1887

Chapter 18 : Environmental Niches for and

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Environmental Niches for and , Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816858/9781555815011_Chap18-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816858/9781555815011_Chap18-2.gif

Abstract:

This chapter focuses on the environmental habitats of the dominant human-pathogenic species, and , and their varieties and subgroups. The procedures for isolating from any environmental sample are the same as those for . Several researchers have sampled specific sites temporally and spatially. Many have included a variety of telluric, arboreal, aquatic, and aerial niches. was recovered from 62 samples of decayed wood from the hollows of five pink shower trees, two fig trees, and one November shower tree. The majority of patients diagnosed with cryptococcal meningitis in Teresina resided in Piauḭ or the adjacent state of Maranhão. Strains of VNI can readily be isolated from pigeon feces, and they are able to grow and mate on media containing pigeon feces. As cited in the chapter, the rare environmental strains of VNII have included isolations from pigeon and arboreal habitats, but their numbers have been too low to define the ecological niche of this molecular type. is rarely isolated from pigeon feces but is associated with various tree species in Australia, Asia, North America, and South America. These different environmental niches have led to the hypothesis that is ubiquitous in the environment due to dissemination by pigeons following migratory and trade routes and that is restricted to tropical and subtropical regions because it is not associated with pigeons.

Citation: Mitchell T, Castañeda E, Nielsen K, Wanke B, Lazéra M. 2011. Environmental Niches for and , p 237-259. In Heitman J, Kozel T, Kwon-Chung K, Perfect J, Casadevall A (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816858.ch18

Key Concept Ranking

Cryptococcus gattii
0.52500004
Multilocus Sequence Typing
0.49149564
0.52500004
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Crucial importance of the environmental source of in the natural history of cryptococcosis.

Citation: Mitchell T, Castañeda E, Nielsen K, Wanke B, Lazéra M. 2011. Environmental Niches for and , p 237-259. In Heitman J, Kozel T, Kwon-Chung K, Perfect J, Casadevall A (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816858.ch18
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Schematic presentation of the relationships and nomenclature of and .

Citation: Mitchell T, Castañeda E, Nielsen K, Wanke B, Lazéra M. 2011. Environmental Niches for and , p 237-259. In Heitman J, Kozel T, Kwon-Chung K, Perfect J, Casadevall A (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816858.ch18
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555816858.ch18
1. Abadi, J.,, S. Nachman,, A. B. Kressel, and, L.-A. Pirofski. 1999. Cryptococcosis in children with AIDS. Clin. Infect. Dis. 28:309313.
2. Abegg,, M. A.,, F. L. Cella,, J. Faganello,, P. Valente,, A. Schrank, and, M. H. Vainstein. 2006. Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii isolated from the excreta of Psittaciformes in a southern Brazilian zoological garden. Mycopathologia 161:8391.
3. Aberg, J. A., L. M. Mundy, and, W. G. Powderly. 1999. Pulmonary cryptococcosis in patients without HIV infection. Chest 115:734740.
4. Ajello, L. 1958. Occurrence of Cryptococcus neoformans in soils. Am. J. Hyg. 67:7277.
5. Amanuel, Y. W.,, L. Jemaneh, and, D. Abate. 2001. Isolation and characterization of Cryptococcus neoformans from environmental sources in Ethiopia. Ethiop. J. Health Dev. 15:4549.
6. Arguero Licea, B.,, D. Garza Garza,, V. Flores Urbieta, and, R. A. Cervantes Olivares. 1999. Isolation and characterization of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii from samples of Eucalyptus camaldulensis in Mexico city. Rev. Iberoam. Micol. 16:4042. (In Spanish.)
7. Baddley,, J. W.,, J. R. Perfect,, R. A. Oster,, R. A. Larsen,, G. A. Pankey,, H. Henderson,, D. W. Haas,, C. A. Kauffman,, R. Patel,, A. K. Zaas, and, P. G. Pappas. 2008. Pulmonary cryptococcosis in patients without HIV infection: factors associated with disseminated disease. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 27:937943.
8. Baker, R. D., and, R. K. Haugen. 1955. Tissue changes and tissue diagnosis in cryptococcosis. A study of twenty-six cases. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 25:1424.
9. Balankura, P. 1974. Isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans from soil contaminated with pigeon droppings in Bangkok. J. Med. Assoc. Thai. 57:158159.
10. Baró,, T.,, J. M. Torres-Rodríguez,, M. H. De Mendoza,, Y. Morera, and, C. Alía. 1998. First identification of autochthonous Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii isolated from goats with predominantly severe pulmonary disease in Spain. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36:458461.
11. Baroni,, F. A.,, C. R. Paula,, E. G. Silva,, F. C. Viani,, I. N. G. Rivera,, M. T. Oliveira, and, W. Gambale. 2006. Cryptococcus neoformans strains isolated from church towers in Rio de Janeiro City, RJ, Brazil. Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. São Paulo 48:7175.
12. Bartlett, K. H.,, S. E. Kidd, and, J. W. Kronstad. 2007. The emergence of Cryptococcus gattii in British Columbia and the Pacific Northwest. Curr. Infect. Dis. Rep. 1:108115.
13. Bennett, J. E.,, K. J. Kwon-Chung, and, D. H. Howard. 1977. Epidemiologic differences among serotypes of Cryptococcus neoformans. Am. J. Epidemiol. 105:582586.
14. Bergman, F. 1963. Occurrence of Cryptococcus neoformans in Sweden. Acta Med. Scand. 174:651655.
15. Bliska, J. B., and, A. Casadevall. 2009. Intracellular pathogenic bacteria and fungi: a case of convergent evolution? Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 7:165171.
16. Bovers,, M.,, M. R. Diaz,, F. Hagen,, L. Spanjaard,, B. Duim, C. E. Visser,, H. L. Hoogveld,, J. Scharringa,, A. I. M. Hoepelman,, J. W. Fell, and, T. Boekhout. 2007. Identification of genotypically diverse Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii isolates by Luminex xMAP™ technology. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45:18741883.
17. Bovers, M., F. Hagen, and, T. Boekhout. 2008. Diversity of the Cryptococcus neoformans-Cryptococcus gattii species complex. Rev. Iberoam. Micol. 25:S4S12.
18. Bovers, M.,, F. Hagen,, E. E. Kuramae, and, T. Boekhout. 2008. Six monophyletic lineages identified within Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii by multi-locus sequence typing. Fungal Genet. Biol. 45:400421.
19. Brizzio,, S., B. Turchetti,, V. de Garcia,, D. Libkind,, P. Buzzini, and, M. R. van Broock. 2007. Extracellular enzymatic activities of basidiomycetous yeasts isolated from glacial and subglacial waters of northwest Patagonia (Argentina). Can. J. Microbiol. 53:519525.
20. Bui, T.,, X. Lin,, R. Malik,, J. Heitman, and, D. A. Carter. 2008. Isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans from infected animals reveal genetic exchange in unisexual, alpha. mating type populations. Eukaryot. Cell 7:17711780.
21. Buschke, A. 1895. Über eine durch Coccidien Hervergerufene Krankheit des Menschen. Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr. 21:14.
22. Busse, O. 1894. Über parasitäre Zelleinschlüsse und ihre Züchtung. Zbl. Bakt. 16:175180.
23. Butinar, L., I. Spencer-Martins, and, N. Gunde-Cimerman. 2007. Yeasts in high Arctic glaciers: the discovery of a new habitat for eukaryotic microorganisms. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 91:277289.
24. Byrnes,, E. J.,, III, R. Bildfell, S. A. Frank,, T. G. Mitchell,, K. A. Marr, and, J. Heitman. 2009. Molecular evidence that the range of the Vancouver Island outbreak of Cryptococcus gattii infection has expanded into the Pacific Northwest in the United States. J. Infect. Dis. 199:10811086.
