Chapter 1 : Insights from Genomic Studies of the Foodborne and Waterborne Pathogen O157:H7

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Insights from Genomic Studies of the Foodborne and Waterborne Pathogen O157:H7, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816902/9781555814571_Chap01-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816902/9781555814571_Chap01-2.gif


In this chapter, the knowledge of the genome of O157:H7 may be used in the control of serious foodborne pathogen, strains are associated with gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illness. The O157:H7 genome provides us with information about the evolution and emergence of pathogen and the diversity that exists within populations of O157:H7. Most of prophage are defective and cannot form infectious phage. This chapter provides a brief review of subtyping methods used to characterize O157:H7 strains. Differences in biochemical utilization can be used to distinguish large categories of strain. Following the generation of cDNA from the bacteria’s mRNA using the enzyme reverse transcriptase, the level of gene expression is inferred from the intensity of the label signal from gene-specific microarray spots following hybridization. This procedure is the foundation of the new science of transcriptomics. Typically, quantitative PCR assays are also carried out on selected genes to measure mRNA levels to verify the significant changes in expression of genes observed in microarray-based transcriptomics studies. It is also evident that our understanding of O157:H7 gene regulatory systems will be enhanced through genomic sciences. O157:H7 and other bacterial pathogens have evolved through the acquisition of gene clusters borne on plasmids, bacteriophages, and genomic islands. Finally, with the arrival of the genomics revolution researchers are able to examine the "pan-genome" of the species and specific groups within species such as enterohemorrhagic (EHEC) and O157:H7.

Citation: Gannon V, Laing C, Zhang Y. 2011. Insights from Genomic Studies of the Foodborne and Waterborne Pathogen O157:H7, p 1-21. In Fratamico P, Liu Y, Kathariou S (ed), Genomes of Foodborne and Waterborne Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816902.ch1

Key Concept Ranking

Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
Type III Secretion System
Outer Membrane Protein A
Type II Secretion System
Outer Membrane Protein A
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

The supernetwork created from the combination of data from the following six typing methods: Stx-phage insertion site typing, MLVA, CGF, SNP genotyping, mCGH, and genomic in silico subtractive hybridization based novel region distribution. Both mCGH and CGF datasets included experimental data as well as in silico data. Maximum parsimony trees from each method were created using PAUP* 4.0 ( ) and then combined in SplitsTree v4.1 ( ) using the unweighted mean distance and Z-closure with 1,000 iterations; the resulting supernetwork was displayed using the equal angle method.

Citation: Gannon V, Laing C, Zhang Y. 2011. Insights from Genomic Studies of the Foodborne and Waterborne Pathogen O157:H7, p 1-21. In Fratamico P, Liu Y, Kathariou S (ed), Genomes of Foodborne and Waterborne Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816902.ch1
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Abe, H.,, A. Miyahara,, T. Oshima,, K. Tashiro,, Y. Ogura,, S. Kuhara,, N. Ogasawara,, T. Hayashi, and, T. Tobe. 2008. Global regulation by horizontally transferred regulators establishes the pathogenicity of Escherichia coli. DNA Res. 15:2538.
2. Ahmed, R.,, C. Bopp,, A. Borczyk, and, S. Kasatiya. 1987. Phage-typing scheme for Escherichia coli O157:H7. J. Infect. Dis. 155:806809.
3. Aires-de-Sousa, M.,, K. Boye,, H. de Lencastre,, A. Deplano,, M. C. Enright,, J. Etienne,, A. Friedrich,, D. Harmsen,, A. Holmes,, X. W. Huijsdens,, A. M. Kearns,, A. Mellmann,, H. Meugnier,, J. K. Rasheed,, E. Spalburg,, B. Strommenger,, M. J. Struelens,, F. C. Tenover,, J. Thomas,, U. Vogel,, H. Westh,, J. Xu, and, W. Witte. 2006. High interlaboratory reproducibility of DNA sequence-based typing of bacteria in a multicenter study. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44:619621.
4. Aizawa, S. I. 2001. Bacterial flagella and type III secretion systems. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 202:157164.
5. Allen, K. J.,, D. Lepp,, R. C. McKellar, and, M. W. Griffiths. 2008. Examination of stress and virulence gene expression in Escherichia coli O157:H7 using targeted microarray analysis. Foodborne Pathog. Dis. 5:437447.
6. Avery, S. M.,, E. Liebana,, C. Reid,, M. J. Woodward, and, S. Buncic. 2002. Combined use of two genetic fingerprinting methods, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and ribotyping, for characterization of Escherichia coli O157 isolates from food animals, retail meats, and cases of human disease. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:28062812.
7. Ballmer, K.,, B. M. Korczak, P. Kuhnert, P. Slickers,, R. Ehricht, and, H. Hachler. 2007. Fast DNA serotyping of Escherichia coli by use of an oligonucleotide microarray. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45:370379.
8. Barrett, T. J.,, H. Lior,, J. H. Green,, R. Khakhria,, J. G. Wells,, B. P. Bell,, K. D. Greene,, J. Lewis, and, P. M. Griffin. 1994. Laboratory investigation of a multistate food-borne outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and phage typing. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32:30133017.
9. Bauer, A. W.,, W. M. Kirby,, J. C. Sherris, and, M. Turck. 1966. Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standardized single disk method. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 45:493496.
