1887

Chapter 8 : Regulation of Antimicrobial Immunity

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Regulation of Antimicrobial Immunity, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816872/9781555815141_Chap08-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816872/9781555815141_Chap08-2.gif

Abstract:

This chapter focuses on inducible Foxp3 T regulatory cells (Tregs). This cell type plays a dominant role in contributing to the maintenance of homeostasis and in limiting collateral tissue damage caused by chronic effector cell responses to pathogens. Microbial infections could trigger the expansion and activation of natural Treg (nTreg) in several ways, some of which may not involve engagement of the nTreg specific T-cell receptors (TCR), although this latter event might facilitate responses. Only a few reports have focused on Treg during acute infections and some have concluded that regulatory cells have little influence on the outcome. Even when Treg successfully preserve homeostasis in the host by controlling excessive immune responses, one consequence of such control is enhanced pathogen survival and, in some cases, long-term pathogen persistence are provided in the chapter. Some pathogens may cause Tr1 induction by producing a homolog of IL-10, but these are chronic infectious agents and are discussed in the chapter. Although hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection does expand the Treg population, no compelling evidence shows that the extent of one or more types of Treg responses correlates with the eventual outcome of infection. Importantly, Treg purified from the lymph node of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients maintain their suppressive capacity against antiviral responses. The authors have evaluated whether or not manipulating Treg activity represents a useful way to modulate immunoinflammatory lesions caused by ocular infection with HSV.

Citation: Belkaid Y, Sehrawat S, Rouse B. 2011. Regulation of Antimicrobial Immunity, p 109-120. In Kaufmann S, Rouse B, Sacks D (ed), The Immune Response to Infection. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816872.ch8

Key Concept Ranking

Mouse mammary tumor virus
0.4784337
Transforming Growth Factor beta
0.41012618
0.4784337
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Microbes or their products may modulate Treg responses in multiple ways. A few Treg with TCR specificity to pathogen antigens proliferate in response to the infection. Alternatively, cross-reactive pathogen antigens or self-antigens, released as a result of tissue damaging inflammatory reactions, could stimulate self-reactive Treg. Stimulation independent of TCR could be provided by the microbial products such as TLR ligands or other host-derived products, such as cytokines (TGF-β, IL-2, IFN-γ, TNF-α, etc.), galectins (galectin-1, 9, and 10), heat shock proteins (Hsp-60, Hsp-60 peptide p277, Hsp-gp96, etc.), cellular metabolites (retinoic acid) as a result of infection.

Citation: Belkaid Y, Sehrawat S, Rouse B. 2011. Regulation of Antimicrobial Immunity, p 109-120. In Kaufmann S, Rouse B, Sacks D (ed), The Immune Response to Infection. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816872.ch8
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555816872.ch08
1. Alatrakchi, N., and, M. Koziel. 2009. Regulatory T cells and viral liver disease. J. Viral Hepat. 16:223229.
2. Anderson, C. F.,, M. Oukka,, V. J. Kuchroo, and, D. Sacks. 2007. CD4(+)CD25(-) Foxp3(-) Th1 cells are the source of IL-10-mediated immune suppression in chronic cutaneous leishmaniasis. J. Exp. Med. 204:285297.
3. Bach, J. F. 2002. The effect of infections on susceptibility to autoimmune and allergic diseases. N. Engl. J. Med. 347:911920.
4. Barboza, L.,, S. Salmen,, L. Goncalves,, M. Colmenares,, D. Peterson,, H. Montes,, R. Cartagirone,, C. Gutierrez Mdel, and, L. Berrueta. 2007. Antigen-induced regulatory T cells in HBV chronically infected patients. Virology 368:4149.
5. Basu, S.,, T. Golovina,, T. Mikheeva,, C. H. June, and, J. L. Riley. 2008. Cutting edge: Foxp3-mediated induction of pim 2 allows human T regulatory cells to preferentially expand in rapamycin. J. Immunol. 180:57945798.
