1887

Chapter 34 : Invasion of into the Central Nervous System

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Invasion of into the Central Nervous System, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816858/9781555815011_Chap34-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816858/9781555815011_Chap34-2.gif

Abstract:

This chapter reviews the current state of knowledge regarding how invades into the central nervous system (CNS). An understanding of the unique characteristics of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is essential to comprehend the potential mechanisms by which blood-borne microbes, including , transverse it. Brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs), which line the capillaries supplying blood to the brain, have unique tight junctions that contribute to the barrier function of the BBB. A major function of the BBB is maintenance of the neural microenvironment by regulating the passage of molecules into and out of the brain. The role of monocytes in CNS invasion by relies first on clinical observations. When occlusion occurs in blood vessels supplying the CNS, invasion into damaged tissue can occur. Additionally, at early time points, invasion of the CNS by did not occur from the surface of the brain via the invasion of the blood vessels supplying the leptomeninges (pia mater and arachnoid). The other cryptococcal virulence factor that has been linked to brain invasion is urease, which is produced by nearly all clinical isolates of . Urease expression contributes to the CNS invasion by enhancing yeast sequestration within cerebral microcapillary beds during hematogenous spread. Meningoencephalitis is the most common and serious clinical manifestation of cryptococcosis. Remarkable progress has been made toward elucidating the means by which gains access into the CNS.

Citation: Dromer F, Levitz S. 2011. Invasion of into the Central Nervous System, p 465-471. In Heitman J, Kozel T, Kwon-Chung K, Perfect J, Casadevall A (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816858.ch34

Key Concept Ranking

White Blood Cells
0.47734624
Fungal Infections
0.44289178
Cryptococcus gattii
0.43333334
Major Histocompatibility Complex
0.42990416
0.47734624
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Typical aspect of a dilated VirchowRobin space during cryptococcal meningoencephalitis. Semithin section of the brain cortex of a mouse with severe meningoencephalitis after inoculation with showing the pseudocysts centered by a brain capillary and filled with numerous capsulated yeasts either free or inside phagocytes.

Citation: Dromer F, Levitz S. 2011. Invasion of into the Central Nervous System, p 465-471. In Heitman J, Kozel T, Kwon-Chung K, Perfect J, Casadevall A (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816858.ch34
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Semithin section of leptomeninges from a mouse with severe meningoencephalitis after inoculation with . (a) Dilatation of a Virchow-Robin space is visible with the meningeal capillary containing numerous red blood cells. (b) A mononuclear cell probably carrying a yeast cell can be seen inside the capillary. (c) On the left, a small capillary with a yeast inside the cytoplasm of an endothelial cell. Cryptococci are also seen in the leptomeningeal space outside the capillaries, either (d) as poorly encapsulated yeasts inside vacuolated macrophagelike cells apparently touching the outside membrane of the vessel or (e) as free and with thick capsules.