10. Bell, B. P.,, M. Goldoft, P. M. Griffin,, M. A. Davis,, D. C. Gordon,, P. I. Tarr,, C. A. Bartleson,, J. H. Lewis,, T. J. Barrett, and, J. G. Wells. 1994. A multistate outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7-associated bloody diarrhea and hemolytic ure-mic syndrome from hamburgers. The Washington experience. JAMA 272:13491353.
11. Besser, T. E.,, N. Shaikh,, N. J. Holt,, P. I. Tarr,, M. E. Konkel,, P. Malik-Kale,, C. W. Walsh,, T. S. Whittam, and, J. L. Bono. 2007. Greater diversity of Shiga toxin-encoding bacteriophage insertion sites among Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolates from cattle than in those from humans. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73:671679.
12. Beutin, L.,, A. Miko,, G. Krause,, K. Pries,, S. Haby,, K. Steege, and, N. Albrecht. 2007. Identification of human-pathogenic strains of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli from food by a combination of serotyping and molecular typing of Shiga toxin genes. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73:47694775.
13. Bezanson, G.,, R. Khakhria, and, R. Lacroix. 1982. Involvement of plasmids in determining bacteriophage sensitivity in Salmonella typhimurium: genetic and physical analysis of pha-govar 204. Can. J. Microbiol. 28:9931001.
14. Bielaszewska, M.,, P. I. Tarr,, H. Karch,, W. Zhang, and, W. Mathys. 2005. Phenotypic and molecular analysis of tellurite resistance among enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and sorbitol-fermenting 0157:NM clinical isolates. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:452454.
15. Blattner, F. R.,, G. Plunkett,, C. A. Bloch,, N. T. Perna,, V. Burland,, M. Riley,, J. Collado-Vides,, J. D. Glasner,, C. K. Rode,, G. F. Mayhew,, J. Gregor,, N. W. Davis,, H. A. Kirkpatrick,, M. A. Goeden,, D. J. Rose,, B. Mau, and, Y. Shao. 1997. The complete genome sequence of Escherichia coli K-12. Science 277:14531462.
16. Bohm, H., and, H. Karch. 1992. DNA fingerprinting of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30:21692172.
17. Bokranz, W.,, X. Wang,, H. Tschäpe, and, U. Römling. 2005. Expression of cellulose and curli fimbriae by Escherichia coli isolated from the gastrointestinal tract. J. Med. Microbiol. 54:11711182.
18. Bopp, D. J.,, B. D. Sauders,, A. L. Waring,, J. Ackelsberg,, N. Dumas,, E. Braun-Howland,, D. Dziewulski,, B. J. Wallace,, M. Kelly,, T. Halse,, K. A. Musser,, P. F. Smith,, D. L. Morse, and, R. J. Limberger. 2003. Detection, isolation, and molecular subtyping of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Campylobacter jejuni associated with a large waterborne outbreak. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:174180.
19. Brooks, J. T.,, E. G. Sowers,, J. G. Wells,, K. D. Greene,, P. M. Griffin,, R. M. Hoekstra, and, N. A. Strockbine. 2005. Non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infections in the United States, 1983-2002. J. Infect. Dis. 192:14221429.
20. Brunder, W.,, H. Schmidt,, M. Frosch, and, H. Karch. 1999. The large plasmids of Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are highly variable genetic elements. Microbiology 145:10051014.
21. Brüssow, H.,, C. Canchaya, and, W. Hardt. 2004. Phages and the evolution of bacterial pathogens: from genomic rearrangements to lysogenic conversion. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 68:560602.
22. Caprioli, A.,, S. Morabito,, H. Brugère, and, E. Oswald. Entero-haemorrhagic Escherichia coli: emerging issues on virulence and modes of transmission. Vet. Res. 36:289311.
23. Clarke, M. B.,, D. T. Hughes,, C. Zhu,, E. C. Boedeker, and, V. Sperandio. 2006. The QseC sensor kinase: a bacterial adrenergic receptor. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103:1042010425.
24. Clermont, O.,, C. Cordevant,, S. Bonacorsi,, A. Marecat,, M. Lange, and, E. Bingen. 2001. Automated ribotyping provides rapid phylogenetic subgroup affiliation of clinical extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli strains. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:45494553.
25. Coldewey, S. M.,, M. Hartmann,, D. S. Schmidt,, U. Engelking,, S. N. Ukena, and, F. Gunzer. 2007. Impact of the rpoS genotype for acid resistance patterns of pathogenic and probiotic Escherichia coli. BMC Microbiol. 7:21.
26. Cooley, M.,, D. Carychao,, L. Crawford-Miksza, M. T. Jay,, C. Myers,, C. Rose,, C. Keys,, J. Farrar, and, R. E. Mandrell. 2007. Incidence and tracking of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in a major produce production region in California. PLoS ONE 2:e1159.
27. Cowden, J. M.,, S. Ahmed,, M. Donaghy, and, A. Riley. 2001. Epidemiological investigation of the central Scotland outbreak of Escherichia coli O157 infection, November to December 1996. Epidemiol. Infect. 126:335341.
28. Delcher, A. L.,, K. A. Bratke,, E. C. Powers, and, S. L. Salzberg. 2007. Identifying bacterial genes and endosymbiont DNA with Glimmer. Bioinformatics 23:673679.
