features that distinguish from . These distinguishing features reveal major differences in shape, antigenicity, and assimilation abilities that might underpin differences in the virulence mechanisms of and . The availability of gene manipulation systems has accelerated characterization of gene functions and evaluations of their relevance in virulence. A systematic study of host-pathogen interactions is critically dependent upon the availability of genetic tools for manipulation of the pathogens and tractable animal models to investigate the host factors critical in the infectious processes. The chapter also discusses primary and accessory determinants of virulence. The primary determinants are capsule, melanin, thermal tolerance, psuperoxide dismutase, trehalose, and phenotype switchinghospholipases. Accessory determinants include mating locus, transcription factor STE12α, protein kinase A (PKA), comparative genomics, extracellular secretory products, ecological fitness, and antifungal susceptibility profiles. A better understanding of virulence mechanisms would lead to more effective therapeutic options and the possible development of a vaccine strategy, especially for areas of high incidence and for veterinary use.

Citation: Chaturvedi S, Chaturvedi V. 2011. Virulence Mechanisms of : Convergence and Divergence, p 189-201. In Heitman J, Kozel T, Kwon-Chung K, Perfect J, Casadevall A (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816858.ch15
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555816858.ch15
1. Akhter, S.,, H.C. McDade,, J.M. Gorlach,, G. Heinrich,, G. M. Cox, and, J. R. Perfect. 2003. Role of alternative oxidase gene in pathogenesis of Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect. Immun. 71:57945802.
2. Alvarado-Ramírez, E.,, J. M. Torres-Rodríguez,, M. Sellart, and, V. Vidotto. 2008. Laccase activity in Cryptococcus gattii strains isolated from goats. Rev. Iberoam. Micol. 25:150153.
3. Alvarez, M., C. Saylor, and, A. Casadevall. 2008. Antibody action after phagocytosis promotes Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii macrophage exocytosis with biofilm-like microcolony formation. Cell Microbiol. 10:16221633.
4. Apidianakis, Y.,, L.G. Rahme,, J. Heitman,, F. M. Ausubel,, S.B. Calderwood, and, E. Mylonakis. 2004. Challenge of Drosophila melanogaster with Cryptococcus neoformans and role of the innate immune response. Eukaryot. Cell 3:413419.
5. Baker, L. G.,, C.A. Specht,, M.J. Donlin, and, J. K. Lodge. 2007. Chitosan, the deacetylated form of chitin, is necessary for cell wall integrity in Cryptococcus neoformans. Eukaryot. Cell 6:855867.
6. Bemis, D. A.,, D.J. Krahwinkel,, L. A. Bowman,, P. Mondon, and, K. J. KwonChung. 2000. Temperature-sensitive strain of Cryptococcus neoformans producing hyphal elements in a feline nasal granuloma. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:926928.
7. Bhattacharjee, A. K., J. E. Bennett, and, C. P. Glaudemans. 1984. Capsular polysaccharides of Cryptococcus neoformans. Rev. Infect. Dis. 6:619624.
8. Bhattacharjee, A. K., K. J. KwonChung, and, C. P. Glaudemans. 1992. The major capsular polysaccharide of Cryptococcus neoformans serotype B. Carbohydr. Res. 233:271272.
9. Bhattacharjee, A. K., K. J. KwonChung, and, C. P. Glaudemans. 1978. On the structure of the capsular polysaccharide from Cryptococcus neoformans serotype C. Immunochemistry 15:673679.
10. Bhattacharjee, A. K., K. J. KwonChung, and, C. P. Glaudemans. 1979. On the structure of the capsular polysaccharide from Cryptococcus neoformans serotype C-II. Mol. Immunol. 16:531532.
11. Biondo, C.,, L. Messina,, M. Bombaci,, G. Mancuso,, A. Midiri,, C. Beninati,, V. Cusumano,, E. Gerace,, S. Papasergi, and, G. Teti. 2005. Characterization of two novel cryptococcal mannoproteins recognized by immune sera. Infect. Immun. 73:73487355.
12. Bland, D. E., and, A. F. Logan. 1969. Lignification in eucalyptus: metabolism of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylalanine. Phytochemistry 8:575578.
13. Brandl, M. T. 2006. Fitness of human enteric pathogens on plants and implications for food safety. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 44:367392.
14. Bubb, W. A.,, L.C. Wright,, M. Cagney,, R. T Santangelo,, T. C. Sorrell, and, P. W. Kuchel. 1999. Heteronuclear NMR studies of metabolites produced by Cryptococcus neoformans in culture media: identification of possible virulence factors. Magn. Reson. Med. 42:442453.
15. Capilla, J.,, C.M. Maffei,, K.V. Clemons,, R.A. Sobel, and, D. A. Stevens. 2006. Experimental systemic infection with Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii and Cryptococcus gattii in normal and immunodeficient mice. Med. Mycol. 44:601610.
16. Casadevall, A., and, J. R. Perfect. 1998. Cryptococcus neoformans. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
17. Chan, M. Y., and, S. T. Tay. 2009. Enzymatic characterisation of clinical isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans, Cryptococcus gattii and other environmental Cryptococcus spp. Mycoses 53:2631.
18. Chang, Y. C., and, K. J. KwonChung. 1994. Complementation of a capsule-deficient mutation of Cryptococcus neoforman s restores its virulence. Mol. Cell. Biol. 14:49124919.
19. Chang, Y. C., and, K. J. Kwon-Chung. 1998. Isolation of the third capsule-associated gene, CAP60, required for virulence in Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect. Immun. 66:22302236.
20. Chang, Y. C., and, K. J. Kwon-Chung. 1999. Isolation, characterization, and localization of a capsule-associated gene, CAP10, of Cryptococcus neoformans. J. Bacteriol. 181:56365643.
