Chapter 40 : Vaccines and Antibody Therapies from to Melanoma

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This chapter talks about recent developments in the vaccine field and the publication of two recent comprehensive reviews that include additional information on the problem of vaccination against . is an encapsulated pathogen, and polysaccharide-based vaccines have an excellent track record in eliciting protective immunity against bacteria with polysaccharide capsules. Human MAbs produced from immortalized B cells from glucuronoxylomannan (GXM)-TT-vaccinated individuals were protective in mice, and serum antibodies from vaccinated individuals enhanced the antifungal activity of phagocytes against . Peptide mimotopes of GXM selected by mouse and human MAbs have been reported. An advantage of peptide mimotopes is that they can be made easily and reproducibly and thus provide an attractive option for generating vaccines. Site-directed mutagenesis of the binding contacts of a protective MAb revealed that different amino acids were involved in binding to polysaccharide and mimotope epitopes, raising the possibility that different types of antibodies are elicited by carbohydrate and peptide antigens. Cryptococcal infection elicits strong and rapid antibody responses to fungal proteins, such as heat shock proteins (HSPs), but currently there is no evidence that these antibody responses contribute to host protection. In the late 1990s murine MAbs were made to melanin with the goal of using these reagents for the study of melanization in vivo and in vitro. Subsequently, it was hypothesized that if these MAbs bound to human melanin, they could be used to deliver tumoricidal radiation to melanoma cells.

Citation: Casadevall A, Dadachova E, Pirofski L. 2011. Vaccines and Antibody Therapies from to Melanoma, p 537-546. In Heitman J, Kozel T, Kwon-Chung K, Perfect J, Casadevall A (ed), . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816858.ch40
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