29. Deng, W.,, Y. Li,, P. R. Hardwidge,, E. A. Frey,, R. A. Pfuetzner,, S. Lee,, S. Gruenheid,, N. C. J. Strynakda,, J. L. Puente, and, B. B. Finlay. 2005. Regulation of type III secretion hierarchy of translocators and effectors in attaching and effacing bacterial pathogens. Infect. Immun. 73:21352146.
30. Deng, W.,, J. L. Puente,, S. Gruenheid,, Y. Li,, B. A. Vallance,, A. Vázquez,, J. Barba,, J. A. Ibarra,, P. O’Donnell,, P. Metalnikov,, K. Ashman,, S. Lee,, D. Goode,, T. Pawson, and, B. B. Finlay. 2004. Dissecting virulence: systematic and functional analyses of a pathogenicity island. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101:35973602.
31. Denny, J.,, M. Bhat, and, K. Eckmann. 2008. Outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 associated with raw milk consumption in the Pacific Northwest. Foodborne Pathog. Dis. 5:321328.
32. Dowd, S., and, H. Ishizaki. 2006. Microarray based comparison of two Escherichia coli O157:H7 lineages. BMC Microbiology 6:30.
33. Dowd, S. E., and, J. B. Williams. 2008. Comparison of Shiga-like toxin II expression between two genetically diverse lineages of Escherichia coli O157:H7. J. Food Prot. 71:16731678.
34. Dundas, S.,, W. T. A. Todd,, A. I. Stewart,, P. S. Murdoch,, A. K. R. Chaudhuri, and, S. J. Hutchinson. 2001. The central Scotland Escherichia coli O157:H7 outbreak: risk factors for the hemolytic uremic syndrome and death among hospitalized patients. Clin. Infect. Dis. 33:923931.
35. Effler, E.,, M. Isaäcson,, L. Arntzen,, R. Heenan,, P. Canter,, T. Barrett,, L. Lee,, C. Mambo,, W. Levine,, A. Zaidi, and, P. M. Griffin. 2001. Factors contributing to the emergence of Escherichia coli O157 in Africa. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 7:812819.
36. Eklund, M.,, M. Bielaszewska,, U. Nakari,, H. Karch, and, A. Siitonen. 2006. Molecular and phenotypic profiling of sorbitol-fermenting Escherichia coli O157:H- human isolates from Finland. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 12:634641.
37. Erickson, M. C., and, M. P. Doyle. 2007. Food as a vehicle for transmission of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli. J. Food Prot. 70:24262449.
38. Falkow, S. 2004. Molecular Koch’s postulates applied to bacterial pathogenicity—a personal recollection 15 years later. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 2:6772.
39. Feil, E. J.,, J. M. Smith,, M. C. Enright, and, B. G. Spratt. 2000. Estimating recombinational parameters in Streptococcus pneumoniae from multilocus sequence typing data. Genetics 154:14391450.
40. Feng, P.,, R. C. Sandlin,, C. H. Park,, R. A. Wilson, and, M. Nishibuchi. 1998. Identification of a rough strain of Escherichia coli O157:H7 that produces no detectable O157 antigen. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36:23392341.
41. Fox, J. T.,, D. G. Renter,, M. W. Sanderson,, A. L. Nutsch,, X. Shi, and, T. G. Nagaraja. 2008. Associations between the presence and magnitude of Escherichia coli O157 in feces at harvest and contamination of preintervention beef carcasses. J. Food Prot. 71:17611767.
42. Fremaux, B.,, C. Prigent-Combaret, and, C. Vernozy-Rozand. Long-term survival of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in cattle effluents and environment: An updated review. Vet. Microbiol., in press.
43. Fricke, W. F.,, M. S. Wright,, A. H. Lindell,, D. M. Harkins,, C. Baker-Austin,, J. Ravel, and, R. Stepanauskas. 2008. Insights into the environmental resistance gene pool from the genome sequence of the multidrug-resistant environmental isolate Escherichia coli SMS-3-5. J. Bacteriol. 190:67796794.
44. Friedberg, D.,, T. Umanski,, Y. Fang, and, I. Rosenshine. 1999. Hierarchy in the expression of the locus of enterocyte effacement genes of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli. Mol. Microbiol. 34:941952.
45. Fukushima, H.,, T. Hashizume,, Y. Morita,, J. Tanaka,, K. Azuma,, Y. Mizumoto,, M. Kaneno,, M. Matsuura,, K. Konma, and, T. Kitani. 1999. Clinical experiences in Sakai City Hospital during the massive outbreak of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 infections in Sakai City, 1996. Pediatr. Int. 41:213217.
46. Gautom, R. K. 1997. Rapid pulsed-field gel electrophoresis protocol for typing of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other gram-negative organisms in 1 day. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:29772980.
47. Gomase, V. S., and, S. Tagore. 2008. Transcriptomics. Curr. Drug Metab. 9:245249.
48. Grif, K.,, H. Karch,, C. Schneider,, F. D. Daschner,, L. Beutin,, T. Cheasty,, H. Smith,, B. Rowe,, M. P. Dierich, and, F. Allerberger. 1998. Comparative study of five different techniques for epidemiological typing of Escherichia coli O157. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 32:165176.
49. Guo, F.,, H. Ou, and, C. Zhang. 2003. ZCURVE: a new system for recognizing protein-coding genes in bacterial and archaeal genomes. Nucleic Acids Res. 31:17801789.
50. Hacker, J., and, E. Carniel. 2001. Ecological fitness, genomic islands and bacterial pathogenicity. A Darwinian view of the evolution of microbes. EMBO Rep. 2:376381.