21. Chang, Y. C., L. A. Penoyer, and, K. J. Kwon-Chung. 1996. The second capsule gene of Cryptococcus neoformans, CAP64, is essential for virulence. Infect. Immun. 64:19771983.
22. Chang, Y. C., B. L. Wickes, and, K. J. Kwon-Chung. 1995. Further analysis of the CAP59 locus of Cryptococcus neoformans: structure defined by forced expression and description of a new ribosomal protein-encoding gene. Gene 167:179183.
23. Chang, Y. C.,, B.L. Wickes,, G. F. Miller,, L. A. Penoyer, and, K. J. Kwon-Chung. 2000. Cryptococcus neoformans STE12 alpha regulates virulence but is not essential for mating. J. Exp. Med. 191:871882.
24. Chaturvedi, S.,, M. Dyavaiah,, R.A. Larsen, and, V. Chaturvedi. 2005. Cryptococcus gattii in AIDS patients, southern California. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 11:16861692.
25. Chaturvedi, S.,, A.J. Hamilton,, P. Hobby,, G. Zhu,, C.V. Lowry, and, V. Chaturvedi. 2001. Molecular cloning, phylogenetic analysis and three-dimensional modeling of Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (CnSOD1) from three varieties of Cryptococcus neoformans. Gene 268:4151.
26. Chaturvedi, S.,, B. Rodeghier,, J. Fan,, C. M. McClelland,, B.L. Wickes, and, V. Chaturvedi. 2000. Direct PCR of Cryptococcus neoformans MATα and MAT a pheromones to determine mating types, ploidy, and variety: a tool for epidemiological and molecular pathogenesis studies. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:20072009.
27. Chaturvedi, V.,, J. Fan,, B. Stein,, M. J. Behr,, W. A. Samsonoff,, B. L. Wickes, and, S. Chaturvedi. 2002. Molecular genetic analyses of mating pheromones reveal intervariety mating or hybridization in Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect. Immun. 70:52255235.
28. Chaturvedi, V.,, T. Flynn,, W.G. Niehaus, and, B. Wong. 1996. Stress tolerance and pathogenic potential of a mannitol mutant of Cryptococcus neoformans. Microbiology 142:937943.
29. Chaturvedi, V., B. Wong, and, S. L. A. Newman. 1996. Oxidative killing of Cryptococcus neoformans by human neutrophils. Evidence that fungal mannitol protects by scavenging reactive oxygen intermediates. J. Immunol. 156:38363840.
30. Chen, L. C.,, L.A. Pirofski, and, A. Casadevall. 1997. Extracellular proteins of Cryptococcus neoformans and host antibody response. Infect. Immun. 65:25992605.
31. Chen, S.,, T. Sorrell,, G. Nimmo,, B. Speed,, B. Currie,, D. Ellis,, D. Marriott,, T. Pfeiffer,, D. Parr, and, K. Byth. 2000. Epidemiology and host- and variety-dependent characteristics of infection due to Cryptococcus neoformans in Australia and New Zealand. Australasian Cryptococcal Study Group. Clin. Infect. Dis. 31:499508.
32. Chen, S. C.,, M. Muller,, J. Z. Zhou,, L.C. Wright, and, T. C. Sorrell. 1997. Phospholipase activity in Cryptococcus neoformans: a new virulence factor? J. Infect. Dis. 175:414420.
33. Cheng, P. Y., A. Sham, and, J. W. Kronstad. 2009. Cryptococcus gattii isolates from the British Columbia cryptococcosis outbreak induce less protective inflammation in a murine model of infection than Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect. Immun. 77:42844294.
34. Cherniak, R.,, R.G. Jones, and, E. Reiss. 1988. Structure determination of Cryptococcus neoformans serotype A-variant glucuronoxylomannan by 13C-n.m.r. spectroscopy. Carbohydr. Res. 172:113138.
35. Cherniak, R., L. C. Morris, and, S. A. Meyer. 1992. Glucuronoxylomannan of Cryptococcus neoformans serotype C: structural analysis by gas-liquid chromatographymass spectrometry and 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Carbohydr. Res. 225:331337.
36. Cherniak, R.,, E. B. O’Neill, and, S. Sheng. 1998. Assimilation of xylose, mannose, and mannitol for synthesis of glucuronoxylomannan of Cryptococcus neoformans determined by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Infect. Immun. 66:29962998.
37. Cherniak, R.,, E. Reiss,, M.E. Slodki,, R.D. Plattner, and, S. O. Blumer. 1980. Structure and antigenic activity of the capsular polysaccharide of Cryptococcus neoformans serotype A. Mol. Immunol. 17:10251032.
38. Chiapello, L. S.,, M.P. Aoki,, H.R. Rubinstein, and, D. T. Masih. 2003. Apoptosis induction by glucuronoxylomannan of Cryptococcus neoformans. Med. Mycol. 41:347353.
39. Church, D., and, R. Washburn. 1992. Comparison of virulence among serotypes of Cryptococcus neoformans in a murine inhalation model, abstr. no. B-328, p. 80. Abstr. 92nd Gen Meet. Am. Soc. Microbiol. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.
40. Cox, G. M.,, T.S. Harrison,, H.C. McDade,, C. P Taborda,, G. Heinrich,, A. Casadevall, and, J. R. Perfect. 2003. Superoxide dismutase influences the virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans by affecting growth within macrophages. Infect. Immun. 71:173180.
41. Cox, G. M.,, H.C. McDade,, S.C. Chen,, S. C Tucker,, M. Gottfredsson,, L. C Wright,, T. C. Sorrell,, S. D Leidich,, A. Casadevall,, M. A. Ghannoum, and, J. R. Perfect. 2001. Extracellular phospholipase activity is a virulence factor for Cryptococcus neoformans. Mol. Microbiol. 39:166175.