25. Byrnes,, E. J.,, III, R. J. Bildfell,, P. L. Dearing,, B. A. Valentine, and, J. Heitman. 2009. Cryptococcus gattii with bimorphic colony types in a dog in western Oregon: additional evidence for expansion of the Vancouver Island outbreak. J. Vet. Diagn. Invest. 21:133136.
26. Byrnes,, E. J.,, III, W. Li,, Y. Lewit,, J. R. Perfect,, D. A. Carter,, G. M. Cox, and, J. Heitman. 2009. First reported case of Cryptococcus gattii in the Southeastern USA: implications for travel-associated acquisition of an emerging pathogen. PLoS ONE 4:e5851.
27. Caicedo,, L. D.,, M. I. Alvarez,, M. L. Delgado, and, A. Cárdenas. 1999. Cryptococcus neoformans in bird excreta in the city zoo of Cali, Colombia. Mycopathologia 147:121124.
28. Callejas, A.,, N. Ordóñez,, M. C. Rodríguez, and, E. Castañeda. 1998. First isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii, serotype C, from the environment in Colombia. Med. Mycol. 36:341344.
29. Campbell,, L. T.,, B. J. Currie,, M. B. Krockenberger,, R. Malik,, W. Meyer,, J. Heitman, and, D. A. Carter. 2005. Clonality and recombination in genetically differentiated subgroups of Cryptococcus gattii. Eukaryot. Cell 4:14031409.
30. Campisi, E.,, F. Mancianti,, G. Pini,, E. Faggi, and, G. Gargani. 2003. Investigation in central Italy of the possible association between Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii and Eucalyptus camaldulensis. Eur. J. Epidemiol. 18:357362.
31. Carvalho,, V. G.,, M. S. Terceti,, A. L. T. Dias,, C. R. Paula,, J. P. Lyon,, A. M. Siqueira, and, M. C. Franco. 2007. Serotype and mating type characterization of Cryptococcus neoformans by multiplex PCR. Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. São Paulo 49:207210.
32. Casadevall, A., and, J. R. Perfect. 1999. Cryptococcus neoformans. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
33. Casali,, A. K.,, L. Goulart,, L. K. Rosa e Silva,, Â. M. Ribeiro,, A. A. Amaral,, S. H. Alves,, A. Schrank,, W. Meyer, and, M. H. Vainstein. 2003. Molecular typing of clinical and environmental Cryptococcus neoformans isolates in the Brazilian state Rio Grande do Sul. FEMS Yeast Res. 3:405415.
34. Castañeda, A.,, S. Huérfano,, M. C. Rodriguez, and, E. Castañeda. 2001. Recuperación de Cryptococcus neoformans var. g attii serotipo C a partir de detritos de almendros. Biomédica 21:7074.
35. CastañónOlivares, L. R., and, R. López Martínez. 1994. Isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans from pigeon (Columba livia) droppings in Mexico City. Mycoses 37:325327.
36. CastañónOlivares,, L. R.,, K. Martínez Martínez,, R. M. Bermúdez Cruz,, M. A. Martínez Rivera,, W. Meyer,, R. A. Arreguín Espinosa,, R. López Martínez, and, G. M. Ruiz Palacios y Santos. 2009. Genotyping of Mexican Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii isolates by PCR-fingerprinting. Med. Mycol. 47:713721.
37. Castellá, G.,, M. L. Abarca, and, F. J. Cabañes. 2008. Cryptococcosis and domestic animals. Rev. Iberoam. Micol. 25:S19S24. (In Spanish.)
38. Chakrabarti,, A.,, M. Jatana,, P. Kumar,, L. Chatha,, A. Kaushal, and, A. A. Padhye. 1997. Isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii from Eucalyptus camaldulensis in India. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:33403342.
39. Chee, H. Y., and, K. B. Lee. 2005. Isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii (serotype A) from pigeon droppings in Seoul, Korea. J. Microbiol. 43:469472.
40. Chen,, J.,, A. Varma,, M. R. Diaz,, A. P. Litvintseva,, K. K. Wollenberg, and, K. J. Kwon-Chung. 2008. Cryptococcus neoformans strains and infection in apparently immunocom-petent patients, China. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 14:755762.
41. Chen,, S. C. A.,, B. J. Currie,, H. M. Campbell,, D. A. Fisher,, T. J. Pfeiffer,, D. H. Ellis, and, T. C. Sorrell. 1997. Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii infection in northern Australia: existence of an environmental source other than known host eucalypts. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 91:547550.
42. Choe,, Y. H.,, H. Moon, S. J. Park,, S. R. Kim,, H. J. Han,, K. S. Lee, and, Y. C. Lee. 2009. Pulmonary cryptococcosis in asymptomatic immunocompetent hosts. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 41:602607.
43. Clancy,, C. J.,, M. H. Nguyen,, R. Alandoerffer,, S. Cheng,, K. A. Iczkowski,, M. Richardson, and, J. R. Graybill. 2006. Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii isolates recovered from persons with AIDS demonstrate a wide range of virulence during murine meningoencephalitis that correlates with the expression of certain virulence factors. Microbiology 152:22472255.
44. Cogliati, M.,, M. Allaria,, A. M. Tortorano, and, M. A. Viviani. 2000. Genotyping Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans with specific primers designed from PCR-fingerprinting bands sequenced using a modified PCR-based strategy. Med. Mycol. 38:97103.
45. Connolly,, J. H.,, M. B. Krockenberger,, R. Malik, P. J. Canfield,, D. I. Wigney, and, D. B. Muir. 1999. Asymptomatic carriage of Cryptococcus neoformans in the nasal cavity of the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus). Med. Mycol. 37:331338.
46. Costa,, S. P. S. E.,, M. S. Lazéra,, W. R. A. Santos,, B. P. Morales,, C. C. F. Bezerra,, M. M. Nishikawa,, G. G. Barbosa,, L. Trilles,, J. L. M. Nascimento, and, B. Wanke. 2009. First isolation of Cryptococcus gattii molecular type VGII and Cryptococcus neoformans molecular type VNI from environmental sources in the city of Belém, Pará, Brazil. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 104:662664.
47. Criseo, G.,, M. S. Bolignano,, F. De Leo, and, F. Staib. 1995. Evidence of canary droppings as an important reservoir of Cryptococcus neoformans. Zbl. Bakt. 282:244254.
48. Currie, B. P.,, L. F. Freundlich, and, A. Casadevall. 1994. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of Cryptococcus neoformans isolates from environmental (pigeon excreta) and clinical sources in New York City. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32:11881192.
49. Curtis, F. 1896. Contribution à l’étude de la saccharomycose humaine. Ann. Inst. Pasteur 10:449468.
50. Datta,, K.,, K. H. Bartlett,, R. Baer, E. J. Byrnes,, III, E. Galanis,, J. Heitman,, L. M. N. Hoang,, M. J. Leslie,, L. MacDougall,, S. S. Magill,, M. G. Morshed, and, K. A. Marr. 2009. Spread of Cryptococcus gattii into Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 15:11851191.
51. Datta, K.,, K. H. Bartlett, and, K. A. Marr. 2009. Cryptococcus gattii: emergence in western North America: exploitation of a novel ecological niche. Interdiscip. Perspect. Infect. Dis. 2009:176532.
52. Davis,, J.,, W. Y. Zheng,, A. Glatman-Freedman,, J. A. Ng,, M. R. Pagcatipunan,, H. Lessin,, A. Casadevall, and, D. L. Goldman. 2007. Serologic evidence for regional differences in pediatric cryptococcal infection. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 26:549551.
53. de Garcia, V.,, S. Brizzio,, D. Libkind,, P. Buzzini, and, M. R. van Broock. 2007. Biodiversity of cold-adapted yeasts from glacial meltwater rivers in Patagonia, Argentina. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 59:331341.