51. Hacker, J., and, J. B. Kaper. 2000. Pathogenicity islands and the evolution of microbes. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 54:641679.
52. Hahm, B.,, Y. Maldonado,, E. Schreiber,, A. K. Bhunia, and, C. H. Nakatsu. 2003. Subtyping of foodborne and environmental isolates of Escherichia coli by multiplex-PCR, rep-PCR, PFGE, ribotyping and AFLP. J. Microbiol. Methods 53:387399.
53. Hayashi, T.,, K. Makino,, M. Ohnishi,, K. Kurokawa,, K. Ishii,, K. Yokoyama,, C. Han,, E. Ohtsubo,, K. Nakayama,, T. Murata,, M. Tanaka,, T. Tobe,, T. Iida,, H. Takami,, T. Honda,, C. Sasakawa,, N. Ogasawara,, T. Yasunaga,, S. Kuhara,, T. Shiba,, M. Hattori, and, H. Shinagawa. 2001. Complete genome sequence of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and genomic comparison with a laboratory strain K-12. DNA Res. 8:1122.
54. Heaton, J. C., and, K. Jones. 2008. Microbial contamination of fruit and vegetables and the behaviour of enteropathogens in the phyllosphere: a review. J. Appl. Microbiol. 104:613626.
55. Heimer, S. R.,, R. A. Welch,, N. T. Perna,, G. Posfai,, P. S. Evans,, J. B. Kaper,, F. R. Blattner, and, H. L. Mobley. 2002. Urease of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli: evidence for regulation by fur and a trans-acting factor. Infect. Immun. 70:10271031.
56. Heir, E.,, B. A. Lindstedt,, T. Vardund,, Y. Wasteson, and, G. Kapperud. 2000. Genomic fingerprinting of shigatoxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains: comparison of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and fluorescent am-plified-fragment-length polymorphism (FAFLP). Epidemiol. Infect. 125:537548.
57. Homma, K.,, S. Fukuchi,, T. Kawabata,, M. Ota, and, K. Nishikawa. 2002. A systematic investigation identifies a significant number of probable pseudogenes in the Escherichia coli genome. Gene 294:2533.
58. Hommais, F., S. Pereira,, C. Acquaviva,, P. Escobar-Páramo, and, E. Denamur. 2005. Single-nucleotide polymorphism phylotyping of Escherichia coli. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71:47844792.
59. Huson, D. H., and, D. Bryant. 2006. Application of phylogenetic networks in evolutionary studies. Mol. Biol. Evol. 23:254267.
60. Hyytiä-Trees, E.,, S. C. Smole,, P. A. Fields,, B. Swaminathan, and, E. M. Ribot. 2006. Second generation subtyping: a proposed PulseNet protocol for multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 (STEC O157). Foodborne Pathog. Dis. 3:118131.
61. Ideses, D.,, U. Gophna,, Y. Paitan,, R. R. Chaudhuri,, M. J. Pallen, and, E. Z. Ron. 2005. A degenerate type III secretion system from septicemic Escherichia coli contributes to patho-genesis. J. Bacteriol. 187:81648171.
62. Ito, Y.,, Y. Iinuma,, H. Baba,, Y. Sugino,, Y. Hasegawa,, K. Shimokata,, S. Ichiyama,, T. Hasegawa, and, M. Ohta. Evaluation of automated ribotyping system for characterization and identification of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated in Japan. Jpn. J. Infect. Dis. 56:200204.
63. Iyoda, S., and, H. Watanabe. 2005. ClpXP protease controls expression of the type III protein secretion system through regulation of RpoS and GrlR levels in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 187:40864094.
64. Kameyama, L.,, L. Fernández,, J. Calderón,, A. Ortiz-Rojas, and, T. A. Patterson. 1999. Characterization of wild lambdoid bacteriophages: detection of a wide distribution of phage immunity groups and identification of a Nus-dependent, nonlambdoid phage group. Virology 263:100111.
65. Keys, C.,, S. Kemper, and, P. Keim. 2005. Highly diverse variable number tandem repeat loci in the E. coli O157:H7 and O55:H7 genomes for high-resolution molecular typing. J. Appl. Microbiol. 98:928940.
66. Khakhria, R.,, D. Duck, and, H. Lior. 1990. Extended phage-typing scheme for Escherichia coli O157:H7. Epidemiol. Infect. 105:511520.
67. Kim, J.,, J. Nietfeldt, and, A. K. Benson. 1999. Octamer-based genome scanning distinguishes a unique subpopulation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains in cattle. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96:1328813293.
68. Konczy, P.,, K. Ziebell,, M. Mascarenhas,, A. Choi,, C. Michaud,, A. M. Kropinski,, T. S. Whittam,, M. Wickham,, B. Finlay, and, M. A. Karmali. 2008. Genomic O island 122, locus for en-terocyte effacement and evolution of virulent verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 190:58325840.
69. Krause, U.,, F. M. Thomson-Carter, and, T. H. Pennington. 1996. Molecular epidemiology of Escherichia coli O157:H7 by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and comparison with that by bacteriophage typing. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34:959961.
70. Kudva, I. T.,, P. S. Evans,, N. T. Perna,, T. J. Barrett,, F. M. Ausubel,, F. R. Blattner, and, S. B. Calderwood. 2002. Strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 differ primarily by insertions or deletions, not single-nucleotide polymorphisms. J. Bacteriol. 184:18731879.