42. David, M., M. Gabriel, and, M. Kopecka. 2007. Cytoskeletal structures, ultrastructural characteristics and the capsule of the basidiomycetous yeast Cryptococcus laurentii. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 92:2936.
43. Davidson, R. C.,, M.C. Cruz,, R.A. Sia,, B. Allen,, J. A. Alspaugh, and, J. Heitman. 2000. Gene disruption by biolistic transformation in serotype D strains of Cryptococcus neoformans. Fungal Genet. Biol. 29:3848.
44. Doering, T. L. 2000. How does Cryptococcus get its coat? Trends Microbiol. 8:547553.
45. Dong, Z. M., and, J. W. Murphy. 1995. Effects of the two varieties of Cryptococcus neoformans cells and culture filtrate antigens on neutrophil locomotion. Infect. Immun. 63:26322644.
46. Dong, Z. M., and, J. W. Murphy. 1995. Intravascular cryptococcal culture filtrate (CneF) and its major component, glucuronoxylomannan, are potent inhibitors of leukocyte accumulation. Infect. Immun. 63:770778.
47. D’Souza, C. A.,, J.A. Alspaugh,, C. Yue,, T. Harashima,, G. M Cox,, J. R. Perfect, and, J. Heitman. 2001. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase controls virulence of the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. Mol. Cell. Biol. 21:31793191.
48. Ellerbroek, P. M.,, D.J. Lefeber,, R. van Veghel,, J. Scharringa,, E. Brouwer,, G. J Gerwig,, G. Janbon,, A. I. Hoepelman, and, F. E. Coenjaerts. 2004. O-acetylation of cryptococcal capsular glucuronoxylomannan is essential for interference with neutrophil migration. J. Immunol. 173:75137520.
49. Ellis, D., and, T. Pfeiffer. 1990. Ecology, life cycle, and infectious propagule of Cryptococcus neoformans. Lancet 336:923925.
50. Feldmesser, M.,, Y. Kress,, P. Novikoff, and, A. Casadevall. 2000. Cryptococcus neoformans is a facultative intracellular pathogen in murine pulmonary infection. Infect. Immun. 68:42254237.
51. Fraser, J. A.,, S.S. Giles,, E. C. Wenink,, S. G. Geunes-Boyer,, J. R Wright,, S. Diezmann,, A. Allen,, J. E Stajich,, F. S. Dietrich,, J. R. Perfect, and, J. Heitman. 2005. Same-sex mating and the origin of the Vancouver Island Cryptococcus gattii outbreak. Nature 437:13601364.
52. Fraser, J. A.,, R.L. Subaran,, C.B. Nichols, and, J. Heitman. 2003. Recapitulation of the sexual cycle of the primary fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii: implications for an outbreak on Vancouver Island, Canada. Eukaryot. Cell 2:10361045.
53. Gams, W. 2005. Proposal to conserve or reject: report of the committee for fungi: 12. Taxon 54:520522.
54. Giles, S. S.,, I. Batinic-Haberle,, J. R. Perfect, and, G. M. Cox. 2005. Cryptococcus neoformans mitochondrial superoxide dismutase: an essential link between antioxidant function and high-temperature growth. Eukaryot. Cell 4:4654.
55. Giles, S. S.,, J. R. Perfect, and, G. M. Cox. 2005. Cytochrome c peroxidase contributes to the antioxidant defense of Cryptococcus neoformans. Fungal Genet. Biol. 42:2029.
56. Gomez-Lopez, A.,, O. Zaragoza,, M. Dos Anjos Martins,, M. C. Melhem,, J. L. Rodriguez-Tudela, and, M. CuencaEstrella. 2008. In vitro susceptibility of Cryptococcus gattii clinical isolates. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 14:727730.
57. Grijpstra, J.,, G. J. Gerwig,, H. Wosten,, J. P. Kamerling, and, H. de Cock. 2009. Production of extracellular polysaccharides by CAP mutants of Cryptococcus neoformans. Eukaryot. Cell 8:11651173.
58. Grosse, P.,, K. Tintelnot,, O. Söllner, and, B. Schmitz. 2001. Encephalomyelitis due to Cryptococcus neoformans var gattii presenting as spinal tumour: case report and review of the literature. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry 70:113116.
59. Guerrero, A.,, N. Jain,, D. L. Goldman, and, B. C. Fries. 2006. Phenotypic switching in Cryptococcus neoformans. Microbiology 152:39.
60. Halliday, C. L.,, T. Bui,, M. Krockenberger,, R. Malik,, D. H. Ellis, and, D. A. Carter. 1999. Presence of alpha and a mating types in environmental and clinical collections of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii strains from Australia. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:29202926.
61. Hamilton, A. J., and, M. D. Holdom. 1997. Biochemical comparison of the Cu, Zn superoxide dismutases of Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans and Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii. Infect. Immun. 65:488494.
62. Harth, G., and, M. A. Horwitz. 1999. Export of recombinant Mycobacterium tuberculosis superoxide dismutase is dependent upon both information in the protein and mycobacterial export machinery. A model for studying export of leaderless proteins by pathogenic mycobacteria. J. Biol. Chem. 274:42814292.
63. Hicks, J. K., and, J. Heitman. 2007. Divergence of protein kinase A catalytic subunits in Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii illustrates evolutionary reconfiguration of a signaling cascade. Eukaryot. Cell 6:413420.
