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Chapter 23 : The Emergence of Infections on Vancouver Island and Expansion in the Pacific Northwest

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Abstract:

This chapter outlines issues that were quickly explored, starting with the realization in 2001 that Vancouver Island was a hot spot for a pathogen not previously described as endemic and not restricted to tropical and subtropical climates. The picture of the outbreak that has developed has implications for global travel, climate change, land use patterns, and environmental colonization. Importantly, cryptococcosis caused by now serves as an excellent illustration of the impact of pathogen spread into a clement ecological niche, in this case, one that happened to be in a major population center of western Canada and the Pacific Northwest. Symptoms and clinicopathological changes in animals on Vancouver Island were consistent with disease reported elsewhere. The most common primary system involved was respiratory, followed by the central nervous system (CNS), in both cats and dogs. Animal cryptococcosis due to is a nonregulated disease in Canada. Molecular typing of environmental isolates from Vancouver Island using PCR fingerprinting and/or restriction fragment length polymorphism methodologies revealed that the majority of isolates belonged to the VGII molecular type and a small number belonged to the VGI molecular type. A number of solid culture media, biochemical tests, and stains can confirm the diagnosis of to the genus level. Ecological niche modeling was employed to identify geographical areas in British Columbia with suitable environmental conditions to support the permanent colonization of in the environment.

Citation: Bartlett K, Byrnes E, Duncan C, Fyfe M, Galanis E, Heitman J, Hoang L, Kidd S, MacDougall L, Mak S, Marr K, Morshed M, West S, Kronstad J. 2011. The Emergence of Infections on Vancouver Island and Expansion in the Pacific Northwest, p 312-325. In Heitman J, Kozel T, Kwon-Chung K, Perfect J, Casadevall A (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816858.ch23

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FIGURE 1

(A) Hospitalizations for cryptococcal infection in HIV-negative residents of British Columbia, 1995 to 2004. Reproduced with permission from reference . (B) Number of cases and incidence rate of infection by place of residence, British Columbia, 1999 to 2007.

Citation: Bartlett K, Byrnes E, Duncan C, Fyfe M, Galanis E, Heitman J, Hoang L, Kidd S, MacDougall L, Mak S, Marr K, Morshed M, West S, Kronstad J. 2011. The Emergence of Infections on Vancouver Island and Expansion in the Pacific Northwest, p 312-325. In Heitman J, Kozel T, Kwon-Chung K, Perfect J, Casadevall A (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816858.ch23
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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

case definitions in British Columbia as of December 2008

Citation: Bartlett K, Byrnes E, Duncan C, Fyfe M, Galanis E, Heitman J, Hoang L, Kidd S, MacDougall L, Mak S, Marr K, Morshed M, West S, Kronstad J. 2011. The Emergence of Infections on Vancouver Island and Expansion in the Pacific Northwest, p 312-325. In Heitman J, Kozel T, Kwon-Chung K, Perfect J, Casadevall A (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816858.ch23
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

diagnostic tests used in BCCDC laboratories

Citation: Bartlett K, Byrnes E, Duncan C, Fyfe M, Galanis E, Heitman J, Hoang L, Kidd S, MacDougall L, Mak S, Marr K, Morshed M, West S, Kronstad J. 2011. The Emergence of Infections on Vancouver Island and Expansion in the Pacific Northwest, p 312-325. In Heitman J, Kozel T, Kwon-Chung K, Perfect J, Casadevall A (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816858.ch23
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

clinical isolates in Washington and Oregon: 2005 to 2008

Citation: Bartlett K, Byrnes E, Duncan C, Fyfe M, Galanis E, Heitman J, Hoang L, Kidd S, MacDougall L, Mak S, Marr K, Morshed M, West S, Kronstad J. 2011. The Emergence of Infections on Vancouver Island and Expansion in the Pacific Northwest, p 312-325. In Heitman J, Kozel T, Kwon-Chung K, Perfect J, Casadevall A (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816858.ch23
Generic image for table
TABLE 4

Summary data for cryptococcosis cases caused by in Oregon

Citation: Bartlett K, Byrnes E, Duncan C, Fyfe M, Galanis E, Heitman J, Hoang L, Kidd S, MacDougall L, Mak S, Marr K, Morshed M, West S, Kronstad J. 2011. The Emergence of Infections on Vancouver Island and Expansion in the Pacific Northwest, p 312-325. In Heitman J, Kozel T, Kwon-Chung K, Perfect J, Casadevall A (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816858.ch23

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