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Chapter 36 : Veterinary Insights into Cryptococcosis Caused by and

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Abstract:

This chapter focuses on naturally occurring disease in animals by concentrating on an approach based on the concept of comparative pathology and one medicine/one health. It should be emphasized at the outset that members of the species complex, comprising the two species and , are environmental organisms. Some animal species are inherently more resistant to cryptococcosis. The reasons for this are still not clear, although this is a well-accepted concept for other primary pathogens, such as . Resistance may occur at the level of phagocytic cell function. Intact innate immunity, such as an effective cough reflex and good functionality of the mucociliary escalator, and timely development of acquired cell mediated and antibody-mediated immunity all favor elimination of the infective agent, either prior to development of tissue invasion or after limited tissue invasion. Veterinary clinicians interested in fungal disease are to be commended for having been important players in this quest for new knowledge. There can be no doubt that studying disease in companion animals, production animals, and wildlife can play a critical role in unraveling the environmental associations of the species complex.

Citation: Malik R, Krockenberger M, O’Brien C, Carter D, Meyer W, Canfield P. 2011. Veterinary Insights into Cryptococcosis Caused by and , p 489-504. In Heitman J, Kozel T, Kwon-Chung K, Perfect J, Casadevall A (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816858.ch36

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Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Localized subcutaneous var. infection in a racing pigeon. This lesion (arrow) most likely developed as a sequela to contamination of a peck injury with infective propagules.

Citation: Malik R, Krockenberger M, O’Brien C, Carter D, Meyer W, Canfield P. 2011. Veterinary Insights into Cryptococcosis Caused by and , p 489-504. In Heitman J, Kozel T, Kwon-Chung K, Perfect J, Casadevall A (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816858.ch36
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Cheetah with cerebral cryptococcosis. The primary site of infection was the lung (see Fig. 3 ). The “glassy stare” of cryptococcal optic neuritis is evident. The patient is receiving a subcutaneous infusion of amphotericin B. The patient was treated successfully, regaining its vision. Cheetahs seems to be the only big cat overrepresented in cohorts of wildlife with naturally occurring cryptococcosis. Both captive and free-living cases have been documented.

Citation: Malik R, Krockenberger M, O’Brien C, Carter D, Meyer W, Canfield P. 2011. Veterinary Insights into Cryptococcosis Caused by and , p 489-504. In Heitman J, Kozel T, Kwon-Chung K, Perfect J, Casadevall A (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816858.ch36
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Lateral thoracic radiograph of the cheetah with cryptococcal meningoencephalitis in Fig. 2 . Note the mass lesion in the lung at the cranial aspect of the cardiac silhouette (arrow).

Citation: Malik R, Krockenberger M, O’Brien C, Carter D, Meyer W, Canfield P. 2011. Veterinary Insights into Cryptococcosis Caused by and , p 489-504. In Heitman J, Kozel T, Kwon-Chung K, Perfect J, Casadevall A (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816858.ch36
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Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

Invasive and deforming cryptococcosis affecting the chonae (arrow) of an parrot. This was a VGI infection.

Citation: Malik R, Krockenberger M, O’Brien C, Carter D, Meyer W, Canfield P. 2011. Veterinary Insights into Cryptococcosis Caused by and , p 489-504. In Heitman J, Kozel T, Kwon-Chung K, Perfect J, Casadevall A (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816858.ch36
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Image of FIGURE 5
FIGURE 5

Invasive cryptococcal rhinitis in a koala due to (VGI). (A) Note the prominent swelling (arrow) above the bridge of the nose due to infection penetrating the nasal bones to access the subcutaneous space. We presume this infection started in the dorsal nasal meatus (see thin-slice computed tomography image in panel B), resulting in invasion and destruction of the overlying nasal bone and extension of infection to the subcutaneous tissues of the nasal bridge (arrow, B). (C) A three-dimensional bone-density image of this patient is shown; note the bone loss associated with the infection (arrow). The infected tissues in the nasal bridge were excised surgically, and the patient was subsequently treated using fluconazole (10 mg/kg orally twice daily). Despite this, the defect in the bone persisted, the serum antigen titer remained unchanged at 8 to 16 for about 6 months, and the koala subsequently developed lymphoid leukemia.

Citation: Malik R, Krockenberger M, O’Brien C, Carter D, Meyer W, Canfield P. 2011. Veterinary Insights into Cryptococcosis Caused by and , p 489-504. In Heitman J, Kozel T, Kwon-Chung K, Perfect J, Casadevall A (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816858.ch36
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Image of FIGURE 6
FIGURE 6

Diffuse cryptococcal pneumonia in a captive Julia Creek dunnart. Note the consolidation of an entire lung (arrows)—essentially a confluent cryptococcal granuloma. The liver is evident on the left-hand side, while the heart is situated on top of the consolidated lung. The inset shows the affected lung after it had been removed from the chest cavity.

Citation: Malik R, Krockenberger M, O’Brien C, Carter D, Meyer W, Canfield P. 2011. Veterinary Insights into Cryptococcosis Caused by and , p 489-504. In Heitman J, Kozel T, Kwon-Chung K, Perfect J, Casadevall A (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816858.ch36
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Image of FIGURE 7
FIGURE 7

(A) Collecting swabs from the nasal vestibule/dorsal nasal meatus of a koala. Gentle manual restraint, sometimes using a hessian bag, is all that is required for this innocuous procedure. Preliminary studies by our group demonstrated that in this species, there is good correlation between superficial nasal swabs and deeper nasal washings in terms of detecting colonization by . (B) Collecting blood from the cephalic vein using a 23-gauge butterfly needle. It is straightforward to collect 1 to 4 ml of blood over 30 s using this technique, sufficient for hematology and serology.

Citation: Malik R, Krockenberger M, O’Brien C, Carter D, Meyer W, Canfield P. 2011. Veterinary Insights into Cryptococcosis Caused by and , p 489-504. In Heitman J, Kozel T, Kwon-Chung K, Perfect J, Casadevall A (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816858.ch36
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Image of FIGURE 8
FIGURE 8

Koala in a captive enclosure. Note “browse” provided as food and wooden logs provided as perches. This area is richly abundant in VGIIb. Inset shows a very simple sampling technique: a swab moistened with sterile saline is rubbed vigorously over a log provided as a climbing perch.

Citation: Malik R, Krockenberger M, O’Brien C, Carter D, Meyer W, Canfield P. 2011. Veterinary Insights into Cryptococcosis Caused by and , p 489-504. In Heitman J, Kozel T, Kwon-Chung K, Perfect J, Casadevall A (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816858.ch36
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