6. Becker, C.,, C. Taube,, T. Bopp,, K. Michel,, J. Kubach,, S. Reuter,, N. Dehzad,, M. F. Neurath,, K. Reifenberg,, F. J. Schneider,, E. Schmitt, and, H. Jonuleit. 2009. Protection from graft-versus-host disease by HIV-1 envelope protein gp120-mediated activation of human CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells. Blood 114:12631269.
7. Belkaid, Y.,, C. A. Piccirillo,, S. Mendez,, E. M. Shevach, and, D. L. Sacks. 2002. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells control Leishmania major persistence and immunity. Nature 420:502507.
8. Belkaid, Y., and, K. Tarbell. 2009. Regulatory T cells in the control of host-microorganism interactions. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 27:551589.
9. Benson, M. J.,, K. Pino-Lagos, M. Rosemblatt, and, R. J. Noelle. 2007. All-trans retinoic acid mediates enhanced T reg cell growth, differentiation, and gut homing in the face of high levels of co-stimulation. J. Exp. Med. 204:17651774.
10. Bettelli, E.,, Y. Carrier,, W. Gao,, T. Korn,, T. B. Strom,, M. Oukka,, H. L. Weiner, and, V. K. Kuchroo. 2006. Reciprocal developmental pathways for the generation of pathogenic effector TH17 and regulatory T cells. Nature 441:235238.
11. Boyer, O.,, D. Saadoun,, J. Abriol,, M. Dodille,, J. C. Piette,, P. Cacoub, and, D. Klatzmann. 2004. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T-cell deficiency in patients with hepatitis C-mixed cryoglobulinemia vasculitis. Blood 103:34283430.
12. Brusko, T. M.,, A. L. Putnam, and, J. A. Bluestone. 2008. Human regulatory T cells: role in autoimmune disease and therapeutic opportunities. Immunol. Rev. 223:371390.
13. Chang, J. H.,, Y. J. Kim,, S. H. Han, and, C. Y. Kang. 2009. IFN-gamma-STAT1 signal regulates the differentiation of inducible Treg: potential role for ROS-mediated apoptosis. Eur. J. Immunol. 39:12411251.
14. Chase, A. J.,, H. C. Yang,, H. Zhang,, J. N. Blankson, and, R. F. Siliciano. 2008. Preservation of FoxP3+ regulatory T cells in the peripheral blood of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected elite suppressors correlates with low CD4+ T-cell activation. J. Virol. 82:83078315.
15. Chen, X.,, M. Baumel,, D. N. Mannel,, O. M. Howard, and, J. J. Oppenheim. 2007a. Interaction of TNF with TNF receptor type 2 promotes expansion and function of mouse CD4+ CD25+ T regulatory cells. J. Immunol. 179:154161.
16. Chen, X.,, B. Zhou,, M. Li,, Q. Deng,, X. Wu,, X. Le,, C. Wu,, N. Larmonier,, W. Zhang,, H. Zhang,, H. Wang, and, E. Katsanis. 2007b. CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3+(+) regulatory T cells suppress Mycobacterium tuberculosis immunity in patients with active disease. Clin. Immunol. 123:5059.
17. Conroy, H.,, N. A. Marshall, and, K. H. Mills. 2008. TLR ligand suppression or enhancement of Treg cells? A double-edged sword in immunity to tumours. Oncogene 27:168180.
18. Couper, K. N.,, P. A. Lanthier,, G. Perona-Wright, L. W. Kummer, W. Chen, S. T. Smiley, M. Mohrs, and, L. L. Johnson. 2009. Anti-CD25 antibody-mediated depletion of effector T cell populations enhances susceptibility of mice to acute but not chronic Toxoplasma gondii infection. J. Immunol. 182:39853994.