71. Laing, C.,, C. Pegg,, D. Yawney,, K. Ziebell,, M. Steele,, R. J ohnson,, J. E. Thomas,, E. N. Taboada,, Y. Zhang, and, V. P. J. Gannon. 2008. Rapid determination of Escherichia coli O157:H7 lineage types and molecular subtypes by using comparative genomic fingerprinting. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74:66066615.
72. Lee, J.,, T. Bansal,, A. Jayaraman,, W. E. Bentley, and, T. K. Wood. 2007. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli biofilms are inhibited by 7-hydroxyindole and stimulated by isatin. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73:41004109.
73. Liu, Y.,, A. Gilchrist,, J. Zhang, and, X. Li. 2008. Detection of viable but nonculturable Escherichia coli O157:H7 bacteria in drinking water and river water. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74:15021507.
74. Low, A. S.,, F. Dziva,, A. G. Torres,, J. L. Martinez,, T. Rosser,, S. Naylor,, K. Spears,, N. Holden,, A. Mahajan,, J. Findlay,, J. Sales,, D. G. E. Smith,, J. C. Low,, M. P. Stevens, and, D. L. Gally. 2006. Cloning, expression, and characterization of fimbrial operon F9 from enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7. Infect. Immun. 74:22332244.
75. Mahillon, J.,, H. A. Kirkpatrick,, H. L. Kijenski,, C. A. Bloch,, C. K. Rode,, G. F. Mayhew,, D. J. Rose,, G. Plunkett,, V. Burland, and, F. R. Blattner. 1998. Subdivision of the Escherichia coli K-12 genome for sequencing: manipulation and DNA sequence of transposable elements introducing unique restriction sites. Gene 223:4754.
76. Manning, S. D.,, A. S. Motiwala,, A. C. Springman,, W. Qi,, D. W. Lacher,, L. M. Ouellette,, J. M. Mladonicky,, P. Somsel,, J. T. Rudrik,, S. E. Dietrich,, W. Zhang,, B. Swaminathan,, D. Alland, and, T. S. Whittam. 2008. Variation in virulence among clades of Escherichia coli O157:H7 associated with disease outbreaks. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105:48684873.
77. Matsushiro, A.,, K. Sato,, H. Miyamoto,, T. Yamamura, and, T. Honda. 1999. Induction of prophages of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 with norfloxacin. J. Bacteriol. 181:22572260.
78. Matthews, L.,, I. J. McKendrick,, H. Ternent,, G. J. Gunn,, B. Synge, and, M. E. J. Woolhouse. 2006. Super-shedding cattle and the transmission dynamics of Escherichia coli O157. Epidemiol. Infect. 134:131142.
79. Metzker, M. L. 2005. Emerging technologies in DNA sequencing. Genome Res. 15:17671776.
80. Michino, H.,, K. Araki,, S. Minami,, S. Takaya,, N. Sakai,, M. Miyazaki,, A. Ono, and, H. Yanagawa. 1999. Massive outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection in schoolchildren in Sakai City, Japan, associated with consumption of white radish sprouts. Am. J. Epidemiol. 150:787796.
81. Monier, J., and, S. E. Lindow. 2005. Aggregates of resident bacteria facilitate survival of immigrant bacteria on leaf surfaces. Microb. Ecol. 49:343352.
82. Mora, A.,, J. E. Blanco,, M. Blanco,, M. P. Alonso,, G. Dhabi,, A. Echeita,, E. A. González,, M. I. Bernárdez, and, J. Blanco. 2005. Antimicrobial resistance of Shiga toxin (verotoxin)-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and non-O157 strains isolated from humans, cattle, sheep and food in Spain. Res. Microbiol. 156:793806.
83. Morris, C. E., and, J. Monier. 2003. The ecological significance of biofilm formation by plant-associated bacteria. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 41:429453.
84. Murchan, S.,, M. E. Kaufmann,, A. Deplano,, R. de Ryck,, M. Struelens,, C. E. Zinn,, V. Fussing,, S. Salmenlinna,, J. Vuopio-Varkila,, N. El Solh,, C. Cuny,, W. Witte,, P. T. Tassios,, N. Legakis,, W. van Leeuwen,, A. van Belkum,, A. Vindel,, I. Laconcha,, J. Garaizar,, S. Haeggman,, B. Olsson-Liljequist,, U. Ransjo,, G. Coombes, and, B. Cookson. 2003. Harmonization of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis protocols for epidemiological typing of strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a single approach developed by consensus in 10 European laboratories and its application for tracing the spread of related strains. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:15741585.
85. Mutaku, I.,, W. Erku, and, M. Ashenafi. 2005. Growth and survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in fresh tropical fruit juices at ambient and cold temperature. Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr. 56:133139.
86. Nakanishi, N.,, H. Abe,, Y. Ogura,, T. Hayashi,, K. Tashiro,, S. Kuhara,, N. Sugimoto, and, T. Tobe. 2006. ppGpp with DksA controls gene expression in the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) pathogenicity island of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli through activation of two virulence regulatory genes. Mol. Microbiol. 61:194205.
87. Nastasijevic, I.,, R. Mitrovic, and, S. Buncic. 2008. Occurrence of Escherichia coli O157 on hides of slaughtered cattle. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 46:126131.