54. Delgado,, A. C. N.,, H. Taguchi,, Y. Mikami,, M. Myiajy,, M., C. B. Villares, and, M. L. Moretti. 2005. Human cryptococcosis: relationship of environmental and clinical strains of Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans from urban and rural areas. Mycopathologia 159:711.
55. Dixit, A.,, S. F. Carroll, and, S. T. Qureshi. 2009. Cryptococcus gattii: an emerging cause of fungal disease in North America. Interdiscip. Perspect. Infect. Dis. 2009:840452.
56. dos Santos,, W. R.,, W. Meyer,, B. Wanke,, S. P. Costa,, L. Trilles,, J. L. M. Nascimento,, R. Medeiros,, B. P. Morales,, C. C. F. Bezerra,, R. C. de Macêdo,, S. O. Ferreira,, G. G. Barbosa,, M. A. Perez,, M. M. Nishikawa, and, M. S. Lazéra. 2008. Primary endemic Cryptococcosis gattii by molecular type VGII in the state of Pará, Brazil. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 103:813818.
57. Duncan,, C. G.,, H. Schwantje,, C. Stephen,, J. Campbell, and, K. H. Bartlett. 2006. Cryptococcus gattii in wildlife of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada. J. Wildl. Dis. 42:175178.
58. Ecevit,, I. Z.,, C. J. Clancy,, I. M. Schmalfuss, and, M. H. Nguyen. 2006. The poor prognosis of central nervous system cryptococcosis among nonimmunosuppressed patients: a call for better disease recognition and evaluation of adjuncts to antifungal therapy. Clin. Infect. Dis. 42:14431447.
59. Ellis, D. H., and, T. J. Pfeiffer. 1990. Natural habitat of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii. J. Clin. Microbiol. 28:16421644.
60. Ellis, D. H., and, T. J. Pfeiffer. 1992. The ecology of Cryptococcus neoformans. Eur. J. Epidemiol. 8:321325.
61. Emmons, C. W. 1951. Isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans from soil. J. Bacteriol. 62:685690.
62. Emmons, C. W. 1955. Saprophytic sources of Cryptococcus neoformans associated with the pigeon (Columba livia). Am. J. Hyg. 62:227232.
63. Ergin, C.,, M. Ilkit, and, O. Kaftanoglu. 2004. Detection of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii in honeybee (Apis mellifera) colonies. Mycoses 47:431434.
64. Escandón, P., S. Huérfano, and, E. Castañeda. 2002. Experimental inoculation of Terminalia catappa seedlings with an environmental isolate of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii serotype C. Biomédica 22:524528. (In Spanish.)
65. Escandón,, P.,, E. Quintero,, D. P. Granados,, S. Huérfano,, A. Ruiz, and, E. Castañeda. 2005. Isolation of Cryptococcus gattii serotype B from detritus of Eucalyptus trees in Colombia. Biomédica 25:390397. (In Spanish.)
66. Escandón, P.,, A. Sánchez,, M. Martinez,, W. Meyer, and, E. Castañeda. 2006. Molecular epidemiology of clinical and environmental isolates of the Cryptococcus neoformans species complex reveals a high genetic diversity and the presence of the molecular type VGII mating type a in Colombia. FEMS Yeast Res. 6:625635.
67. Evans, E. E. 1950. The antigenic composition of Cryptococcus neoformans. I. A serologic classification by means of the capsular agglutinations. J. Immunol. 64:423430.
68. Evans, E. E., and, J. F. Kessel. 1951. The antigenic com-postion of Cryptococcus neoformans. II. Serologic studies with the capsular polysaccharide. J. Immunol. 67:109114.
69. Fell,, J. W.,, T. Boekhout, Á. Fonseca,, G. Scorzetti, and, A. Statzell-Tallman. 2000. Biodiversity and systematics of basidiomycetous yeasts as determined by large-subunit rDNA D1/D2 domain sequence analysis. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 50:13511371.
70. Feng, X.,, Z. Yao,, D. Ren, and, W. Liao. 2008. Simultaneous identification of molecular and mating types within the Cryptococcus species complex by PCR-RFLP analysis. J. Med. Microbiol. 57:14811490.
71. Feng, X.,, Z. Yao,, D. Ren,, W. Liao, and, J. Wu. 2008. Genotype and mating type analysis of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii isolates from China that mainly originated from non-HIV-infected patients. FEMS Yeast Res. 8:930938.
72. Filiú,, W. F.,, B. Wanke, S. M. Agüena,, V. O. Vilela,, R. C. L. Macedo, and, M. S. Lazéra. 2002. Avian habitats as sources of Cryptococcus neoformans in the city of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop. 35:591595. (In Portuguese.)
73. Findley,, K., M. Rodriguez-Carres,, B. Metin,, J. Kroiss,, Á. Fonseca, R. J. Vilgalys, and, J. Heitman. 2009. Phylogeny and phenotypic characterization of pathogenic Cryptococcus species and closely related saprobic taxa in the Tre-mellales. Eukaryot. Cell 8:353361.
74. Fortes,, S. T.,, M. S. Lazéra,, M. M. Nishikawa,, R. C. L. Macedo, and, B. Wanke. 2001. First isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii from a native jungle tree in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest. Mycoses 44:137140.
75. Fox, D. L., and, N. L. Müller. 2005. Pulmonary cryptococcosis in immunocompetent patients: CT findings in 12 patients. Am. J. Roentgenol. 185:622626.
76. Franzot,, S. P.,, J. S. Hamdan,, B. P. Currie, and, A. Casadevall. 1997. Molecular epidemiology of Cryptococcus neoformans in Brazil and the United States: evidence for both local genetic differences and a global clonal population structure. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:22432251.
77. Fraser,, J. A.,, S. S. Giles,, E. C. Wenink,, S. G. Geunes-Boyer,, J. R. Wright,, S. Diezmann,, A. Allen,, J. E. Stajich,, F. S. Dietrich,, J. R. Perfect, and, J. Heitman. 2005. Same-sex mating and the origin of the Vancouver Island Cryptococcus gattii outbreak. Nature 437:13601364.
78. Frey, D., and, E. B. Durie. 1964. The isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans (Torula histolytica) from soil in New Guinea and pigeon droppings in Sydney, New South Wales. Med. J. Aust. 1:947949.
79. Gadanho, M., and, J.-P. Sampaio. 2009. Cryptococcus iberi-cus sp. nov., Cryptococcus aciditolerans sp. nov. and Cryptococcus metallitolerans sp. nov., a new ecoclade of anamorphic basidiomycetous yeast species from an extreme environment associated with acid rock drainage in São Domingos pyrite mine, Portugal. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 59:23752379.
80. Gallo, M. G.,, P. Cabeli, and, V. Vidotto. 1989. Presence of pathogenic yeasts in the feces of the semi-domesticated pigeon (Columba livia, Gmelin 1789, urban type) from the city of Turin. Parassitologia 31:207212. (In Italian.)
81. García-Bermejo,, M. J.,, J. Antón,, C. A. Ferrer,, I. Meseguer, J. L. Abad, and, M. F. Colom. 2001. Chromosome length polymorphism in Cryptococcus neoformans clinical and environmental isolates. Rev. Iberoam. Micol. 18:174179.
82. García-Hermoso,, D., S. Mathoulin-Pélissier,, B. Couprie,, O. Ronin,, B. Dupont, and, F. Dromer. 1997. DNA typing suggests pigeon droppings as a source of pathogenic Cryptococcus neoformans serotype D. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:26832685.
83. García-Rivera, J., and, A. Casadevall. 2001. Melanization of Cryptococcus neoformans reduces its susceptibility to the antimicrobial effects of silver nitrate. Med. Mycol. 39:353357.
84. Gatti, F., and, R. Eeckels. 1970. An atypical strain of Cryptococcus neoformans (San Felice) Vuillemin 1894. Part I. Description of the disease and of the strain. Ann. Soc. Belges Med. Trop. Parasitol. Mycol. 50:689693.