Citation: Dromer F, Levitz S. 2011. Invasion of into the Central Nervous System, p 465-471. In Heitman J, Kozel T, Kwon-Chung K, Perfect J, Casadevall A (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816858.ch34
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555816858.ch34
1. Aguirre, K., and, S. Miller. 2002. MHC class II-positive perivascular microglial cells mediate resistance to Cryptococcus neoformans brain infection. Glia 39:184188.
2. Chang,, Y. C.,, A. Jong,, S. Huang,, P. Zerfas, and, K. J. KwonChung. 2006. CPS1, a homolog of the Streptococcus pneumoniae type 3 polysaccharide synthase gene, is important for the pathobiology of Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect. Immun. 74:39303938.
3. Chang,, Y. C.,, M. F. Stins,, M. J. McCaffery,, G. F. Miller,, D. R. Pare,, T. Dam,, M. PaulSatyasee,, K. S. Kim, and, K. J. KwonChung. 2004. Cryptococcal yeast cells invade the central nervous system via transcellular penetration of the blood-brain barrier. Infect. Immun. 72:49854995.
4. Charlier,, C.,, F. Chretien,, M. Baudrimont,, E. Mordelet,, O. Lortholary, and, F. Dromer. 2005. Capsule structure changes associated with Cryptococcus neoformans crossing of the blood-brain barrier. Am. J. Pathol. 166:421432.
5. Charlier,, C.,, F. Dromer,, C. Leveque,, L. Chartier,, Y. S. Cordoliani,, A. Fontanet,, O. Launay, and, O. Lortholary. 2008. Cryptococcal neuroradiological lesions correlate with severity during cryptococcal meningoencephalitis in HIV-positive patients in the HAART era. PLoS ONE 3:e1950.
6. Charlier,, C.,, K. Nielsen,, S. Daou,, M. Brigitte,, F. Chretien, and, F. Dromer. 2009. Evidence of a role for monocytes in dissemination and brain invasion by Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect. Immun. 77:120127.
7. Chen,, S. H.,, M. F. Stins,, S. H. Huang,, Y. H. Chen,, K. J. Kwon-Chung,, Y. Chang,, K. S. Kim,, K. Suzuki, and, A. Y. Jong. 2003. Cryptococcus neoformans induces alterations in the cytoskeleton of human brain microvascular endothelial cells. J. Med. Microbiol. 52:961970.
8. Chretien,, F.,, O. Lortholary,, I. Kansau,, S. Neuville,, F. Gray, and, F. Dromer. 2002. Pathogenesis of cerebral Cryptococcus neoformans infection after fungemia. J. Infect. Dis. 186:522530.
9. Coenjaerts,, F. E.,, M. van der Flier,, P. N. Mwinzi,, A. E. Brouwer,, J. Scharringa,, W. S. Chaka,, M. Aarts,, A. Rajanuwong,, D. A. van de Vijver,, T. S. Harrison, and, A. I. Hoepelman. 2004. Intrathecal production and secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor during cryptococcal meningitis. J. Infect. Dis. 190:13101317.
10. Cox,, G. M.,, J. Mukherjee, G. T. Cole,, A. Casadevall, and, J. R. Perfect. 2000. Urease as a virulence factor in experimental cryptococcosis. Infect. Immun. 68:443448.
11. Crump,, J. R.,, S. G. Elner,, V. M. Elner, and, C. A. Kauffman. 1992. Cryptococcal endophthalmitis: case report and review. Clin. Infect. Dis. 14:10691073.
12. Drevets, D. A.,, P. J. Leenen, and, R. A. Greenfield. 2004. Invasion of the central nervous system by intracellular bacteria. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 17:323347.
13. Dromer, F.,, S. MathoulinPelissier,, O. Launay, and, O. Lortholary. 2007. Determinants of disease presentation and outcome during cryptococcosis: the CryptoA/D study. PLoS Med. 4:e21.
14. Fischer-Smith, T., and, J. Rappaport. 2005. Evolving paradigms in the pathogenesis of HIV-1-associated dementia. Expert Rev. Mol. Med. 7:126.
15. Franzot,, S. P.,, J. S. Hamdan,, B. P. Currie, and, A. Casadevall. 1997. Molecular epidemiology of Cryptococcus neoformans in Brazil and the United States: evidence for both local genetic differences and a global clonal population structure. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:22432251.
16. Garcia-Hermoso,, D.,, S. Mathoulin-Pelissier,, B. Coup-rie,, O. Ronin,, B. Dupont, and, F. Dromer. 1997. DNA typing suggests pigeon droppings as a source of pathogenic Cryptococcus neoformans serotype D. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:26832685.
17. Granger, D. L.,, J. R. Perfect, and, D. T. Durack. 1985. Virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans. Regulation of capsule synthesis by carbon dioxide. J. Clin. Invest. 76:508516.
