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Chapter 18 : Environmental Niches for and

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Abstract:

This chapter focuses on the environmental habitats of the dominant human-pathogenic species, and , and their varieties and subgroups. The procedures for isolating from any environmental sample are the same as those for . Several researchers have sampled specific sites temporally and spatially. Many have included a variety of telluric, arboreal, aquatic, and aerial niches. was recovered from 62 samples of decayed wood from the hollows of five pink shower trees, two fig trees, and one November shower tree. The majority of patients diagnosed with cryptococcal meningitis in Teresina resided in Piauḭ or the adjacent state of Maranhão. Strains of VNI can readily be isolated from pigeon feces, and they are able to grow and mate on media containing pigeon feces. As cited in the chapter, the rare environmental strains of VNII have included isolations from pigeon and arboreal habitats, but their numbers have been too low to define the ecological niche of this molecular type. is rarely isolated from pigeon feces but is associated with various tree species in Australia, Asia, North America, and South America. These different environmental niches have led to the hypothesis that is ubiquitous in the environment due to dissemination by pigeons following migratory and trade routes and that is restricted to tropical and subtropical regions because it is not associated with pigeons.

Citation: Mitchell T, Castañeda E, Nielsen K, Wanke B, Lazéra M. 2011. Environmental Niches for and , p 237-259. In Heitman J, Kozel T, Kwon-Chung K, Perfect J, Casadevall A (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816858.ch18

Key Concept Ranking

Cryptococcus gattii
0.52500004
Multilocus Sequence Typing
0.49149564
0.52500004
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Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Crucial importance of the environmental source of in the natural history of cryptococcosis.

Citation: Mitchell T, Castañeda E, Nielsen K, Wanke B, Lazéra M. 2011. Environmental Niches for and , p 237-259. In Heitman J, Kozel T, Kwon-Chung K, Perfect J, Casadevall A (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816858.ch18
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Schematic presentation of the relationships and nomenclature of and .

Citation: Mitchell T, Castañeda E, Nielsen K, Wanke B, Lazéra M. 2011. Environmental Niches for and , p 237-259. In Heitman J, Kozel T, Kwon-Chung K, Perfect J, Casadevall A (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816858.ch18
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Download as Powerpoint

References

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Tables

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TABLE 1

Isolations of var. (serotype A), var. (serotype D), and AD hybrids from excreta and habitats of and other birds

Citation: Mitchell T, Castañeda E, Nielsen K, Wanke B, Lazéra M. 2011. Environmental Niches for and , p 237-259. In Heitman J, Kozel T, Kwon-Chung K, Perfect J, Casadevall A (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816858.ch18
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Arboreal isolations of var. (serotype A), var. (serotype D), and AD hybrids from bark, tree hollows, or decaying wood

Citation: Mitchell T, Castañeda E, Nielsen K, Wanke B, Lazéra M. 2011. Environmental Niches for and , p 237-259. In Heitman J, Kozel T, Kwon-Chung K, Perfect J, Casadevall A (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816858.ch18
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

Arboreal isolations of (serotype B or C) from bark, tree hollows, or decaying wood

Citation: Mitchell T, Castañeda E, Nielsen K, Wanke B, Lazéra M. 2011. Environmental Niches for and , p 237-259. In Heitman J, Kozel T, Kwon-Chung K, Perfect J, Casadevall A (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816858.ch18
Generic image for table
TABLE 4

Summary ecology of molecular types of and

Citation: Mitchell T, Castañeda E, Nielsen K, Wanke B, Lazéra M. 2011. Environmental Niches for and , p 237-259. In Heitman J, Kozel T, Kwon-Chung K, Perfect J, Casadevall A (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816858.ch18

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