88. Neely, M. N., and, D. I. Friedman. 1998. Functional and genetic analysis of regulatory regions of coliphage H-19B: location of Shiga-like toxin and lysis genes suggest a role for phage functions in toxin release. Mol. Microbiol. 28:12551267.
89. Neidhardt, F. C., et al. (ed.). 1996. Escherichia coli and Salmonella: Cellular and Molecular Biology, 2nd ed. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.
90. Noguchi, H.,, T. Taniguchi, and, T. Itoh. 2008. MetaGeneAn-notator: detecting species-Specific patterns of ribosomal binding site for precise gene prediction in anonymous prokaryotic and phage genomes. DNA Res. 15:387396.
91. Noller, A. C.,, M. C. McEllistrem,, A. G. F. Pacheco, D. J. Boxrud, and, L. H. Harrison. 2003. Multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis distinguishes outbreak and sporadic Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolates. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:53895397.
92. Noller, A. C.,, M. C. McEllistrem,, O. C. Stine,, J. G. Morris,, D. J. Boxrud,, B. Dixon, and, L. H. Harrison. 2003. Multilocus sequence typing reveals a lack of diversity among Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolates that are distinct by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:675679.
93. Ogura, Y.,, T. Ooka,, Asadulghani, J. Terajima,, J. Nougayrède,, K. Kurokawa,, K. Tashiro,, T. Tobe,, K. Nakayama,, S. Kuhara,, E. Oswald,, H. Watanabe, and, T. Hayashi. 2007. Extensive genomic diversity and selective conservation of virulence-determinants in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli strains of O157 and non-O157 serotypes. Genome Biol. 8:R138.
94. Ohnishi, M.,, K. Kurokawa, and, T. Hayashi. 2001. Diversification of Escherichia coli genomes: are bacteriophages the major contributors? Trends Microbiol. 9:481485.
95. Paton, J. C., and, A. W. Paton. 1998. Pathogenesis and diagnosis of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infections. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 11:450479.
96. Pei, Y.,, J. Terajima,, Y. Saito,, R. Suzuki,, N. Takai,, H. Izumiya,, T. Morita-Ishihara,, M. Ohnishi,, M. Miura,, S. Iyoda,, J. Mitobe,, B. Wang, and, H. Watanabe. 2008. Molecular characterization of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolates dispersed across Japan by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis. Jpn. J. Infect. Dis. 61:5864.
97. Perna, N. T.,, G. Plunkett,, V. Burland,, B. Mau,, J. D. Glasner,, D. J. Rose,, G. F. Mayhew,, P. S. Evans,, J. Gregor,, H. A. Kirkpatrick,, G. Posfai,, J. Hackett,, S. Klink,, A. Boutin,, Y. Shao,, L. Miller,, E. J. Grotbeck,, N. W. Davis,, A. Lim,, E. T. Dimalanta,, K. D. Potamousis,, J. Apodaca,, T. S. Anantharaman,, J. Lin,, G. Yen,, D. C. Schwartz,, R. A. Welch, and, F. R. Blattner. 2001. Genome sequence of enterohaem-orrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7. Nature 409:529533.
98. Plunkett, G.,, D. J. Rose,, T. J. Durfee, and, F. R. Blattner. 1999. Sequence of Shiga toxin 2 phage 933W from Escherichia coli O157:H7: Shiga toxin as a phage late-gene product. J. Bacteriol. 181:17671778.
99. Pradel, N.,, Y. Bertin,, C. Martin, and, V. Livrelli. 2008. Molecular analysis of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains isolated from hemolytic-uremic syndrome patients and dairy samples in France. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74:21182128.
100. Preston, M. A.,, W. Johnson,, R. Khakhria, and, A. Borczyk. 2000. Epidemiologic subtyping of Escherichia coli serogroup O157 strains isolated in Ontario by phage typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 38:23662368.
101. Pupo, G. M.,, D. K. Karaolis,, R. Lan, and, P. R. Reeves. 1997. Evolutionary relationships among pathogenic and non-pathogenic Escherichia coli strains inferred from multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and mdh sequence studies. Infect. Immun. 65:26852692.
102. Puttamreddy, S.,, M. D. Carruthers,, M. L. Madsen, and, F. C. Minion. 2008. Transcriptome analysis of organisms with food safety relevance. Foodborne Pathog. Dis. 5:517529.
103. Radu, S.,, O. W. Ling,, G. Rusul,, M. I. Karim, and, M. Nishibuchi. 2001. Detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 by multiplex PCR and their characterization by plasmid profiling, antimicrobial resistance, RAPD and PFGE analyses. J. Microbiol. Methods 46:131139.
104. Ratnam, S.,, S. B. March,, R. Ahmed,, G. S. Bezanson, and, S. Kasatiya. 1988. Characterization of Escherichia coli sero-type O157:H7. J. Clin. Microbiol. 26:20062012.
105. Reid, S. D.,, C. J. Herbelin,, A. C. Bumbaugh,, R. K. Selander, and, T. S. Whittam. 2000. Parallel evolution of virulence in pathogenic Escherichia coli. Nature 406:6467.
106. Ren, D.,, R. Zuo,, A. F. González Barrios,, L. A. Bedzyk,, G. R. Eldridge,, M. E. Pasmore, and, T. K. Wood. 2005. Differential gene expression for investigation of Escherichia coli bio-film inhibition by plant extract ursolic acid. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71:40224034.