85. Girish Kumar,, C. P.,, D. Prabu,, H. Mitani,, Y. Mikami, and, T. Menon. 2010. Environmental isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii from living trees in Guindy National Park, Chennai, South India. Mycoses 53:262264.
86. Granados, D. P., and, E. Castañeda. 2005. Isolation and characterization of Cryptococcus neoformans varieties recovered from natural sources in Bogota, Colombia, and study of ecological conditions in the area. Microb. Ecol. 49:282290.
87. Granados, D. P., and, E. Castañeda. 2006. Influence of climatic conditions on the isolation of members of the Cryptococcus neoformans species complex from trees in Colombia from 1992–2004. FEMS Yeast Res. 6:636644.
88. Grinnell, J. 1917. The niche-relationships of the California thrasher. Auk 34:427433.
89. Grover, N.,, S. R. Nawange,, J. Naidu, S. M. Singh, and, A. Sharma. 2007. Ecological niche of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii and Cryptococcus gattii in decaying wood of trunk hollows of living trees in Jabalpur City of Central India. Mycopathologia 164:159170.
90. Gugnani,, H. C.,, T. G. Mitchell,, A. P. Litvintseva,, K. B. Lengeler,, J. Heitman,, A. Kumar,, S. Basu, and, A. Paliwal-Johsi. 2005. Isolation of Cryptococcus gattii and Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii from the flowers and bark of Eucalyptus trees in India. Med. Mycol. 43:565569.
91. Gugnani, H. C., and, A. N. U. Njoku-Obi. 1973. Occurrence of Cryptococcus neoformans in pigeon excreta in Enugu (Nigeria). West Afr. Med. J. Niger. Med. Dent. Pract. 22:121122.
92. Gugnani, H. C.,, R. S. Sandhu, and, S. K. Shome. 1976. Prevalence of Cryptococcus neoformans in avian excreta in India. Mykosen 19:183187.
93. Haag-Wackernagel, D., and, H. Moch. 2004. Health hazards posed by feral pigeons. J. Infect. 48:307313.
94. Halde, C. J., and, M. A. Fraher. 1966. Cryptococcus neoformans in pigeon feces in San Francisco. Calif. Med. 104:188190.
95. Halliday, C. L., and, D. A. Carter. 2003. Clonal reproduction and limited dispersal in an environmental population of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii isolates from Australia. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:703711.
96. Hasenclever, H. F., and, C. W. Emmons. 1963. The prevalence and mouse virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans strains isolated from urban areas. Am. J. Hyg. 78:227231.
97. Hejtmankova, N., and, M. Cisecky. 1984. Isolation, cultivation and identification of Cryptococcus neoformans from pigeons. Acta Univ. Palacki. Olomuc. Fac. Med. 107:4349.
98. Hibbett,, D. S.,, M. Binder, J. F. Bischoff,, M. Blackwell, P. F. Cannon,, O. E. Eriksson,, S. Huhndorf,, T. Y. James,, P. M. Kirk,, R. Lücking,, H. Thorsten Lumbsch,, F. M. Lutzoni,, P. B. Matheny,, D. J. McLaughlin,, M. J. Powell,, S. Redhead,, C. L. Schoch,, J. W. Spatafora,, J. A. Stalp-ers,, R. J. Vilgalys,, M. C. Aime,, A. Aptroot,, R. Bauer,, D. Begerow,, G. L. Benny,, L. A. Castlebury,, P. W. Crous,, Y.-C. Dai,, W. Gams,, D. M. Geiser,, G. W. Griffith,, C. Gueidan,, D. L. Hawksworth,, G. Hestmark,, K. Hosaka,, R. A. Humber,, K. D. Hyde,, J. E. Ironside,, U. Kõljalg,, C. P. Kurtzman,, K.-H. Larsson,, R. Lichtwardt,, J. E. Longcore,, J. Miadlikowska,, A. Miller,, J.-M. Moncalvo, S. E. Mozley-Standridge,, F. Oberwinkler,, E. Parmasto,, V. Reeb,, J. D. Rogers,, C. Roux,, L. Ryvarden,, J.-P. Sampaio, A. Schüssler,, J. Sugiyama,, R. G. Thorn,, L. Tibell,, W. A. Untereiner,, C. Walker,, Z. Wang,, A. Weir,, M. Weiss,, M. M. White,, K. Winka,, Y.-J. Yao, and, N. Zhang. 2007. A higher-level phylogenetic classification of the Fungi. Mycol. Res. 111:509547.
99. Hiremath,, S. S.,, A. Chowdhary,, T. Kowshik,, H. S. Rand-hawa,, S. Sun, and, J. Xu. 2008. Long-distance dispersal and recombination in environmental populations of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii from India. Microbiol. 154:15131524.
100. Hoang,, L. M. N.,, J. A. Maguire,, P. Doyle,, M. Fyfe, and, D. L. Roscoe. 2004. Cryptococcus neoformans infections at Vancouver Hospital and Health Sciences Centre (1997–2002): epidemiology, microbiology and histopathology. J. Med. Microbiol. 53:935940.
101. Horta,, J. A.,, C. C. Staats,, A. K. Casali,, Â. M. Ribeiro,, I. S. Schrank,, A. Schrank, and, M. H. Vainstein. 2002. Epidemiological aspects of clinical and environmental Cryptococcus neoformans isolates in the Brazilian state Rio Grande do Sul. Med. Mycol. 40:565571.
102. Hu,, G.,, I. Liu,, A. P. Sham,, J. E. Stajich,, F. S. Dietrich, and, J. W. Kronstad. 2008. Comparative hybridization reveals extensive genome variation in the AIDS-associated pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. Genome Biol. 9:R41.
103. Hubálek, Z. 1975. Distribution of Cryptococcus neoformans in a pigeon habitat. Folia Parasitol. 22:7379.
104. Huérfano, S., A. Castañeda, and, E. Castañeda. 2001. Experimental infection of almond trees seedlings (Terminalia catappa) with an environmental isolate of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii, serotype C. Rev. Iberoam. Micol. 18:131132.
105. Huérfano, S.,, M. C. Cepero, and, E. Castañeda. 2003. Phenotype characterization of environmental Cryptococcus neoformans isolates. Biomédica 23:328340. (In Spanish.)
106. Hutchinson, G. E. 1957. Concluding remarks. Cold Spring Harb. Symp. Quant. Bio. 22:415427.
107. Irokanulo,, E. A. O.,, A. A. Makinde,, C. O. Akueshi, and, M. Ekwonu. 1997. Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans isolated from droppings of captive birds in Nigeria. J. Wildl. Dis. 33:343345.
108. Jarvis,, J. N.,, S. D. Lawn,, M. Vogt,, N. Bangani,, R. Wood, and, T. S. Harrison. 2009. Screening for cryptococcal antigenemia in patients accessing an antiretroviral treatment program in South Africa. Clin. Infect. Dis. 48:856862.
109. Kagaya, K.,, T. Yamada,, Y. Miyakawa,, Y. Fukazawa, and, S. Saito. 1985. Characterization of pathogenic constituents of Cryptococcus neoformans. Microbiol. Immunol. 29:517532.
110. Kao, C. J., and, J. Schwarz. 1957. The isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans from pigeon nests; with remarks on the identification of virulent cryptococci. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 27:652663.
111. Karstaedt, A. S.,, H. H. Crewe-Brown, and, F. Dromer. 2002. Cryptococcal meningitis caused by Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii, serotype C, in AIDS patients in Soweto, South Africa. Med. Mycol. 40:711.
112. Katsu, M.,, A. Ando,, R. Ikeda,, Y. Mikami, and, K. Nishimura. 2003. Immunomagnetic isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans by beads coated with anti- Cryptococcus serum. Jpn. J. Med. Mycol. 44:139144.
113. Khawcharoenporn, T.,, A. Apisarnthanarak, and, L. M. Mundy. 2007. Non- neoformans cryptococcal infections: a systematic review. Infection 35:5158.
