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Chapter 25 : Hybridization and Its Importance in the Species Complex

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Abstract:

A study on the identification of hybrids identified six distinct clusters based on the genotypes of a large number of and global isolates using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). A combination of genotype and ploidy analyses are able to discriminate AD hybrids from haploid serotype A or D isolates. Serological reactions and a set of genotyping techniques have been used to determine the serotype of strains. Serotype A strains presented a rim pattern characterized by a sharp increase in the optical gradient at the capsular edge followed directly by an immediate decrease. The estimation of the time of hybridization showed that recombination occurred very recently, indicating that hybridization is important during evolution. Gene genealogical analysis supported the hypothesis of multiple origins of hybrid strains, suggesting that hybridization events occurred in different times probably coinciding with the continuing dispersion of in the environment that allows the contact between genetic divergent populations. In conclusion, hybridization, in addition to a low rate of sexual reproduction, represents an important mechanism for to introduce genetic variants in a population with a prevalent clonal expansion.

Citation: Cogliati M, Lin X, Viviani M. 2011. Hybridization and Its Importance in the Species Complex, p 359-370. In Heitman J, Kozel T, Kwon-Chung K, Perfect J, Casadevall A (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816858.ch25

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Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorter
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Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
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Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
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Figures

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FIGURE 1

Identification of AD hybrid strains by (a) polyclonal antisera as described by Ikeda et al. ( ), (b) E1 monoclonal antibody as described by Dromer et al. ( ), and (c) monoclonal antibodies plus DIC as described by MacGill et al. ( ). Gray circles represent the serotype A group, black circles the serotype D group, and dashed circles the AD hybrids group. Areas in black and gray stripes represent the portion of AD hybrid strains identified by the method. Black or gray areas included in the dashed circles represent the cryptic AD hybrids not identified by the method.

Citation: Cogliati M, Lin X, Viviani M. 2011. Hybridization and Its Importance in the Species Complex, p 359-370. In Heitman J, Kozel T, Kwon-Chung K, Perfect J, Casadevall A (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816858.ch25
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Hypothetical mechanisms yielding α/α and / homozygous isolates. (a) Postmeiotic fusion of two of the four recombinant nuclei. Image from Cogliati et al. ( ). (b) Fusion of two strains with the same mating type by one helper strain of opposite mating type. Image from Hull et al. ( ). (c) Same-sex fusion of two nonisogenic α strains or endoreplication of one α nucleus. Image from Lin et al. ( ).

Citation: Cogliati M, Lin X, Viviani M. 2011. Hybridization and Its Importance in the Species Complex, p 359-370. In Heitman J, Kozel T, Kwon-Chung K, Perfect J, Casadevall A (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816858.ch25
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Tables

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TABLE 1

Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics to distinguish hybrid from haploid strains of

Citation: Cogliati M, Lin X, Viviani M. 2011. Hybridization and Its Importance in the Species Complex, p 359-370. In Heitman J, Kozel T, Kwon-Chung K, Perfect J, Casadevall A (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816858.ch25
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TABLE 2

Correspondence table of the genotype nomenclatures

Citation: Cogliati M, Lin X, Viviani M. 2011. Hybridization and Its Importance in the Species Complex, p 359-370. In Heitman J, Kozel T, Kwon-Chung K, Perfect J, Casadevall A (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816858.ch25
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TABLE 3

Geographical distribution of serotype AD strains from clinical and environmental sources

Citation: Cogliati M, Lin X, Viviani M. 2011. Hybridization and Its Importance in the Species Complex, p 359-370. In Heitman J, Kozel T, Kwon-Chung K, Perfect J, Casadevall A (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816858.ch25
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TABLE 4

Geographical distribution of AD hybrid strains identified by DNA molecular typing

Citation: Cogliati M, Lin X, Viviani M. 2011. Hybridization and Its Importance in the Species Complex, p 359-370. In Heitman J, Kozel T, Kwon-Chung K, Perfect J, Casadevall A (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816858.ch25

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