19. Crellin, N. K.,, R. V. Garcia,, O. Hadisfar,, S. E. Allan,, T. S. Steiner, and, M. K. Levings. 2005. Human CD4+ T cells express TLR5 and its ligand flagellin enhances the suppressive capacity and expression of FOXP3 in CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells. J. Immunol. 175:80518059.
20. Cui, G.,, Y. Zhang,, Z. Gong,, J. Z. Zhang, and, Y. Q. Zang. 2009. Induction of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cell response by glatiramer acetate in type 1 diabetes. Cell. Res. 19:574583.
21. Curotto de Lafaille, M. A.,, N. Kutchukhidze,, S. Shen,, Y. Ding,, H. Yee, and, J. J. Lafaille. 2008. Adaptive Foxp3+ regulatory T cell-dependent and -independent control of allergic inflammation. Immunity 29:114126.
22. Ertelt, J. M.,, J. H. Rowe,, T. M. Johanns,, J. C. Lai,, J. B. McLachlan, and, S. S. Way. 2009. Selective priming and expansion of antigen-specific Foxp3– CD4+ T cells during Listeria monocytogenes infection. J. Immunol. 182:30323038.
23. Esparza, E. M., and, R. H. Arch. 2006. Signaling triggered by glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor family-related gene: regulation at the interface between regulatory T cells and immune effector cells. Front. Biosci. 11:14481465.
24. Fontenot, J. D.,, J. P. Rasmussen,, L. M. Williams,, J. L. Dooley,, A. G. Farr, and, A. Y. Rudensky. 2005. Regulatory T cell lineage specification by the forkhead transcription factor foxp3. Immunity 22:329341.
25. Gazzinelli, R. T.,, M. Wysocka,, S. Hieny,, T. Scharton-Kersten,, A. Cheever,, R. Kuhn,, W. Muller,, G. Trinchieri, and, A. Sher. 1996. In the absence of endogenous IL-10, mice acutely infected with Toxoplasma gondii succumb to a lethal immune response dependent on CD4+ T cells and accompanied by overproduction of IL-12, IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha. J. Immunol. 157:798805.
26. Gomez-Escobar, N.,, A. van den Biggelaar, and, R. Maizels. 1997. A member of the TGF-beta receptor gene family in the parasitic nematode Brugia pahangi. Gene 199:101109.
27. Grimbert, P.,, S. Bouguermouh,, N. Baba,, T. Nakajima,, Z. Allakhverdi,, D. Braun,, H. Saito,, M. Rubio,, G. Delespesse, and, M. Sarfati. 2006. Thrombospondin/CD47 interaction: a pathway to generate regulatory T cells from human CD4+ CD25– T cells in response to inflammation. J. Immunol. 177:35343541.
28. Hall, J. A.,, N. Bouladoux,, C. M. Sun,, E. A. Wohlfert,, R. B. Blank,, Q. Zhu,, M. E. Grigg,, J. A. Berzofsky, and, Y. Belkaid. 2008. Commensal DNA limits regulatory T cell conversion and is a natural adjuvant of intestinal immune responses. Immunity 29:637649.
29. Hisaeda H, M. Y., Iwakawa D, Okada H, Himeno K, Kishihara K, Tsukumo S, Yasutomo K. 2004. Escape of malaria parasites from host immunity requires CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells. Nat. Med. 10:2930.
30. Hwang, E. S.,, J. H. Hong, and, L. H. Glimcher. 2005. IL-2 production in developing Th1 cells is regulated by heterodimerization of RelA and T-bet and requires T-bet serine residue 508. J. Exp. Med. 202:12891300.
31. Izcue, A.,, S. Hue,, S. Buonocore,, C. V. Arancibia-Carcamo,, P. P. Ahern,, Y. Iwakura,, K. J. Maloy, and, F. Powrie. 2008. Interleukin-23 restrains regulatory T cell activity to drive T cell-dependent colitis. Immunity 28:559570.