114. Kidd,, S. E.,, P. J. Bach,, A. O. Hingston,, S. Mak,, Y. Chow,, L. MacDougall,, J. W. Kronstad, and, K. H. Bartlett. 2007. Cryptococcus gattii dispersal mechanisms, British Columbia, Canada. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 13:5157.
115. Kidd,, S. E.,, Y. Chow,, S. Mak,, P. J. Bach,, H. Chen,, A. O. Hingston,, J. W. Kronstad, and, K. H. Bartlett. 2007. Characterization of environmental sources of the human and animal pathogen, Cryptococcus gattii, in British Columbia, Canada, and the Pacific Northwest of the United States. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73:14331443.
116. Kidd,, S. E.,, H. Guo, K. H. Bartlett,, J. Xu, and, J. W. Kronstad. 2005. Comparative gene genealogies indicate that two clonal lineages of Cryptococcus gattii in British Columbia resemble strains from other geographical areas. Eukaryot. Cell 4:16291638.
117. Kidd,, S. E.,, F. Hagen, R. L. Tscharke,, M. Huynh, K. H. Bartlett,, M. Fyfe,, L. MacDougall,, T. Boekhout,, K. J. Kwon-Chung, and, W. Meyer. 2004. A rare genotype of Cryptococcus gattii caused the cryptococcosis outbreak on Vancouver Island (British Columbia, Canada). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101:1725817263.
118. Kidd,, S. E.,, C. A. Hitchcock,, K. Maszewska, P. Bala-krishnan,, C. Hunt,, P. Pajendran,, A. R. Usha,, S. P. Thyagarajan,, T. C. Sorrell, and, W. Meyer. 2001. Molecular epidemiology of clinical and environmental isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans from Tamil Nadu, India. Austral. Mycol. 20:105114.
119. Kielstein, P., and, H. Hotzel. 1998. Distribution, serovar affiliation and epidemiologic behavior of Cryptococcus neoformans isolates from ornamental bird breeds. Dtsch. Tierarztl. Wochenschr. 105:349353. (In German.)
120. Kielstein, P.,, H. Hotzel, and, A. Schmalreck. 2002. Which are the conditions for Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans-strains from avian excrements as a cause for human infections? Mycoses 45(Suppl.3):6164. (In German.)
121. Knudsen,, J. D.,, L. Jensen, T. L. Sorensen,, T. Jensen,, H. Kjersem,, J. Stenderup, and, C. Pedersen. 1997. Cryp-tococcosis in Denmark: an analysis of 28 cases in 1988–1993. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 29:5155.
122. Kobayashi,, C. C.,, L. K. Souza,, O. F. Fernandes,, S. C. Brito,, A. C. Silva,, E. D. Sousa, and, M. R. Silva. 2005. Characterization of Cryptococcus neoformans isolated from urban environmental sources in Goiânia, Goiás State, Brazil. Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. São Paulo 47:203207.
123. Kohno, S. 2003. Clinical and mycological features of cryptococcosis. Jpn. J. Med. Mycol. 44:159162. (In Japanese.)
124. Krockenberger, M. B.,, P. J. Canfield, and, R. Malik. 2003. Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus): a review of 43 cases of cryptococcosis. Med. Mycol. 41:225234.
125. Kutty, S. N., and, R. Philip. 2008. Marine yeasts: a review. Yeast 25:465483.
126. Kwon-Chung, K. J., and, J. E. Bennett. 1984. High prevalence of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii in tropical and subtropical regions. Zbl. Bakt. Hyg. A 257:213218.
127. Kwon-Chung, K. J., and, J. E. Bennett. 1992. Cryptococcosis, p. 397–446. In Medical Mycology. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, PA.
128. Kwon-Chung, K. J.,, T. Boekhout,, J. W. Fell, and, M. Diaz. 2004. Proposal to conserve the name Cryptococcus gattii against C. hondurianus and C. bacillisporus (Basidiomycota, Hymenomycetes, Tremellomycetidae). Taxon 51:804806.
129. Lagrou,, K.,, J. Van Van,, S. Keuleers,, F. Hagen,, R. Merckx,, J. Verhaegen,, W. E. Peetermans, and, T. Boek-hout. 2005. Zoonotic transmission of Cryptococcus neoformans from a magpie to an immunocompetent patient. J. Intern. Med. 257:385388.
130. Lazéra,, M. S.,, M. A. S. Cavalcanti,, L. Trilles, M. M. Nishikawa, and, B. Wanke. 1998. Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii: evidence for a natural habitat related to decaying wood in a pottery tree hollow. Med. Mycol. 36:119122.
131. Lazéra,, M. S.,, F. D. A. Pires,, L. Camillo-Coura,, M. M. Nishikawa,, C. C. F. Bezerra,, L. Trilles, and, B. Wanke. 1996. Natural habitat of Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans in decaying wood forming hollows in living trees. J. Med. Vet. Mycol. 34:127131.
132. Lazéra,, M. S.,, M. A. Salmito Cavalcanti,, A. T. Londero,, L. Trilles,, M. M. Nishikawa, and, B. Wanke. 2000. Possible primary ecological niche of Cryptococcus neoformans. Med. Mycol. 38:379383.
133. Lazéra, M. S.,, B. Wanke, and, M. M. Nishikawa. 1993. Isolation of both varieties of Cryptococcus neoformans from saprophytic sources in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. J. Med. Vet. Mycol. 31:449454.
134. Lemmer, K.,, D. Naumann,, B. Raddatz, and, K. Tintelnot. 2004. Molecular typing of Cryptococcus neoformans by PCR fingerprinting, in comparison with serotyping and Fourier transform infrared-spectroscopy-based phe-notyping. Med. Mycol. 42:135147.
135. Li,, A.,, K. Nishimura,, H. Taguchi,, R. Tanaka,, S. Wu, and, M. Miyaji. 1993. The isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans from pigeon droppings and serotyping of naturally and clinically sourced isolates in China. Mycopatho-logia 124:15.
136. Liaw,, S. J.,, H. C. Wu,, and, P. R. Hsueh. 2010. Microbiological characteristics of clinical isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans in Taiwan: serotypes, mating types, molecular types, virulence factors, and antifungal susceptibility. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 16:696703.
137. Lin, X.,, J. C. Huang,, T. G. Mitchell, and, J. Heitman. 2006. Virulence attributes and hyphal growth of C. neoformans are quantitative traits and the MATa allele enhances filamentation. PLoS Genet. 2:e187.
138. Lin, X.,, C. M. Hull, and, J. Heitman. 2005. Sexual reproduction between partners of the same mating type in Cryptococcus neoformans. Nature 434:10171021.
139. Littman, M. L. 1959. Cryptococcosis (torulosis). Current concepts and therapy. Am. J. Med. 27:976998.
140. Littman, M. L., and, R. Borok. 1968. Relation of the pigeon to cryptococcosis: natural carrier state, heat resistance and survival of Cryptococcus neoformans. Mycopathol. Mycol. Appl. 35:329345.
141. Littman, M. L., and, S. S. Schneierson. 1959. Cryptococcus neoformans in pigeon excreta in New York City. Am. J. Hyg. 69:4959.
142. Littman, M. L., and, J. E. Walter. 1968. Cryptococcosis: current status. Am. J. Med. 45:922932.
143. Litvintseva, A. P.,, L. Kestenbaum,, R. J. Vilgalys, and, T. G. Mitchell. 2005. Comparative analysis of environmental and clinical populations of Cryptococcus neoformans. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:556564.
144. Litvintseva,, A. P.,, R. E. Marra,, K. Nielsen,, J. Heitman,, R. J. Vilgalys, and, T. G. Mitchell. 2003. Evidence of sexual recombination among Cryptococcus neoformans serotype A isolates in sub-Saharan Africa. Eukaryot. Cell 2:11621168.