64. Himmelreich, U.,, C. Allen,, S. Dowd,, R. Malik,, B. P. Shehan,, C. Mountford, and, T. C. Sorrell. 2003. Identification of metabolites of importance in the pathogenesis of pulmonary cryptococcoma using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Microbes Infect. 5:285290.
65. Hu, G., and, J. W. Kronstad. 2006. Gene disruption in Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii by in vitro transposition. Curr. Genet. 49:341350.
66. Huang, C.,, S.H. Nong,, M.K. Mansour,, C.A. Specht, and, S. M. Levitz. 2002. Purification and characterization of a second immunoreactive mannoprotein from Cryptococcus neoformans that stimulates T-cell responses. Infect. Immun. 70:54855493.
67. Huérfano, S., A. Castañeda, and, E. Castañeda. 2001. Experimental infection of almond trees seedlings (Terminaliacatappa) with an environmental isolate of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii, serotype C. Rev. Iberoam. Micol. 18:131132.
68. Idnurm, A.,, Y.S. Bahn,, K. Nielsen,, X. Lin,, J.A. Fraser, and, J. Heitman. 2005. Deciphering the model pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 3:753764.
69. Ikeda, R.,, T. Shinoda,, Y. Fukazawa, and, L. Kaufman. 1982. Antigenic characterization of Cryptococcus neoformans serotypes and its application to serotyping of clinical isolates. J. Clin. Microbiol. 16:2229.
70. Iqbal, N.,, E.E. Debess,, R. Wohrle,, B. Sun,, R.J. Nett,, A. M Ahlquist,, T. Chiller, and, S. R. Lockhart for the Cryptococcus gattii Public Health Working Group. 2010. Correlation of genotype and in vitro susceptibilities of Cryptococcus gattii from the Pacific Northwest of the United States. J. Clin. Microbiol. 48:539544.
71. Ito-Kuwa, S.,, K. Nakamura,, B. Valderrama,, S. Aoki,, V. Vidotto, and, T. Osafune. 2008. Diversity of laccase among Cryptococcus neoformans serotypes. Microbiol. Immunol. 52:492498.
72. Jacobson, E. S. 2000. Pathogenic roles for fungal melanins. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 13:708717.
73. Jacobson, E. S.,, D.J. Ayers,, A.C. Harrell, and, C. C. Nicholas. 1982. Genetic and phenotypic characterization of capsule mutants of Cryptococcus neoformans. J. Bacteriol. 150:12921296.
74. Jacobson, E. S., and, S. B. Tinnell. 1993. Antioxidant function of fungal melanin. J. Bacteriol. 175:71027104.
75. Jain, N., and, B. C. Fries. 2008. Phenotypic switching of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. Mycopathologia 166:181188.
76. Jain, N.,, L. Li,, D.C. McFadden,, U. Banarjee,, X. Wang,, E. Cook, and, B. C. Fries. 2006. Phenotypic switching in a Cryptococcus neoformans variety gattii strain is associated with changes in virulence and promotes dissemination to the central nervous system. Infect. Immun. 74:896903.
77. Kavanaugh, L. A., J. A. Fraser, and, F. S. Dietrich. 2006. Recent evolution of the human pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans by intervarietal transfer of a 14-gene fragment. Mol. Biol. Evol. 23:18791890.
78. Keller, S. M.,, M.A. Viviani,, M. C. Esposto,, M. Cogliati, and, B. L. Wickes. 2003. Molecular and genetic characterization of a serotype A MAT a Cryptococcus neoformans isolate. Microbiology 149:131142.
79. Khan, Z. U.,, H.S. Randhawa,, T. Kowshik,, A. Chowdhary, and, R. Chandy. 2007. Antifungal susceptibility of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii isolates from decayed wood of trunk hollows of Ficus religiosa and Syzygium cumini trees in north-western India. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 60:312316.
80. Kidd, S. E.,, F. Hagen,, R. L. Tscharke,, M. Huynh,, K. H Bartlett,, M. Fyfe,, L. Macdougall,, T. Boekhout,, K. J. KwonChung, and, W. Meyer. 2004. A rare genotype of Cryptococcus gattii caused the cryptococcosis outbreak on Vancouver Island (British Columbia, Canada). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101:1725817263.
81. Kovalenko, O. H., A. O. Barkalova, and, S. S. Nahorrna. 2005. Antiphytoviral activity of capsule substances of Cryptococcus albidus yeast. Mikrobiol. Z. 67:8184. (In Ukranian.)
82. Kozel, T. R. 1993. Opsonization and phagocytosis of Cryptococcus neoformans. Arch. Med. Res. 24:211218.
83. Kraus, P. R.,, M.-J. Boily,, S. S. Giles,, J.E. Stajich,, A. Allen,, G. M Cox,, F. S. Dietrich,, J. R. Perfect, and, J. Heitman. 2004. Identification of Cryptococcus neoformans temperature-regulated genes with a genomic-DNA microarray. Eukaryotic Cell. 3:12491260.
84. Kwon-Chung, K. J. 1975. A new genus, Filobasidiella, the perfect state of Cryptococcus neoformans. Mycologia 67:11971200.
85. Kwon-Chung, K. J. 1976. A new species of Filobasidiella, the sexual state of Cryptococcus neoformans B and C serotypes. Mycologia 68:943946.
86. Kwon-Chung, K. J., and, J. E. Bennett. 1992. Medical Mycology. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, PA.
87. Kwon-Chung, K. J., and, J. E. Bennett. 1978. Distribution of alpha and alpha mating types of Cryptococcus neoformans among natural and clinical isolates. Am. J. Epidemiol. 108:337340.
88. Kwon-Chung, K. J., J. E. Bennett, and, T. S. Theodore. 1978. Cryptococcus bacillisporus sp. nov.: serotype B-C of Cryptococcus neoformans. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 28:616620.