32. Jankovic, D.,, M. C. Kullberg,, C. G. Feng,, R. S. Goldszmid,, C. M. Collazo,, M. Wilson,, T. A. Wynn,, M. Kamanaka,, R. A. Flavell, and, A. Sher. 2007. Conventional T-bet(+) Foxp3(—) Th1 cells are the major source of host-protective regulatory IL-10 during intracellular protozoan infection. J. Exp. Med. 204:273283.
33. Koch, M.,, A., G. Tucker-Heard,, N. Perdue, R.,, J. Killebrew,, R., K., B. Urdahl, and, D. Campbell, J. 2009. The transcription factor T-bet controls regulatory T cell homeostasis and function during type 1 inflammation. Nat. Immunol. 10:17.
34. Kretschmer, K.,, I. Apostolou,, D. Hawiger,, K. Khazaie,, M. C. Nussenzweig, and, H. von Boehmer. 2005. Inducing and expanding regulatory T cell populations by foreign antigen. Nat. Immunol. 6:12191227.
35. Lee, Y. K.,, H. Turner,, C. L. Maynard,, J. R. Oliver,, D. Chen,, C. O. Elson, and, C. T. Weaver. 2009. Late developmental plasticity in the T helper 17 lineage. Immunity 30:92107.
36. Lund, J. M.,, L. Hsing,, T. T. Pham, and, A. Y. Rudensky. 2008. Coordination of early protective immunity to viral infection by regulatory T cells. Science 320:12201224.
37. MacDonald, A. J.,, M. Duffy,, M. T. Brady,, S. McKiernan,, W. Hall,, J. Hegarty,, M. Curry, and, K. H. Mills. 2002. CD4 T helper type 1 and regulatory T cells induced against the same epitopes on the core protein in hepatitis C virus-infected persons. J. Infect. Dis. 185:720727.
38. Malek, T. R., and, A. L. Bayer. 2004. Tolerance, not immunity, crucially depends on IL-2. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 4:665674.
39. McGuirk, P.,, C. McCann, and, K. H. Mills. 2002. Pathogenspecific T regulatory 1 cells induced in the respiratory tract by a bacterial molecule that stimulates interleukin 10 production by dendritic cells: a novel strategy for evasion of protective T helper type 1 responses by Bordetella pertussis. J. Exp. Med. 195:221231.
40. Mills, K. H., and, P. McGuirk. 2004. Antigen-specific regulatory T cells—their induction and role in infection. Semin. Immunol. 16:107117.
41. Mjosberg, J.,, J. Svensson,, E. Johansson,, L. Hellstrom,, R. Casas,, M. C. Jenmalm,, R. Boij,, L. Matthiesen,, J. I. Jonsson,, G. Berg, and, J. Ernerudh. 2009. Systemic reduction of functionally suppressive CD4dimCD25highFoxp3+ Tregs in human second trimester pregnancy is induced by progesterone and 17beta-estradiol. J. Immunol. 183:759769.
42. Montagnoli, C.,, A. Bacci,, S. Bozza,, R. Gaziano,, P. Mosci,, A. H. Sharpe, and, L. Romani. 2002. B7/CD28-dependent CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells are essential components of the memory-protective immunity to Candida albicans. J. Immunol. 169:62986308.
43. Moore, A. C,, A. Gallimore,, S. J. Draper,, K. R. Watkins,, S. C. Gilbert, and, A. V. Hill. 2005. Anti-CD25 antibody enhancement of vaccine-induced immunogenicity: increased durable cellular immunity with reduced immunodominance. J. Immunol. 175:72647273.
44. Moore, K. W.,, R. de Waal Malefyt,, R. L. Coffman, and, A. O’Garra. 2001. Interleukin-10 and the interleukin-10 receptor. Annu, Rev. Immunol. 19:683765.