145. Litvintseva, A. P., and, T. G. Mitchell. 2009. Most environmental isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii are not lethal for mice. Infect. Immun. 77:31883195.
146. Litvintseva, A. P.,, T. G. Mitchell, and, N. Govender. 2009. Out-of-Africa origin of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii (serotype A). 17th Congress, International Society for Human and Animal Mycology, Abstract EP-04-2, p. 205.
147. Litvintseva, A. P.,, R. Thakur,, L. B. Reller, and, T. G. Mitchell. 2005. Prevalence of clinical isolates of Cryptococcus gattii serotype C among patients with AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. J. Infect. Dis. 192:888892.
148. Litvintseva, A. P.,, R. Thakur,, R. J. Vilgalys, and, T. G. Mitchell. 2006. Multilocus sequence typing reveals three genetic subpopulations of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii (serotype A), including a unique population in Botswana. Genetics 172:22232238.
149. Lizarazo,, J.,, M. Linares,, C. de Bedout,, A. Restrepo,, C. I. Agudelo, and, E. Castañeda. 2007. Results of nine years of the clinical and epidemiological survey on cryptococcosis in Colombia, 1997–2005. Biomédica 27:94109. (In Spanish.)
150. Lizarazo,, J.,, M. Mendoza,, D. Palacios,, A. Vallejo,, A. Bustamante,, E. Ojeda,, A. Restrepo, and, E. Castañeda. 2000. Cryptococcosis caused by Cryptococcus neoformans variety gattii. Acta Med. Colombiana 25:171178.
151. Loftus,, B. J.,, E. Fung,, P. Roncaglia,, D. Rowley,, P. Amedeo,, D. Bruno,, J. Vamathevan,, M. Miranda,, I. J. Anderson,, J. A. Fraser,, J. E. Allen,, I. E. Bosdet,, M. R. Brent,, R. Chiu,, T. L. Doering,, M. J. Donlin,, C. A. D’Souza,, D. S. Fox,, V. Grinberg,, J. Fu,, M. Fukushima,, B. J. Haas,, J. C. Huang,, G. Janbon,, S. J. M. Jones,, H. L. Koo,, M. I. Krzywinshi,, K. J. Kwon-Chung,, K. B. Lengeler,, R. Maiti,, M. A. Marra,, R. E. Marra,, C. A. Mathewson,, T. G. Mitchell,, M. Pertea,, F. R. Riggs,, S. L. Salzberg,, J. E. Schein,, A. Shvartsbeyn,, H. Shin,, M. Shumway,, C. A. Specht,, B. B. Suh,, A. E. Tenney,, T. R. Utterback,, B. L. Wickes,, J. R. Wortman,, N. H. Wye,, J. W. Kronstad,, J. K. Lodge,, J. Heitman,, R. W. Davis,, C. M. Fraser, and, R. W. Hyman. 2005. The genome of the basidiomycetous yeast and human pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans. Science 307:13211324.
152. Lo Passo,, C.,, I. Pernice,, M. Gallo,, C. Barbara,, F. T. Luck,, G. Criseo, and, A. Pernice. 1997. Genetic relatedess and diversity of Cryptococcus neoformans strains in the Maltese Islands. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:751755.
153. López Martínez, R., and, L. R. CastañónOlivares. 1995. Isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans from bird droppings, fruits and vegetables in Mexico City. My-copathologia 129:2528.
154. Lugarini,, C.,, C. S. Goebel,, L. A. Condas,, M. D. Muro,, M. R. de Farias,, F. M. Ferreira, and, M. H. Vainstein. 2008. Cryptococcus neoformans isolated from passerine and psittacine bird excreta in the state of Parana, Brazil. Mycopathologia 166:6169.
155. Lui,, G.,, N. Lee,, M. Ip, K. W. Choi,, Y. K. Tso,, E. Lam,, S. Chau,, R. Lai, and, C. S. Cockram. 2006. Cryptococcosis in apparently immunocompetent patients. Q. J. Med. 99:143151.
156. MacDougall, L., and, M. Fyfe. 2006. Emergence of Cryptococcus gattii in a novel environment provides clues to its incubation period. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44:18511852.
157. MacDougall,, L.,, S. E. Kidd,, E. Galanis,, S. Mak,, M. J. Leslie,, P. R. Cieslak,, J. W. Kronstad,, M. G. Morshed, and, K. H. Bartlett. 2007. Spread of Cryptococcus gattii in British Columbia, Canada, and detection in the Pacific Northwest, USA. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 13:4250.
158. Mahmoud, Y. A. G. 1999. First environmental isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans and var. gatti from the Gharbia Governorate, Egypt. Mycopathologia 148:8386.
159. Malik,, R.,, M. B. Krockenberger,, G. Cross,, R. Doneley,, D. N. Madill,, D. Black,, P. McWhirter,, A. Rozenwax,, K. Rose,, M. Alley,, D. Forshaw,, I. Russell-Brown,, A. C. Johnstone,, P. Martin,, C. R. O’Brien, and, D. N. Love. 2003. Avian cryptococcosis. Med. Mycol. 41:115124.
160. Marra,, R. E.,, J. C. Huang,, E. Fung,, K. Nielsen,, J. Heit-man,, R. J. Vilgalys, and, T. G. Mitchell. 2004. A genetic linkage map of Cryptococcus neoformans variety neoformans serotype D (Filobasidiella neoformans). Genetics 167:619631.
161. Matsumoto,, M. T.,, A. M. F. Almeida,, L. C. Baeza,, M. S. C. Melhem, and, M. J. S. Mendes-Giannini. 2007. Genotyping, serotyping and determination of mating-type of Cryptococcus neoformans clinical isolates from São Paulo State, Brazil. Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. São Paulo 49:4147.
162. McDonough, E. S.,, A. L. Lewis, and, L. A. Penn. 1966. Relationship of Cryptococcus neoformans to pigeons in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Public Health Rep. 81:11191123.
163. McGill,, S.,, R. Malik,, N. Saul,, S. Beetson,, C. Secombe,, I. Robertson, and, P. Irwin. 2009. Cryptococcosis in domestic animals in Western Australia: a retrospective study from 1995–2006. Med. Mycol. 47:625639.
164. Meyer,, W.,, D. M. Aanensen,, T. Boekhout,, M. Cogliati,, M. R. Diaz,, M. C. Esposto,, M. C. Fisher,, F. Gilgado,, F. Hagen,, S. Kaocharoen,, A. P. Litvintseva,, T. G. Mitchell,, S. P. Simwami,, L. Trilles,, M. A. Viviani, and, K. J. Kwon-Chung. 2009. Consensus multi-locus sequence typing scheme for Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii. Med. Mycol. 47:561570.
165. Meyer,, W., A. Castañeda,, S. Jackson,, M. Huynh,, E. Castañeda, and the IberoAmerican Cryptococcal Study Group. 2003. Molecular typing of IberoAmeri-can Cryptococcus neoformans isolates. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 9:189195.
166. Meyer,, W.,, K. Marszewska,, M. Amirmostofian, R. P. Igreja,, C. Hardtke,, K. Methling,, M. A. Viviani,, A. Chindamporn,, S. Sukroongreung,, M. A. John,, D. H. Ellis, and, T. C. Sorrell. 1999. Molecular typing of global isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans by polymerase chain reaction fingerprinting and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA–a pilot study to standardize techniques on which to base a detailed epidemio-logical survey. Electrophoresis 20:17901799.
167. Mitchell, T. G. 2008. Genomic approaches to investigate the pathogenicity of Cryptococcus neoformans. Curr. Fungal Infect. Rep. 2:172179.
168. Mitchell, T. G. 2010. Population genetics of pathogenic fungi in humans and other animals, p. 139–158. In J. Xu (ed.), Microbial Population Genetics. Horizon Scientific Press, Hethersett, UK.