89. Kwon-Chung, K. J.,, T. Boekhout,, J.W. Fell, and, M. Diaz. 2002. (1557) Proposal to conserve the name Cryptococcus gattii against C. hondurianus and C. bacillisporus (Basidiomycota, Hymenomycetes, Tremellomycetidae). Taxon 51:804806.
90. Kwon-Chung, K. J., J. C. Edman, and, B. L. Wickes. 1992. Genetic association of mating types and virulence in Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect. Immun. 60:602605.
91. Kwon-Chung, K. J., I. Polacheck, and, T. J. Popkin. 1982. Melanin-lacking mutants of Cryptococcus neoformans and their virulence for mice. J. Bacteriol. 150:14141421.
92. Kwon-Chung, K. J.,, B.L. Wickes,, L. Stockman,, G. D Roberts,, D. Ellis, and, D. H. Howard. 1992. Virulence, serotype, and molecular characteristics of environmental strains of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii. Infect. Immun. 60:18691874.
93. Latouche, G. N.,, T.C. Sorrell, and, W. Meyer. 2002. Isolation and characterization of the phospholipase B gene of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii. FEMS Yeast Res. 2:551561.
94. Lazera, M. S.,, M.A. Cavalcanti,, L. Trilles,, M. M. Nishikawa, and, B. Wanke. 1998. Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii: evidence for a natural habitat related to decaying wood in a pottery tree hollow. Med. Mycol. 36:119122.
95. Lengeler, K. B.,, D.S. Fox,, J.A. Fraser,, A. Allen,, K. Forrester,, F. S. Dietrich, and, J. Heitman. 2002. Mating-type locus of Cryptococcus neoformans: a step in the evolution of sex chromosomes. Eukaryot. Cell 1:704718.
96. Levitz, S. M.,, S. Nong,, M. K. Mansour,, C. Huang, and, C. A. Specht. 2001. Molecular characterization of a mannoprotein with homology to chitin deacetylases that stimulates T cell responses to Cryptococcus neoformans. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98:1042210427.
97. Lin, X.,, C.M. Hull, and, J. Heitman. 2005. Sexual reproduction between partners of the same mating type in Cryptococcus neoformans. Nature 434:10171021.
98. Loftus, B. J.,, E. Fung,, P. Roncaglia,, D. Rowley,, P. Amedeo,, D. Bruno,, J. Vamathevan,, M. Miranda,, I. J Anderson,, J. A. Fraser,, J. E Allen,, I. E. Bosdet,, M. R Brent,, R. Chiu,, T. L Doering,, M. J. Donlin,, C. A. D’Souza,, D. S Fox,, V. Grinberg,, J. Fu,, M. Fukushima,, B. J Haas,, J. C. Huang,, G. Janbon,, S. J Jones,, H. L. Koo,, M. I Krzywinski,, J. K. Kwon-Chung,, K. B Lengeler,, R. Maiti,, M. A Marra,, R. E. Marra,, C. A Mathewson,, T. G. Mitchell,, M. Pertea,, F. R Riggs,, S. L. Salzberg,, J. E Schein,, A. Shvartsbeyn,, H. Shin,, M. Shumway,, C. A Specht,, B. B. Suh,, A. Tenney,, T. R Utterback,, B. L. Wickes,, J. R Wortman,, N. H. Wye,, J. W Kronstad,, J. K. Lodge,, J. Heitman,, R. W Davis,, C. M. Fraser, and, R. W. Hyman. 2005. The genome of the basidiomycetous yeast and human pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. Science 307:13211324.
99. Ma, H.,, F. Hagen,, D.J. Stekel,, S.A. Johnston,, E. Sionov,, R. Falk,, I. Polacheck,, T. Boekhout, and, R. C. May. 2009. The fatal fungal outbreak on Vancouver Island is characterized by enhanced intracellular parasitism driven by mitochondrial regulation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106:1298012985.
100. Malliaris, S. D.,, J.N. Steenbergen, and, A. Casadevall. 2004. Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii can exploit Acanthamoeba castellanii for growth. Med. Mycol. 42:149158.
101. Manion, P. D. 1991. Tree Disease Concepts, 2nd ed. Prentice Hall Career & Technology, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
102. Martinez, L. R.,, J. Garcia-Rivera, and, A. Casadevall. 2001. Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans (Serotype D) strains are more susceptible to heat than C. neoformans var. grubii (Serotype A) strains. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:33653367.
103. McClelland, C. A.,, Y. C. Chang, and, K. J. KwonChung. 2005. High frequency transformation of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Fungal Genet. Biol. 42:904913.
104. Mehul, B., and, R. C. Hughes. 1997. Plasma membrane targetting, vesicular budding and release of galectin 3 from the cytoplasm of mammalian cells during secretion. J. Cell Sci. 110:11691178.
105. Mirshafiey, A.,, F. Mehrabian,, A. Razavi,, M. R. Shidfar, and, S. Namaki. 2000. Novel therapeutic approach by culture filtrate of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii (CneF) in experimental immune complex glomerulonephritis. Gen. Pharmacol. 34:311319.
106. Missall, T. A.,, J.M. Moran,, J.A. Corbett, and, J. K. Lodge. 2005. Distinct stress responses of two functional laccases in Cryptococcus neoformans are revealed in the absence of the thiolspecific antioxidant Tsa1. Eukaryot. Cell 4:202208.
107. Missall, T. A.,, M. E. Pusateri, and, J. K. Lodge. 2004. Thiol peroxidase is critical for virulence and resistance to nitric oxide and peroxide in the fungal pathogen, Cryptococcus neoformans. Mol. Microbiol. 51:14471458.