107. Richards, A. 2005. The Walkerton Health Study. Can. Nurse 101:1621.
108. Richards, H. A.,, D. Pérez-Conesa, C. A. Doane,, B. E. Gillespie,, J. R. Mount,, S. P. Oliver,, P. Pangloli, and, F. A. Draughon. 2006. Genetic characterization of a diverse Escherichia coli O157:H7 population from a variety of farm environments. Foodborne Pathog. Dis. 3:259265.
109. Riordan, J. T.,, S. B. Viswanath,, S. D. Manning, and, T. S. Whittam. 2008. Genetic differentiation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 clades associated with human disease by real-time PCR. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46:20702073.
110. Salvadori, M. I.,, J. M. Sontrop,, A. X. Garg,, L. M. Moist,, R. S. Suri, and, W. F. Clark. 2009. Factors that led to the Walkerton tragedy. Kidney Int. Suppl. Feb. S33S34.
111. Samuel, G.,, J. Hogbin,, L. Wang, and, P. R. Reeves. 2004. Relationships of the Escherichia coli O157, O111, and O55 O-antigen gene clusters with those of Salmonella enterica and Citrobacter freundii, which express identical O antigens. J. Bacteriol. 186:65366543.
112. Sanger, F.,, S. Nicklen, and, A. R. Coulson. 1977. DNA sequencing with chain-terminating inhibitors. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 74:54635467.
113. Sayed, A. K., C. Odom, and, J. W. Foster. 2007. The Escherichia coli AraC-family regulators GadX and GadW activate gadE, the central activator of glutamate-dependent acid resistance. Microbiology 153:25842592.
114. Scheutz, F.,, T. Cheasty,, D. Woodward, and, H. R. Smith. 2004. Designation of O174 and O175 to temporary O groups OX3 and OX7, and six new E. coli O groups that include Verocytotoxin-producing E. coli (VTEC): O176, O177, O178, O179, O180 and O181. APMIS 112:569584.
115. Schmidt, H.,, B. Henkel, and, H. Karch. 1997. A gene cluster closely related to type II secretion pathway operons of gram-negative bacteria is located on the large plasmid of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 strains. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 148:265272.
116. Schmidt, H.,, L. Beutin, and, H. Karch. 1995. Molecular analysis of the plasmid-encoded hemolysin of Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain EDL 933. Infect. Immun. 63:10551061.
117. Shames, S. R., S. D. Auweter, and, B. B. Finlay. 2009. Co-evolution and exploitation of host cell signaling pathways by bacterial pathogens. Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol. 41:380389.
118. Sharma, V. K., and, R. L. Zuerner. 2004. Role of hha and ler in transcriptional regulation of the esp operon of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7. J. Bacteriol. 186:72907301.
119. Sharp, F. C., and, V. Sperandio. 2007. QseA directly activates transcription of LEE1 in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. Infect. Immun. 75:24322440.
120. Shen, S.,, M. Mascarenhas,, R. Morgan,, K. Rahn, and, M. A. Karmali. 2005. Identification of four fimbria-encoding genomic islands that are highly specific for verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli serotype O157 strains. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:38403850.
121. Shima, K.,, N. Kawamura,, A. Hinenoya,, N. Sugimoto,, Y. Wu,, M. Asakura,, K. Nishimura,, G. B. Nair, and, S. Yama-saki. 2008. Rapid culture-free identification and molecular typing of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli by PCR-RFLP. Microbiol. Immunol. 52:310313.
122. Shima, K.,, N. Yoshii,, M. Akiba,, K. Nishimura,, M. Nakazawa, and, S. Yamasaki. 2006. Comparison of PCR-RFLP and PFGE for determining the clonality of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli strains. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 257:124131.
123. Siegler, R. L. 1995. The hemolytic uremic syndrome. Pediatr. Clin. North Am. 42:15051529.
124. Sircili, M. P.,, M. Walters,, L. R. Trabulsi, and, V. Sperandio. 2004. Modulation of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli virulence by quorum sensing. Infect. Immun. 72:23292337.
125. Sperandio, V.,, J. L. Mellies,, R. M. Delahay,, G. Frankel,, J. A. Crawford,, W. Nguyen, and, J. B. Kaper. 2000. Activation of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) LEE2 and LEE3 operons by Ler. Mol. Microbiol. 38:781793.
126. Stepkowski, T., and, A. B. Legocki. 2001. Reduction of bacterial genome size and expansion resulting from obligate intracellular lifestyle and adaptation to soil habitat. Acta. Biochim. Pol. 48:367381.
127. Stothard, P., and, D. S. Wishart. 2005. Circular genome visualization and exploration using CGView. Bioinformatics 21:537539.
128. Su, M. S.,, H. Kao,, C. Lin, and, W. Syu. 2008. Gene 10017 encodes a second chaperone for EspA of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7. Microbiology 154:10941103.
129. Taboada, E. N.,, J. M. Mackinnon,, J. Johnson,, M. J. Roberts,, S. Ross,, W. O. S. Mauro,, A. Ratansi,, J. Yan,, J. A. Lorentz,, J. Thomas,, K. Rahn, and, V. P. J. Gannon. 2007. The use of high-throughput comparative genomics-based molecular typing enhances cluster detection in epidemiological studies of Campylobacter jejejuni. Campylobacter Helicobacter-Related Organisms 2007 Meeting (CHRO 2007). Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Zoonoses Public Health 54 (Suppl. 1):200008.