169. Mitchell, T. G., and, A. P. Litvintseva. 2010. Typing species of Cryptococcus and epidemiology of cryptococco-sis, p. 167–190. In H. R. Ashbee and, E. M. Bignell (ed.), Pathogenic Yeasts. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany.
170. Mitchell, T. G., and, J. R. Perfect. 1995. Cryptococcosis in the era of AIDS: 100 years after the discovery of Cryptococcus neoformans. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 8:515548.
171. Montagna,, M. T.,, M. P. Santacroce,, G. Caggiano,, D. Tato, and, L. Ajello. 2003. Cavernicolous habitats harbouring Cryptococcus neoformans: results of a speleological survey in Apulia, Italy, 1999–2000. Med. Mycol. 41:451455.
172. Montenegro, H., and, C. R. Paula. 2000. Environmental isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii and C. neoformans var. neoformans in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Med. Mycol. 38:385390.
173. Morera-López,, Y.,, J. M. Torres-Rodríguez,, T. Jiménez-Cabello, T. Baró-Tomás,, C. Alia-Aponte, and, M. S. Lazéra. 2005. DNA fingerprinting pattern and susceptibility to antifungal drugs in Cryptococcus neoformans variety grubii isolates from Barcelona city and rural environmental samples. Mycopathologia 160:914.
174. Morgan,, J.,, K. M. McCarthy,, S. M. Gould,, K. Fan, B. A. Arthington-Skaggs,, N. J. Iqbal,, K. Stamey,, R. A. Hajjeh, and, M. E. Brandt. 2006. Cryptococcus gattii infection: characteristics and epidemiology of cases identified in a South African province with high HIV seroprevalence, 2002–2004. Clin. Infect. Dis. 43:10771080.
175. Nadrous,, H. F.,, V. S. Antonios,, C. L. Terrell, and, J. H. Ryu. 2003. Pulmonary cryptococcosis in nonimmuno-compromised patients. Chest 124:21432147.
176. Nagahama, T.,, M. Hamamoto,, T. Nakase,, Y. Takaki, and, K. Horikoshi. 2003. Cryptococcus surugaensis sp. nov., a novel yeast species from sediment collected on the deep-sea floor of Suruga Bay. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 53:20952098.
177. Nakamura,, Y.,, R. Kano,, H. Sato,, S. Watanabe,, H. Taka-hashi, and, A. Hasegawa. 1998. Isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans serotype A and D developed on canavanine-glycine-bromthymol blue medium. Mycoses 41:3540.
178. Ngamskulrungroj,, P.,, F. Gilgado,, J. Faganello, A. P. Litvintseva,, A. L. Leal,, K. M. Tsui,, T. G. Mitchell,, M. H. Vainstein, and, W. Meyer. 2009. Genetic diversity of the Cryptococcus species complex suggests that Cryptococcus gattii deserves to have varieties. PLoS ONE 4:e5862.
179. Nielsen, K.,, A. L. De Obaldia, and, J. Heitman. 2007. Cryptococcus neoformans mates on pigeon guano: implications for the realized ecological niche and globalization. Eukaryot. Cell 6:949959.
180. Nielsen, K., and, J. Heitman. 2007. Sex and virulence of human pathogenic fungi. Adv. Genet. 57:143173.
181. Nishikawa,, M. M.,, M. S. Lazéra,, G. G. Barbosa,, L. Trilles,, B. R. Balassiano,, R. C. Macedo,, C. C. F. Bezerra,, M. A. Perez,, P. Cardarelli, and, B. Wanke. 2003. Serotyping of 467 Cryptococcus neoformans isolates from clinical and environmental sources in Brazil: analysis of host and regional patterns. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:7377.
182. Nosanchuk, J. D., and, A. Casadevall. 2003. The contribution of melanin to microbial pathogenesis. Cell. Microbiol. 5:203223.
183. Nosanchuk, J. D.,, J. Rudolph,, A. L. Rosas, and, A. Casadevall. 1999. Evidence that Cryptococcus neoformans is melanized in pigeon excreta: implications for pathogene-sis. Infect. Immun. 67:54775479.
184. O’Brien,, C. R.,, M. B. Krockenberger,, D. I. Wigney,, P. Martin, and, R. Malik. 2004. Retrospective study of feline and canine cryptococcosis in Australia from 1981 to 2001: 195 cases. Med. Mycol. 42:449460.
185. Othman, N.,, N. A. Abdullah, and, Z. A. Wahab. 2004. Cryptococcal meningitis in an immunocompetent child: a case report and literature review. Southeast. Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health 35:930934.
186. Pal, M. 1997. First report of isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans from avian excreta in Kathmandu, Nepal. Rev. Iberoam. Micol. 14:181183.
187. Partridge, B. M., and, H. I. Winner. 1965. Cryptococcus neoformans in bird droppings in London. Lancet 1:10601061.
188. Passoni, L. F.,, B. Wanke,, M. M. Nishikawa, and, M. S. Lazéra. 1998. Cryptococcus neoformans isolated from human dwellings in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: an analysis of the domestic environment of AIDS patients with and without cryptococcosis. Med. Mycol. 36:305311.
189. Polacheck, I., and, K. J. Kwon-Chung. 1988. Melanogenesis in Cryptococcus neoformans. J. Gen. Microbiol. 134:10371041.
190. Powell,, K. E.,, B. A. Dahl,, R. J. Weeks, and, F. E. Tosh. 1972. Airborne Cryptococcus neoformans: particles from pigeon excreta compatible with alveolar deposition. J. Infect. Dis. 125:412415.
191. Quintero, E., E. Castañeda, and, A. Ruiz. 2005. Environmental distribution of Cryptococcus neoformans in the department of Cundinamarca, Colombia. Rev. Iberoam. Micol. 22:9398. (In Spanish.)
192. Randhawa, H. S.,, Y. M. Clayton, and, R. W. Riddell. 1965. Isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans from pigeon habitats in London. Nature 208:801.
193. Randhawa,, H. S.,, T. Kowshik,, A. Chowdhary,, S. K. Preeti,, Z. U. Khan,, S. Sun, and, J. Xu. 2008. The expanding host tree species spectrum of Cryptococcus gattii and Cryptococcus neoformans and their isolations from surrounding soil in India. Med. Mycol. 46:823833.
194. Randhawa, H. S.,, T. Kowshik, and, Z. U. Khan. 2003. Decayed wood of Syzygium cumini and Ficus religiosa living trees in Delhi/New Delhi metropolitan area as natural habitat of Cryptococcus neoformans. Med. Mycol. 41:199209.
195. Randhawa, H. S.,, T. Kowshik, and, Z. U. Khan. 2005. Efficacy of swabbing versus a conventional technique for isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans from decayed wood in tree trunk hollows. Med. Mycol. 43:6771.
196. Randhawa,, H. S.,, T. Kowshik, S. K. Preeti,, A. Chow-dhary,, Z. U. Khan,, Z. Yan,, J. Xu, and, A. Kumar. 2006. Distribution of Cryptococcus gattii and Cryptococcus neoformans in decayed trunk wood of Syzygium cumini trees in north-western India. Med. Mycol. 44:623630.
197. Randhawa, H. S.,, A. Y. Mussa, and, Z. U. Khan. 2001. Decaying wood in tree trunk hollows as a natural substrate for Cryptococcus neoformans and other yeast-like fungi of clinical interest. Mycopathologia 151:6369.
198. Randhawa, H. S., and, D. K. Paliwal. 1979. Survey of Cryptococcus neoformans in the respiratory tract of patients with bronchopulmonary disorders and in the air. Sabouraudia 17:399404.
199. Raso, T. F.,, K. Werther,, E. T. Miranda, and, M. J. S. Mendes-Giannini. 2004. Cryptococcosis outbreak in psittacine birds in Brazil. Med. Mycol. 42:355362.
200. Refai,, M.,, M. Taha,, S. A. Selim,, F. Elshabourii, and, H. H. Yousseff. 1983. Isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida albicans and other yeasts from pigeon droppings in Egypt. Sabouraudia 21:163165.