108. Mitchell, D. H.,, T.C. Sorrell,, A.M. Allworth,, C. H Heath,, A. R. McGregor,, K. Papanaoum,, M. J. Richards, and, T. Gottlieb. 1995. Cryptococcal disease of the CNS in immunocompetent hosts: influence of cryptococcal variety on clinical manifestations and outcome. Clin. Infect. Dis. 20:611616.
109. Mondola, P.,, T. Annella,, M. Santillo, and, F. Santangelo. 1996. Evidence for secretion of cytosolic CuZn superoxide dismutase by Hep G2 and human fibroblast. Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 28:677681.
110. Morgan, J.,, K.M. McCarthy,, S. Gould,, K. Fan,, B. Arthington-Skaggs,, N. Iqbal,, K. Stamey,, R. A. Hajjeh, and, M. E. Brandt. 2006. Cryptococcus gattii infection: characteristics and epidemiology of cases identified in a South African province with high HIV seroprevalence, 2002–2004. Clin. Infect. Dis. 43:10771080.
111. Mylonakis, E.,, F.M. Ausubel,, J.R. Perfect,, J. Heitman, and, S. B. Calderwood. 2002. Killing of Caenorhabditis elegans by Cryptococcus neoformans as a model of yeast pathogenesis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99:1567515680.
112. Mylonakis, E.,, R. Moreno,, J. B. El Khoury,, A. Idnurm,, J. Heitman,, S. B Calderwood,, F. M. Ausubel, and, A. Diener. 2005. Galleria mellonella as a model system to study Cryptococcus neoformans pathogenesis. Infect. Immun. 73:38423850.
113. Nakamura, Y. 2001. Molecular analyses of the serotype of Cryptococcus neoformans. Nippon Ishinkin Gakkai Zasshi 42:6974.
114. Narasipura, S. D.,, J.G. Ault,, M. J. Behr,, V. Chaturvedi, and, S. Chaturvedi. 2003. Characterization of Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) gene knock-out mutant of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii: role in biology and virulence. Mol. Microbiol. 47:16811694.
115. Narasipura, S. D.,, V. Chaturvedi, and, S. Chaturvedi. 2005. Characterization of Cryptococcus neoformans variety gattii SOD2 reveals distinct roles of the two superoxide dismutases in fungal biology and virulence. Mol. Microbiol. 55:17821800.
116. Narasipura, S. D.,, P. Ren,, M. Dyavaiah,, I. Auger,, V. Chaturvedi, and, S. Chaturvedi. 2006. An efficient method for homologous gene reconstitution in Cryptococcus gattii using URA5 auxotrophic marker. Mycopathologia 162:401409.
117. Ngamskulrungroj, P.,, U. Himmelreich,, J. A. Breger, C. Wilson,, M. Chayakulkeeree,, M. B Krockenberger,, R. Malik,, H.-M. Daniel,, D. Toffaletti,, J. T. Djordjevic,, E. Mylonakis,, W. Meyer, and, J. R. Perfect. 2009. The trehalose synthesis pathway is an integral part of the virulence composite for Cryptococcus gattii. Infect. Immun. 77:45844596.
118. Nielsen, K.,, G.M. Cox,, A.P. Litvintseva,, E. Mylonakis,, S. D Malliaris,, D. K. Benjamin, Jr.,, S. S Giles,, T. G. Mitchell,, A. Casadevall,, J. R. Perfect, and, J. Heitman. 2005. Cryptococcus neoformans a strains preferentially disseminate to the central nervous system during coinfection. Infect. Immun. 73:49224933.
119. Otteson, E. W.,, W. H. Welch, and, T. R. Kozel. 1994. Protein-polysaccharide interactions. A monoclonal antibody specific for the capsular polysaccharide of Cryptococcus neoformans. J. Biol. Chem. 269:18581864.
120. Petzold, E. W.,, U. Himmelreich,, E. Mylonakis,, T. Rude,, D. Toffaletti,, G. M Cox,, J. L. Miller, and, J. R. Perfect. 2006. Characterization and regulation of the trehalose synthesis pathway and its importance in the pathogenicity of Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect. Immun. 74:58775887.
121. Pfeiffer, T. J., and, D. H. Ellis. 1992. Environmental isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii from Eucalyptus tereticornis. J. Med. Vet. Mycol. 30:407408.
122. Polacheck, I.,, Y. Platt, and, J. Aronovitch. 1990. Catecholamines and virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect. Immun. 58:29192922.
123. Rahme, L. G.,, F.M. Ausubel,, H. Cao,, E. Drenkard,, B. C Goumnerov,, G. W. Lau,, S. Mahajan-Miklos,, J. Plotnikova,, M. W Tan,, J. Tsongalis,, C. L. Walendziewicz, and, R. G. Tompkins. 2000. Plants and animals share functionally common bacterial virulence factors. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97:88158821.
124. Randhawa, H. S.,, T. Kowshik,, A. Chowdhary,, K. Preeti Sinha,, Z. U Khan,, S. Sun, and, J. Xu. 2008. The expanding host tree species spectrum of Cryptococcus gattii and Cryptococcus neoformans and their isolations from surrounding soil in India. Med. Mycol. 46:823833.
125. Reeves, E. P.,, H. Lu,, H. L. Jacobs,, C.G. Messina,, S. Bolsover,, G. Gabella,, E. O Potma,, A. Warley,, J. Roes, and, A. W. Segal. 2002. Killing activity of neutrophils is mediated through activation of proteases by K+ flux. Nature 416:291297.
126. Ren, P.,, P. Roncaglia,, D.J. Springer,, J.J. Fan, and, V. Chaturvedi. 2005. Genomic organization and expression of 23 new genes from MAT alpha locus of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 326:233241.
