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Chapter 48 : AIDS Vaccines: the Unfolding Story

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Abstract:

This chapter first describes the history of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) vaccine development (with a discussion of why "traditional" forms of vaccine have failed). It then concentrates on the pros and cons of the various modern forms of vaccine currently being developed and tested in both the animal model and in human clinical trials. Despite the early successes and the advances made in optimizing the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines, it soon became clear that administration of DNA alone was generally insufficient to induce a vigorous and prolonged immune response. Most genetic vaccines are based on the delivery of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/ SIV gene(s) of choice by a recombinant viral vector. Despite the enormous amount of work carried out to evaluate the immunogenicity and efficacy of putative AIDS vaccines in animal models, the only real measure of a vaccine’s success is its ability to protect humans from infection or disease under field conditions. Most AIDS vaccine research concentrates on the development of prophylactic vaccines. It is generally acknowledged that the two most successful vaccines ever made (smallpox and polio), vaccines that have been used to immunize virtually everyone on the planet, would not get licensing approval in today’s risk-free climate. However, as safe AIDS vaccine candidates continue to prove ineffective, some research teams are returning to the development of live, replicating vectors, arguing that a prolonged and active stimulation of the immune response may be necessary to induce a state of protective immunity.

Citation: Norley S. 2011. AIDS Vaccines: the Unfolding Story, p 611-621. In Kaufmann S, Rouse B, Sacks D (ed), The Immune Response to Infection. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816872.ch48
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Tables

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TABLE 1

Types of AIDS vaccines

Citation: Norley S. 2011. AIDS Vaccines: the Unfolding Story, p 611-621. In Kaufmann S, Rouse B, Sacks D (ed), The Immune Response to Infection. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816872.ch48
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TABLE 2

Problems facing the development of an AIDS vaccine

Citation: Norley S. 2011. AIDS Vaccines: the Unfolding Story, p 611-621. In Kaufmann S, Rouse B, Sacks D (ed), The Immune Response to Infection. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816872.ch48
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TABLE 3

Reasons for optimism

Citation: Norley S. 2011. AIDS Vaccines: the Unfolding Story, p 611-621. In Kaufmann S, Rouse B, Sacks D (ed), The Immune Response to Infection. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816872.ch48

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