45. Ndhlovu, L. C.,, C. P. Loo,, G. Spotts,, D. F. Nixon, and, F. M. Hecht. 2008. FOXP3 expressing CD127lo CD4+ T cells inversely correlate with CD38+ CD8+ T cell activation levels in primary HIV-1 infection. J. Leukoc. Biol. 83:254262.
46. Ocana-Morgner, C.,, K. A. Wong,, F. Lega,, J. Dotor,, F. Borras-Cuesta, and, A. Rodriguez. 2007. Role of TGF-beta and PGE2 in T cell responses during Plasmodium yoelii infection. Eur. J. Immunol. 37:15621574.
47. Oldenhove, G.,, N. Bouladoux,, E. A. Wohlfert,, J. A. Hall,, D. Chou,, L. Dos Santos,, S. O’Brien,, R. Blank,, E. Lamb,, S. Natarajan,, R. Kastenmayer,, C. Hunter,, M. E. Grigg, and, Y. Belkaid. 2009. Decrease of Foxp3+ Treg cell number and acquisition of effector cell phenotype during lethal infection. Immunity 31:772786.
48. Ordway, D.,, M. Henao-Tamayo,, M. Harton,, G. Palanisamy,, J. Troudt,, C. Shanley,, R. J. Basaraba, and, I. M. Orme. 2007. The hypervirulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain HN878 induces a potent TH1 response followed by rapid down-regulation. J. Immunol. 179:522531.
49. Pereira, L. E.,, F. Villinger,, N. Onlamoon,, P. Bryan,, A. Cardona,, K. Pattanapanysat,, K. Mori,, S. Hagen,, L. Picker, and, A. A. Ansari. 2007. Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection influences the level and function of regulatory T cells in SIV-infected rhesus macaques but not SIV-infected sooty mangabeys. J. Virol. 81:44454456.
50. Pozo, D.,, P. Anderson, and, E. Gonzalez-Rey. 2009. Induction of alloantigen-specific human T regulatory cells by vasoactive intestinal peptide. J. Immunol. 183:43464359.
51. Rabinovich, G. A., and, M. A. Toscano. 2009. Turning “sweet” on immunity: galectin-glycan interactions in immune tolerance and inflammation. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 9:338352.
52. Rigby, M. R.,, A. M. Trexler,, T. C. Pearson, and, C. P. Larsen. 2008. CD28/CD154 blockade prevents autoimmune diabetes by inducing nondeletional tolerance after effector t-cell inhibition and regulatory T-cell expansion. Diabetes 57:26722683.
53. Rouse, B. T.,, P. P. Sarangi, and, S. Suvas. 2006. Regulatory T cells in virus infections. Immunol. Rev. 212:272286.
54. Ruckwardt, T. J.,, K. L. Bonaparte,, M. C. Nason, and, B. S. Graham. 2009. Regulatory T cells promote early influx of CD8+ T cells in the lungs of respiratory syncytial virus-infected mice and diminish immunodominance disparities. J. Virol. 83:30193028.
55. Sehrawat, S., and, B. T. Rouse. 2008. Anti-inflammatory effects of FTY720 against viral-induced immunopathology: role of drug-induced conversion of T cells to become Foxp3+ regulators. J. Immunol. 180:76367647.
56. Sehrawat, S.,, A. Suryawanshi,, M. Hirashima, and, B. T. Rouse. 2009. Role of Tim-3/galectin-9 inhibitory interaction in viral-induced immunopathology: shifting the balance toward regulators. J. Immunol. 182:31913201.
57. Sehrawat, S.,, S. Suvas,, P. P. Sarangi,, A. Suryawanshi, and, B. T. Rouse. 2008. In vitro-generated antigen-specific CD4+ CD25+ Foxp3+ regulatory T cells control the severity of herpes simplex virus-induced ocular immunoinflammatory lesions. J. Virol. 82:68386851.