127. Ren, P.,, D.J. Springer,, M.J. Behr,, W. A. Samsonoff,, S. Chaturvedi, and, V. Chaturvedi. 2006. Transcription factor STE12alpha has distinct roles in morphogenesis, virulence, and ecological fitness of the primary pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus gattii. Eukaryot. Cell 5:10651080.
128. Retini, C.,, A. Vecchiarelli,, C. Monari,, C. Tascini,, F. Bistoni, and, T. R. Kozel. 1996. Capsular polysaccharide of Cryptococcus neoformans induces proinflammatory cytokine release by human neutrophils. Infect. Immun. 64:28972903.
129. Rippon, J. W. 1988. Medical Mycology: The Pathogenic Fungi and the Pathogenic Actinomycetes, 3rd ed. W.B. Saunders, Philadelphia, PA.
130. Rodrigues, M. L.,, E.S. Nakayasu,, D.L. Oliveira,, L. Nimrichter,, J. D Nosanchuk,, I. C. Almeida, and, A. Casadevall. 2008. Extracellular vesicles produced by Cryptococcus neoformans contain protein components associated with virulence. Eukaryot. Cell 7:5867.
131. Rodrigues, M. L.,, L. Nimrichter,, D. L. Oliveira,, S. Frases,, K. Miranda,, O. Zaragoza,, M. Alvarez,, A. Nakouzi,, M. Feldmesser, and, A. Casadevall. 2007. Vesicular polysaccharide export in Cryptococcus neoformans is a eukaryotic solution to the problem of fungal trans-cell wall transport. Eukaryot. Cell 6:4859.
132. Ross, A., and, I. E. Taylor. 1981. Extracellular glycoprotein from virulent and avirulent Cryptococcus species. Infect. Immun. 31:911918.
133. Salas, S. D.,, J.E. Bennett,, K. J. Kwon-Chung,, J. R. Perfect, and, P. R. Williamson. 1996. Effect of the laccase gene CNLAC1, on virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans. J. Exp. Med. 184:377386.
134. Salkin, I. F., and, N. J. Hurd. 1982. New medium for differentiation of Cryptococcus neoformans serotype pairs. J. Clin. Microbiol. 15:169171.
135. Saul, N.,, M. Krockenberger, and, D. Carter. 2008. Evidence of recombination in mixed-mating-type and alpha-only populations of Cryptococcus gattii sourced from single eucalyptus tree hollows. Eukaryot. Cell 7:727734.
136. Seaton, R. A.,, S. Naraqi,, J. P. Wembri, and, D. A. Warrell. 1997. Cell-mediated immunity in HIV seronegative patients recovered from Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii meningitis. J. Med. Vet. Mycol. 35:711.
137. Shen, W.-C.,, R. C. Davidson,, G.M. Cox, and, J. Heitman. 2002. Pheromones stimulate mating and differentiation via paracrine and autocrine signaling in Cryptococcus neoformans. Eukaryot. Cell 1:366377.
138. Shigo, A. L. 1984. Compartmentalization: a conceptual framework for understanding how trees grow and defend themselves. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 22:189214.
139. Shoham, S.,, C. Huang,, J.M. Chen,, D.T. Golenbock, and, S. M. Levitz. 2001. Toll-like receptor 4 mediates intracellular signaling without TNF-alpha release in response to Cryptococcus neoformans polysaccharide capsule. J. Immunol. 166:46204626.
140. Siafakas, A. R.,, L.C. Wright,, T.C. Sorrell, and, J. T. Djordjevic. 2006. Lipid rafts in Cryptococcus neoformans concentrate the virulence determinants phospholipase B1 and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase. Eukaryot. Cell 5:488498.
141. Sorrell, T. C. 2001. Cryptococcus neoformans variety gattii. Med. Mycol. 39:155168.
142. Speed, B., and, D. A. Dunt. 1995. Clinical and host differences between infections with two varieties of Cryptococcus neoformans. Clin. Infect. Dis. 21:2834.
143. Springer, D. J., and, V. Chaturvedi. 2010. Projecting global occurrence of Cryptococcus gattii. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 16:1420.
144. Springer, D. J.,, P. Ren,, R. Raina,, Y. Dong,, M. J Behr,, B. F. McEwen,, S. Bowser,, W. A Samsonoff,, S. Chaturvedi, and, V. Chaturvedi. 2010. Extracellular fibrils of pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus gattii are important for ecological niche, murine virulence, and human neutrophil interactions. PLoS One 5: e10978.
145. Steen, B. R.,, T. Lian,, S. Zuyderduyn,, W.K. MacDonald,, M. Marra,, S. J. M. Jones, and, J. W. Kronstad. 2002. Temperature-regulated transcription in the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. Genome Res. 12:13861400.
146. Steen, B. R.,, S. Zuyderduyn,, D. L. Toffaletti,, M. Marra,, S. J Jones,, J. R. Perfect, and, J. Kronstad. 2003. Cryptococcus neoformans gene expression during experimental cryptococcal meningitis. Eukaryot. Cell 2:13361349.
147. Sugita, T.,, R. Ikeda, and, T. Shinoda. 2001. Diversity among strains of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii as revealed by a sequence analysis of multiple genes and a chemotype analysis of capsular polysaccharide. Microbiol. Immunol. 45:757768.
148. Tanaka, E.,, S. Ito-Kuwa,, K. Nakamura,, S. Aoki,, V. Vidotto, and, M. Ito. 2005. Comparisons of the laccase gene 15. Virulence Mechanisms of Cryptococcus gattii ? 201 among serotypes and melanin-deficient variants of Cryptococcus neoformans. Microbiol. Immunol. 49:209217.