201. Refojo,, N.,, D. E. Perrotta,, M. Brudny,, R. Abrantes,, A. I. Hevia, and, G. Davel. 2009. Isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii from trunk hollows of living trees in Buenos Aires City, Argentina. Med. Mycol. 47:177184.
202. Reimão,, J. Q.,, E. D. Drummond,, M. S. Terceti,, J. P. Lyon,, M. C. Franco, and, A. M. de Siqueira. 2007. Isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans from hollows of living trees in the city of Alfenas, MG, Brazil. Mycoses 50:261264.
203. Restrepo,, A.,, D. J. Baumgardner,, E. Bagagli, C. R. Cooper,, Jr., M. R. McGinnis, M. S. Lazéra,, F. H. Barbosa,, S. M. Bosco,, Z. P. Camargo,, K. I. R. Coelho,, S. T. Fortes,, M. Franco,, M. R. Montenegro,, A. Sano, and, B. Wanke. 2000. Clues to the presence of pathogenic fungi in certain environments. Med. Mycol. 38(Suppl.1):6777.
204. Rhodes, J. C.,, I. Polacheck, and, K. J. Kwon-Chung. 1982. Phenoloxidase activity and virulence in isogenic strains of Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect. Immun. 36:11751184.
205. Ribeiro,, Â. M.,, L. K. Rosa e Silva,, I. S. Schrank,, A. Schrank,, W. Meyer, and, M. H. Vainstein. 2006. Isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans serotype D from eucalypts in South Brazil. Med. Mycol. 44:707713.
206. Ribeiro, M. A., and, P. Ngamskulrungroj. 2008. Molecular characterization of environmental Cryptococcus neoformans isolated in Vitória, ES, Brazil. Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. São Paulo 50:315320.
207. Rosario, I.,, B. Acosta, and, M. F. Colom. 2008. Pigeons and other birds as a reservoir for Cryptococcus spp. Rev. Iberoam. Micol. 25:S13S18. (In Spanish.)
208. Rosario,, I., M. Hermoso de Mendoza,, S. Déniz,, G. Soro,, I. Álamo, and, B. Acosta. 2005. Isolation of Cryptococcus species including C. neoformans from cloaca of pigeons. Mycoses 48:421424.
209. Rosas, A. L., and, A. Casadevall. 2001. Melanization decreases the susceptibility of Cryptococcus neoformans to enzymatic degradation. Mycopathologia 151:5356.
210. Ruiz, A., and, G. S. Bulmer. 1981. Particle size of airborne Cryptococcus neoformans in a tower. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 41:12251229.
211. Ruiz, A.,, R. A. Fromtling, and, G. S. Bulmer. 1981. Distribution of Cryptococcus neoformans in a natural site. Infect. Immun. 31:560563.
212. Russo, G.,, D. Libkind,, J.-P. Sampaio, and, M. R. van Broock. 2008. Yeast diversity in the acidic Rio Agrio-Lake Caviahue volcanic environment (Patagonia, Argentina). FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 65:415424.
213. Salas,, S. D.,, J. E. Bennett,, K. J. Kwon-Chung,, J. R. Perfect, and, P. R. Williamson. 1996. Effect of the laccase gene CNLAC1, on virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans. J. Exp. Med. 184:377386.
214. Sampaio, A.,, J.-P. Sampaio, and, C. Leão. 2007. Dynamics of yeast populations recovered from decaying leaves in a nonpolluted stream: a 2-year study on the effects of leaf litter type and decomposition time. FEMS Yeast Res. 7:595603.
215. Sanchetee, P. 1998. Cryptococcal meningitis in immunocompetent patients. J. Assoc. Physicians India 46:617619.
216. Sanfelice, F. 1894. Contributo alla morfologia e biologia dei blastomiceti che si sviluppano nei succhi di alcuni frutti. Ann. Igien. 4:463495.
217. Santos,, W. R. A.,, W. Meyer,, B. Wanke,, S. P. S. E. Costa,, L. Trilles,, J. L. M. Nascimento,, R. Medeiros,, B. P. Morales,, C. C. F. Bezerra,, R. C. L. Macedo,, S. O. Ferreira,, G. G. Barbosa,, M. A. Perez,, M. M. Nishi-kawa, and, M. S. Lazéra. 2008. Primary endemic cryptococcosis gattii by molecular type VGII in the state of Pará, Brazil. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 103:813818.
218. Saraçli,, M. A.,, S. T. Yildiran,, K. Sener, A. Gönlüm,, L. Doganci,, S. M. Keller, and, B. L. Wickes. 2006. Genotyping of Turkish environmental Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans isolates by pulsed field gel electrophoresis and mating type. Mycoses 49:124129.
219. Saul, N.,, M. B. Krockenberger, and, D. A. Carter. 2008. Evidence of recombination in mixed mating type and α-only populations of Cryptococcus gattii sourced from single Eucalyptus tree hollows. Eukaryot. Cell 7:727734.
220. Schonborn, C.,, B. Schutze, and, H. Pohler. 1969. Budding fungi in feces of zoo birds, wild indigenous birds and pigeons gone wild. (Studies of the occurrence of Cryptococcus neoformans in birds). Mykosen 12:471490. (In German.)
221. Scorzetti, G.,, J. W. Fell,, Á. Fonseca, and, A. Statzell-Tallman. 2002. Systematics of basidiomycetous yeasts: a comparison of large subunit D1/D2 and internal transcribed spacer rDNA regions. FEMS Yeast Res. 2:495517.
222. Sekhon,, A. S.,, S. N. Bannerje.,, B. M. Mielke,, H. Idikio,, G. Wood, and, J. M. S. Dixon. 1990. Current status of cryptococcosis in Canada. Mycoses 33:7380.
223. Sethi, K. K., and, H. S. Randhawa. 1968. Survival of Cryptococcus neoformans in the gastrointestinal tract of pigeons following ingestion of the organism. J. Infect. Dis. 118:135138.
224. Sethi,, K. K.,, H. S. Randhawa,, S. Abraham, S. K. Mishra, and, V. N. Damodaran. 1966. Occurrence of Cryptococcus neoformans in pigeon excreta in Delhi. Indian J. Chest Dis. 8:207210.
225. Shih,, C. C.,, Y.-C. Chen,, S.-C. Chang,, K.-T. Luh, and, W.-C. Hsieh. 2000. Cryptococcal meningitis in non-HIV-infected patients. Q. J. Med. 93:245251.
226. Silva, M. E., and, L. A. Paula. 1963. Isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans from excrement and nests of pigeons (Columba livia) in Salvador, Bahia (Brazil). Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. São Paulo 5:911. (In Portuguese.)
227. Soares,, M. C.,, C. R. Paula,, A. L. T. Dias,, M. M. Ca-seiro, and, S. O. Costa. 2005. Environmental strains of Cryptococcus neoformans variety grubii in the city of Santos, SP, Brazil. Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. São Paulo 47:3136.
228. Soogarun,, S.,, V. Wiwanitkit,, A. Palasuwan, P. Pradni-wat,, J. Suwansaksri,, T. Lertlum, and, T. Maungkote. 2006. Detection of Cryptococcus neoformans in bird excreta. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health 37:768770.
229. Sorrell, T. C. 2001. Cryptococcus neoformans variety gattii. Med. Mycol. 39:155168.
230. Sorrell,, T. C.,, S. C. A. Chen,, P. Ruma,, W. Meyer,, T. J. Pfeiffer,, D. H. Ellis, and, A. G. Brownlee. 1996. Concordance of clinical and environmental isolates of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii by random amplification of polymorphic DNA analysis and PCR fingerprinting. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34:12531260.
231. Sorrell, T. C., and, D. H. Ellis. 1997. Ecology of Cryptococcus neoformans. Rev. Iberoam. Micol. 14:4243.