58. Sempere, J. M.,, V. Soriano, and, J. M. Benito. 2007. T regulatory cells and HIV infection. AIDS Rev. 9:5460.
59. Shevach, E. M. 2006. From vanilla to 28 flavors: multiple varieties of T regulatory cells. Immunity 25:195201.
60. Sonawane, S. B.,, J. I. Kim,, M. K. Lee,, S. H. Lee,, P. E. Duff,, D. J. Moore,, M. M. Lian,, S. Deng,, Y. Choi,, H. Yeh,, A. J. Caton, and, J. F. Markmann. 2009. GITR blockade facilitates Treg mediated allograft survival. Transplantation 88:11691177.
61. Suvas, S.,, A. K. Azkur,, B. S. Kim,, U. Kumaraguru, and, B. T. Rouse. 2004. CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells control the severity of viral immunoinflammatory lesions. J. Immunol. 172:41234132.
62. Suvas, S.,, U. Kumaraguru,, C. D. Pack,, S. Lee, and, B. T. Rouse. 2003. CD4+CD25+ T cells regulate virus-specific primary and memory CD8+ T cell responses. J. Exp. Med. 198:889901.
63. Swee, L. K.,, N. Bosco,, B. Malissen,, R. Ceredig, and, A. Rolink. 2009. Expansion of peripheral naturally occurring T regulatory cells by Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand treatment. Blood 113:62776287.
64. Tang, Q.,, J. Y. Adams,, C. Penaranda,, K. Melli,, E. Piaggio,, E. Sgouroudis,, C. A. Piccirillo,, B. L. Salomon, and, J. A. Bluestone. 2008. Central role of defective interleukin-2 production in the triggering of islet autoimmune destruction. Immunity 28:687697.
65. Tao, R.,, E. F. de Zoeten,, E. Ozkaynak,, C. Chen,, L. Wang,, P. M. Porrett,, B. Li,, L. A. Turka,, E. N. Olson,, M. I. Greene,, A. D. Wells, and, W. W. Hancock. 2007. Deacetylase inhibition promotes the generation and function of regulatory T cells. Nat. Med. 13:12991307.
66. Tao, R.,, L. Wang,, K. M. Murphy,, C. C. Fraser, and, W. W. Hancock. 2008. Regulatory T cell expression of herpesvirus entry mediator suppresses the function of B and T lymphocyte attenuator-positive effector T cells. J. Immunol. 180:66496655.
67. Torcia, M. G.,, V. Santarlasci,, L. Cosmi,, A. Clemente,, L. Maggi,, V. D. Mangano,, F. Verra,, G. Bancone,, I. Nebie,, B. S. Sirima,, F. Liotta,, F. Frosali,, R. Angeli,, C. Severini,, A. R. Sannella,, P. Bonini,, M. Lucibello,, E. Maggi,, E. Garaci,, M. Coluzzi,, F. Cozzolino,, F. Annunziato,, S. Romagnani, and, D. Modiano. 2008. Functional deficit of T regulatory cells in Fulani, an ethnic group with low susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105:646651.
68. Veldhoen, M.,, R. J. Hocking,, C. J. Atkins,, R. M. Locksley, and, B. Stockinger. 2006. TGFbeta in the context of an inflammatory cytokine milieu supports de novo differentiation of IL-17-producing T cells. Immunity 24:179189.
69. Villarino, A. V.,, C. M. Tato,, J. S. Stumhofer,, Z. Yao,, Y. K. Cui,, L. Hennighausen,, J. J. O’Shea, and, C. A. Hunter. 2007. Helper T cell IL-2 production is limited by negative feedback and STAT-dependent cytokine signals. J. Exp. Med. 204:6571.
70. Wada, J.,, H. Suzuki,, R. Fuchino,, A. Yamasaki,, S. Nagai,, K. Yanai,, K. Koga,, M. Nakamura,, M. Tanaka,, T. Morisaki, and, M. Katano. 2009. The contribution of vascular endothelial growth factor to the induction of regulatory T-cells in malignant effusions. Anticancer Res. 29:881888.