149. Tay, S. T.,, T. Tanty Haryanty,, K. P. Ng,, M. Y. Ro-hani, and, H. Hamimah. 2006. In vitro susceptibilities of Malaysian clinical isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii and Cryptococcus gattii to five antifungal drugs. Mycoses 49:324330.
150. Torres-Rodríguez, J. M.,, Y. Morera,, T. Baró,, J. M. Corominas, and, E. Castañeda. 2003. Pathogenicity of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii in an immunocompetent mouse model. Med. Mycol. 41:5963.
151. Trilles, L.,, B. Fernàndez-Torres,, S. Lazéra Mdos,, B. Wanke, and, J. Guarro. 2004. In vitro antifungal susceptibility of Cryptococcus gattii. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:48154817.
152. Turner, S. H.,, R. Cherniak, and, E. Reiss. 1984. Fractionation and characterization of galactoxylomannan from Cryptococcus neoformans. Carbohydr. Res. 125:343349.
153. Vaishnav, V. V.,, B.E. Bacon,, M. O’Neill, and, R. Cherniak. 1998. Structural characterization of the galactoxylomannan of Cryptococcus neoformans Cap67. Carbohydr. Res. 306:315330.
154. van Baarlen, P.,, A. van Belkum, and, B. P. Thomma. 2007. Disease induction by human microbial pathogens in plantmodel systems: potential, problems and prospects. Drug Discov. Today 12:167173.
155. Vanbreuseghem, R., and, M. Takashio. 1970. An atypical strain of Cryptococcus neoformans (San Felice) Vuillemin 1894. II. Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii var. nov. Ann. Soc. Belg. Med. Trop. 50:695702.
156. Wang, Y., and, A. Casadevall. 1994. Susceptibility of melanized and nonmelanized Cryptococcus neoformans to nitrogen- and oxygen-derived oxidants. Infect. Immun. 62:30043007.
157. Wickes, B. L.,, M.E. Mayorga,, U. Edman, and, J. C. Edman. 1996. Dimorphism and haploid fruiting in Cryptococcus neoformans: association with the α-mating type. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93:73277331.
158. Williamson, P. R. 1994. Biochemical and molecular characterization of the diphenol oxidase of Cryptococcus neoformans: identification as a laccase. J. Bacteriol. 176:656664.
159. Williamson, P. R.,, K. Wakamatsu, and, S. Ito. 1998. Melanin biosynthesis in Cryptococcus neoformans. J. Bacteriol. 180:15701572.
160. Wong, B.,, J. R Perfect,, S. Beggs, and, K. A. Wright. 1990. Production of the hexitol D-mannitol by Cryptococcus neoformans in vitro and in rabbits with experimental meningitis. Infect. Immun. 58:16641670.
161. Wright, L.,, W. Bubb,, J. Davidson,, R. Santangelo,, M. Krockenberger,, U. Himmelreich, and, T. Sorrell. 2002. Metabolites released by Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans and var. gattii differentially affect human neutrophil function. Microbes Infect. 4:14271438.
162. Wright, L. C.,, S.C. Chen,, C.F. Wilson,, M. F Simpanya,, R. Blackstock,, G. M Cox,, J. W. Murphy, and, T. C. Sorrell. 2002. Strain-dependent effects of environmental signals on the production of extracellular phospholipase by Cryptococcus neoformans. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 209:175181.
163. Wright, L. C.,, J. Payne,, R. T. Santangelo,, M. F. Simpanya,, S. C. A. Chen,, F. Widmer, and, T. C. Sorrell. 2004. Cryptococcal phospholipases: a novel lysophospholipase discovered in the pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus gattii. Biochem. J. 384:377384.
164. Xu, J.,, R. Vilgalys, and, T. G. Mitchell. 2000. Multiple gene genealogies reveal recent dispersion and hybridization in the human pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. Mol. Ecol. 9:14711481.
165. Xue, C.,, Y. Tada,, X. Dong, and, J. Heitman. 2007. The human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus can complete its sexual cycle during a pathogenic association with plants. Cell Host Microbe. 1:263273.
166. Yauch, L. E.,, J. S. Lam, and, S. M. Levitz. 2006. Direct inhibition of T-cell responses by the Cryptococcus capsular polysaccharide glucuronoxylomannan. PLoS Pathog. 2: e120.
167. Yoneda, A., and, T. L. Doering. 2006. A eukaryotic capsular polysaccharide is synthesized intracellularly and secreted via exocytosis. Mol. Biol. Cell 17:51315140.
168. Young, B. J., and, T. R. Kozel. 1993. Effects of strain variation, serotype, and structural modification on kinetics for activation and binding of C3 to Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect. Immun. 61:29662972.
169. Yue, C.,, L.M. Cavallo,, J.A. Alspaugh,, P. Wang,, G. M Cox,, J. R. Perfect, and, J. Heitman. 1999. The STE12 alpha homolog is required for haploid filamentation but largely dispensable for mating and virulence in Cryptococcus neoformans. Genetics 153:16011615.
170. Zhu, X., and, P. R. Williamson. 2004. Role of laccase in the biology and virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans. FEMS Yeast Res. 5:110.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Comparison of features that distinguish from

Citation: Chaturvedi S, Chaturvedi V. 2011. Virulence Mechanisms of : Convergence and Divergence, p 189-201. In Heitman J, Kozel T, Kwon-Chung K, Perfect J, Casadevall A (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816858.ch15
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Notable structural-functional differences between and

Citation: Chaturvedi S, Chaturvedi V. 2011. Virulence Mechanisms of : Convergence and Divergence, p 189-201. In Heitman J, Kozel T, Kwon-Chung K, Perfect J, Casadevall A (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816858.ch15

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error