18. Hanson, L. R., and, W. H. Frey, 2nd. 2008. Intranasal delivery bypasses the blood-brain barrier to target therapeutic agents to the central nervous system and treat neurodegenerative disease. BMC Neurosci. 9(Suppl 3):S5.
19. Harrison, T. S.,, H. Kornfeld, and, S. M. Levitz. 1995. The effect of infection with human immunodeficiency virus on the anticryptococcal activity of lymphocytes and monocytes. J. Infect. Dis. 172:665671.
20. Harrison, T. S., and, S. M. Levitz. 1997. Mechanisms of impaired anticryptococcal activity of monocytes from donors infected with human immunodeficiency virus. J. Infect. Dis. 176:537540.
21. Hogan, L. H.,, B. S. Klein, and, S. M. Levitz. 1996. Virulence factors of medically important fungi. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 9:469488.
22. Ibrahim,, A. S.,, S. G. Filler,, M. S. Alcouloumre,, T. R. Kozel,, J. E. Edwards, Jr., and, M. A. Ghannoum. 1995. Adherence to and damage of endothelial cells by Cryptococcus neoformans in vitro: role of the capsule. Infect. Immun. 63:43684374.
23. Ingavale,, S. S.,, Y. C. Chang,, H. Lee, C. M. McClelland,, M. L. Leong, and, K. J. KwonChung. 2008. Importance of mitochondria in survival of Cryptococcus neoformans under low oxygen conditions and tolerance to cobalt chloride. PLoS Pathog. 4:e1000155.
24. Ingram,, C. W.,, H. B. Haywood,, 3rd, V. M. Morris,, R. L. Allen, and, J. R. Perfect. 1993. Cryptococcal ventricularperitoneal shunt infection: clinical and epidemiological evaluation of two closely associated cases. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 14:719722.
25. Jain,, N.,, L. Li,, Y.-P. Hsueh,, A. Guerrero,, J. Heitman, D. L. Goldman, and, B. C. Fries. 2009. Loss of allergen 1 confers a hypervirulent phenotype that resembles mucoid switch variants of Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect. Immun. 77:128140.
26. Jong,, A.,, C. H. Wu,, H. M. Chen,, F. Luo, K. J. KwonChung,, Y. C. Chang,, C. W. Lamunyon,, A. Plaas, and, S. H. Huang. 2007. Identification and characterization of CPS1 as a hyaluronic acid synthase contributing to the pathogenesis of Cryptococcus neoformans infection. Eukaryot. Cell 6:14861496.
27. Jong,, A.,, C. H. Wu,, N. V. Prasadarao,, K. J. KwonChung,, Y. C. Chang,, Y. Ouyang,, G. M. Shackleford, and, S. H. Huang. 2008. Invasion of Cryptococcus neoformans into human brain microvascular endothelial cells requires protein kinase C-alpha activation. Cell. Microbiol. 10:18541865.
28. Jong,, A.,, C. H. Wu,, G. M. Shackleford,, K. J. KwonChung,, Y. C. Chang,, H. M. Chen,, Y. Ouyang, and, S. H. Huang. 2008. Involvement of human CD44 during Cryptococcus neoformans infection of brain microvascular endothelial cells. Cell. Microbiol. 10:13131326.
29. Jong, A.,, C. H. Wu,, W. Zhou,, H. M. Chen, and, S. H. Huang. 2008. Infectomic analysis of gene expression profiles of human brain microvascular endothelial cells infected with Cryptococcus neoformans. J. Biomed. Biotechnol. 2008:375620.
30. Jong,, A. Y.,, C. H. Wu,, S. Jiang,, L. Feng,, H. M. Chen, and, S. H. Huang. 2007. HIV-1 gp41 ectodomain enhances Cryptococcus neoformans binding to HBMEC. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 356:899905.
31. Kanoh, Y.,, T. Ohara,, M. Kanoh, and, T. Akahoshi. 2008. Serum matrix metalloproteinase-2 levels indicate blood-CSF barrier damage in patients with infectious meningitis. Inflammation 31:99104.
32. Kawakami,, K.,, Y. Koguchi,, M. H. Qureshi,, T. Zhang,, Y. Kinjo,, S. Yara,, K. Uezu,, K. Shibuya,, S. Naoe, and, A. Saito. 2002. Anti-CD11 b monoclonal antibody suppresses brain dissemination of Cryptococcus neoformans in mice. Microbiol. Immunol. 46:181186.
33. Kechichian, T. B.,, J. Shea, and, M. Del Poeta. 2007. Depletion of alveolar macrophages decreases the dissemination of a glucosylceramidedeficient mutant of Cryptococcus neoformans in immunodeficient mice. Infect. Immun. 75:47924798.
34. Kim, K. S. 2008. Mechanisms of microbial traversal of the blood-brain barrier. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 6:625634.
35. Kim, K. S. 2006. Microbial translocation of the blood-brain barrier. Int. J. Parasitol. 36:607614.
36. Kwon-Chung, K. J.,, J. C. Edman, and, B. L. Wickes. 1992. Genetic association of mating types and virulence in Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect. Immun. 60:602605.