71. Walther, M.,, J. E. Tongren,, L. Andrews,, D. Korbel,, E. King,, H. Fletcher,, R. F. Andersen,, P. Bejon,, F. Thompson,, S. J. Dunachie,, F. Edele,, J. B. de Souza,, R. E. Sinden,, S. C. Gilbert,, E. M. Riley, and, A. V. Hill. 2005. Upregulation of TGF-beta, FOXP3, and CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells correlates with more rapid parasite growth in human malaria infection. Immunity 23:287296.
72. Wang, L.,, K. Pino-Lagos,, V. C. de Vries,, I. Guleria,, M. H. Sayegh, and, R. J. Noelle. 2008. Programmed death 1 ligand signaling regulates the generation of adaptive Foxp3+ CD4+ regulatory T cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105:93319336.
73. Wang, Z.,, B. Shi,, H. Jin,, L. Xiao,, Y. Chen, and, Y. Qian. 2009. Low-dose of tacrolimus favors the induction of functional CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3+(+) regulatory T cells in solidorgan transplantation. Int. Immunopharmacol. 9:564569.
74. Webster, K. E.,, S. Walters,, R. E. Kohler,, T. Mrkvan,, O. Boyman,, C. D. Surh,, S. T. Grey, and, J. Sprent. 2009. In vivo expansion of T reg cells with IL-2-mAb complexes: induction of resistance to EAE and long-term acceptance of islet allografts without immunosuppression. J. Exp. Med. 206:751760.
75. Wei, G.,, L. Wei,, J. Zhu,, C. Zang,, J. Hu-Li,, Z. Yao,, K. Cui,, Y. Kanno,, T. Y. Roh,, W. T. Watford,, D. E. Schones,, W. Peng,, H. W. Sun,, W. E. Paul,, J. J. O’Shea, and, K. Zhao. 2009. Global mapping of H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 reveals specificity and plasticity in lineage fate determination of differentiating CD4+ T cells. Immunity 30:155167.
76. Wei, J.,, O. Duramad,, O. A. Perng,, S. L. Reiner,, Y. J. Liu, and, F. X. Qin. 2007. Antagonistic nature of T helper 1/2 developmental programs in opposing peripheral induction of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104:1816918174.
77. Zheng, Y.,, A. Chaudhry,, A. Kas,, P. deRoos,, J. M. Kim,, T. T. Chu,, L. Corcoran,, P. Treuting,, U. Klein, and, A. Y. Rudensky. 2009. Regulatory T-cell suppressor program coopts transcription factor IRF4 to control T(H)2 responses. Nature 458:351356.
78. Zhou, X.,, S. L. Bailey-Bucktrout,, L. T. Jeker,, C. Penaranda,, M. Martinez-Llordella,, M. Ashby,, M. Nakayama,, W. Rosenthal, and, J. A. Bluestone. 2009. Instability of the transcription factor Foxp3 leads to the generation of pathogenic memory T cells in vivo. Nat. Immunol. 10:10001007.
79. Zhu, C.,, A. C. Anderson,, A. Schubart,, H. Xiong,, J. Imitola,, S. J. Khoury,, X. X. Zheng,, T. B. Strom, and, V. K. Kuchroo. 2005. The Tim-3 ligand galectin-9 negatively regulates T helper type 1 immunity. Nat. Immunol. 6:12451252.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Tregs in chronic infection

Citation: Belkaid Y, Sehrawat S, Rouse B. 2011. Regulation of Antimicrobial Immunity, p 109-120. In Kaufmann S, Rouse B, Sacks D (ed), The Immune Response to Infection. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816872.ch8
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Strategies to boost Treg responses

Citation: Belkaid Y, Sehrawat S, Rouse B. 2011. Regulation of Antimicrobial Immunity, p 109-120. In Kaufmann S, Rouse B, Sacks D (ed), The Immune Response to Infection. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816872.ch8

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error