Chapter 47 : Targeting Components in Vector Saliva

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Blood-feeding arthropods transmit some of the most debilitating infections known to mankind, including malaria, lymphatic filariasis, African trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, plague, Chagas' disease, onchocerciasis, Lyme disease, dengue fever, and a multitude of encephalitic diseases. Conversely, salivary components can enhance the virulence of some pathogenic organisms, facilitating infection by inhibiting host immune responses. This chapter outlines the major findings supporting the notion that exploiting vector saliva for vaccine development is a viable proposition, focusing on the arthropod vectors most extensively studied: sand flies, mosquitoes, and ticks. It discusses salivary proteins as immunomodulators and enhancers of infection. In addition to reports of exacerbative effects of saliva on L. major infection, studies aimed towards finding immunogenic salivary molecules that can drive a Th1-type immune response considered protective against infection were undertaken. A brief account of molecules recently identified from tick saliva, their contribution towards disease exacerbation, and their potential as vaccine candidates against human disease is provided in this chapter. If vector salivary proteins as vaccine components are to be realized, it will be necessary to undertake studies of natural vector populations to determine pertinent features of their biology. The rapid spread of vector-borne diseases, attributed partly to global warming and insecticide resistance, emphasizes the need to use all available arsenals at our disposal to develop protective vaccines. Therefore, one cannot afford to ignore the potential that vector salivary proteins are present in this regard.

Citation: McDowell M, Kamhawi S. 2011. Targeting Components in Vector Saliva, p 599-608. In Kaufmann S, Rouse B, Sacks D (ed), The Immune Response to Infection. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816872.ch47

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A summary of recent salivary vaccine candidates from sand flies and ticks

Citation: McDowell M, Kamhawi S. 2011. Targeting Components in Vector Saliva, p 599-608. In Kaufmann S, Rouse B, Sacks D (ed), The Immune Response to Infection. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816872.ch47

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