37. Lee,, S. C.,, D. W. Dickson,, C. F. Brosnan, and, A. Casadevall. 1994. Human astrocytes inhibit Cryptococcus neoformans growth by a nitric oxidemediated mechanism. J. Exp. Med. 180:365369.
38. Lee, S. C.,, Y. Kress,, D. W. Dickson, and, A. Casadevall. 1995. Human microglia mediate anti- Cryptococcus neoformans activity in the presence of specific antibody. J. Neuroimmunol. 62:4352.
39. Lortholary,, O.,, A. Fontanet,, N. Memain,, A. Martin,, K. Sitbon, and, F. Dromer. 2005. Incidence and risk factors of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome complicating HIV-associated cryptococcosis in France. AIDS 19:10431049.
40. Lortholary,, O.,, L. Improvisi,, M. Nicolas,, F. Provost,, B. Dupont, and, F. Dromer. 1999. Fungemia during murine cryptococcosis sheds some light on pathophysiology. Med. Mycol. 37:169174.
41. Luberto,, C.,, B. Martinez-Marino,, D. Taraskiewicz,, B. Bolanos,, P. Chitano, D. L. Toffaletti,, G. M. Cox,, J. R. Perfect,, Y. A. Hannun,, E. Balish, and, M. Del Poeta. 2003. Identification of App1 as a regulator of phagocytosis and virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans. J. Clin. Invest. 112:10801094.
42. Monari,, C.,, F. Baldelli,, D. Pietrella,, C. Retini,, C. Tas-cini,, D. Francisci,, F. Bistoni, and, A. Vecchiarelli. 1997. Monocyte dysfunction in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) versus Cryptococcus neoformans. J. Infect. 35:257263.
43. Nielsen,, K.,, G. M. Cox,, A. P. Litvintseva,, E. Mylonakis, S. D. Malliaris,, D. K. Benjamin, Jr.,, S. S. Giles,, T. G. Mitchell,, A. Casadevall,, J. R. Perfect, and, J. Heitman. 2005. Cryptococcus neoformans {alpha} strains preferentially disseminate to the central nervous system during coinfection. Infect. Immun. 73:49224933.
44. Nizet,, V.,, K. S. Kim,, M. Stins,, M. Jonas,, E. Y. Chi,, D. Nguyen, and, C. E. Rubens. 1997. Invasion of brain microvascular endothelial cells by group B streptococci. Infect. Immun. 65:50745081.
45. Noverr,, M. C.,, P. R. Williamson,, R. S. Fajardo, and, G. B. Huffnagle. 2004. CNLAC1 is required for extrapulmonary dissemination of Cryptococcus neoformans but not pulmonary persistence. Infect. Immun. 72:16931699.
46. Olszewski,, M. A.,, M. C. Noverr,, G.-H. Chen, G. B. Toews,, G. M. Cox,, J. R. Perfect, and, G. B. Huffnagle. 2004. Urease expression by Cryptococcus neoformans promotes microvascular sequestration, thereby enhancing central nervous system invasion. Am. J. Pathol. 164:17611771.
47. Rubin, L. L., and, J. M. Staddon. 1999. The cell biology of the blood-brain barrier. Annu. Rev. Neurosci. 22:1128.
48. Santangelo,, R.,, H. Zoellner,, T. Sorrell,, C. Wilson,, C. Donald,, J. Djordjevic,, Y. Shounan, and, L. Wright. 2004. Role of extracellular phospholipases and mononuclear phagocytes in dissemination of cryptococcosis in a murine model. Infect. Immun. 72:22292239.
49. Stergiopoulou,, T.,, J. Meletiadis,, E. Roilides, D. E. Kleiner,, R. Schaufele,, M. Roden,, S. Harrington,, L. Dad,, B. Segal, and, T. J. Walsh. 2007. Hostdependent patterns of tissue injury in invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 127:349355.
50. Stins,, M. F.,, N. V. Prasadarao,, L. Ibric, C. A. Wass,, P. Luckett, and, K. S. Kim. 1994. Binding characteristics of S fimbriated Escherichia coli to isolated brain microvascular endothelial cells. Am. J. Pathol. 145:12281236.
51. Truelsen, K.,, T. Young, and, T. R. Kozel. 1992. In vivo complement activation and binding of C3 to encapsulated Cryptococcus neoformans. Infect. Immun. 60:39373939.
52. Walsh,, T. J.,, R. Schlegel, M. M. Moody,, J. W. Costerton, and, M. Salcman. 1986. Ventriculoatrial shunt infection due to Cryptococcus neoformans: an ultrastructural and quantitative microbiological study. Neurosurgery 18:373375.
53. Wang, H.,, J. Sun, and, H. Goldstein. 2008. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection increases the in vivo capacity of peripheral monocytes to cross the blood-brain barrier into the brain and the in vivo sensitivity of the blood-brain barrier to disruption by lipopolysaccharide. J. Virol. 82:75917600.
54. Yauch, L. E.,, J. S. Lam, and, S. M. Levitz. 2006. Direct inhibition of T-cell responses by the Cryptococcus capsular polysaccharide glucuronoxylomannan. PLoS Pathog. 2:e120.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error