130. Tarr, P. I.,, S. S. Bilge,, J. C. J. Vary,, S. Jelacic,, R. L. Habeeb,, T. R. Ward,, M. R. Baylor, and, T. E. Besser. 2000. Iha: a novel Escherichia coli O157:H7 adherence-conferring molecule encoded on a recently acquired chromosomal island of conserved structure. Infect. Immun. 68:14001407.
131. Tarr, P. I.,, C. A. Gordon, and, W. L. Chandler. Shiga-toxin-producing Escherichia coli and haemolytic uraemic syndrome. Lancet 365:10731086.
132. Tartof, S. Y.,, O. D. Solberg, and, L. W. Riley. 2007. Geno-typic analyses of uropathogenic Escherichia coli based on fimH single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). J. Med. Microbiol. 56:13631369.
133. Tatsuno, I.,, M. Horie,, H. Abe,, T. Miki,, K. Makino,, H. Shinagawa,, H. Taguchi,, S. Kamiya,, T. Hayashi, and, C. Sasakawa. 2001. toxB gene on pO157 of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 is required for full epithelial cell adherence phenotype. Infect. Immun. 69:66606669.
134. Tatsuno, I.,, K. Nagano,, K. Taguchi,, L. Rong,, H. Mori, and, C. Sasakawa. 2003. Increased adherence to Caco-2 cells caused by disruption of the yhiE and yhiF genes in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7. Infect. Immun. 71:25982606.
135. Taylor, A. L., and, M. S. Thoman. 1964. The genetic map of Escherichia coli K-12. Genetics 50:659677.
136. Taylor, D. E.,, M. Rooker,, M. Keelan,, L. Ng,, I. Martin,, N. T. Perna,, N. T. V. Burland, and, F. R. Blattner. 2002. Ge-nomic variability of O islands encoding tellurite resistance in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolates. J. Bacteriol. 184:46904698.
137. Tintle, N. L.,, A. A. Best,, M. DeJongh,, D. Van Bruggen,, F. Heffron,, S. Porwollik, and, R. C. Taylor. 2008. Gene set analyses for interpreting microarray experiments on prokaryotic organisms. BMC Bioinformatics 9:469.
138. Tobe, T.,, S. A. Beatson,, H. Taniguchi,, H. Abe,, C. M. Bailey,, A. Fivian,, R. Younis,, S. Matthews,, O. Marches,, G. Frankel,, T. Hayashi, and, M. J. Pallen. 2006. An extensive repertoire of type III secretion effectors in Escherichia coli O157 and the role of lambdoid phages in their dissemination. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103:1494114946.
139. Turner, R. J., J. H. Weiner, and, D. E. Taylor. 1999. Tellurite-mediated thiol oxidation in Escherichia coli. Microbiology 145:25492557.
140. Tuttle, J.,, T. Gomez,, M. P. Doyle,, J. G. Wells,, T. Zhao,, R. V. Tauxe, and, P. M. Griffin. 1999. Lessons from a large outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infections: insights into the infectious dose and method of widespread contamination of hamburger patties. Epidemiol. Infect. 122:185192.
141. Urdahl, A. M.,, N. J. C. Strachan,, Y. Wasteson,, M. Macrae, and, I. D. Ogden. 2008. Diversity of Escherichia coli O157 in a longitudinal farm study using multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis. J. Appl. Microbiol. 105:13441353.
142. U.S. FDA Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. (2006, September 16). US FDA/CFSAN - Nationwide E. coli O157:H7 Outbreak: Questions and answers. http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/spinacqa.html#howmany.
143. Vanaja, S. K.,, T. M. Bergholz, and, T. S. Whittam. 2008. Characterization of the Escherichia coli O157:H7 Sakai GadE regulon. J. Bacteriol. 191:18681877.
144. Vorob’eva, L. I. 2004. Stressors, stress reactions, and survival of bacteria: a review. Appl. Biochem. Microbiol. 40:217224.
145. Vos, P.,, R. Hogers,, M. Bleeker,, M. Reijans,, T. van de Lee,, M. Hornes,, A. Frijters,, J. Pot,, J. Peleman, and, M. Kuiper. 1995. AFLP: a new technique for DNA fingerprinting. Nucleic Acids Res. 23:44074414.
146. Wells, J. G.,, B. R. Davis,, I. K. Wachsmuth,, L. W. Riley,, R. S. Remis,, R. Sokolow, and, G. K. Morris. 1983. Laboratory investigation of hemorrhagic colitis outbreaks associated with a rare Escherichia coli serotype. J. Clin. Microbiol. 18:512520.
147. Wells, T. J.,, O. Sherlock,, L. Rivas,, A. Mahajan,, S. A. Beatson,, M. Torpdahl,, R. I. Webb,, L. P. Allsopp,, K. S. Gobius,, D. L. Gally, and, M. A. Schembri. 2008. EhaA is a novel au-totransporter protein of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 that contributes to adhesion and biofilm formation. Environ. Microbiol. 10:589604.
148. Wells, T. J.,, O. Sherlock,, L. Rivas,, A. Mahajan,, S. A. Beatson,, M. Torpdahl,, R. I. Webb,, L. P. Allsopp,, K. S. Gobius,, D. L. Gally, and, M. A. Schembri. 2008. EhaA is a novel au-totransporter protein of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 that contributes to adhesion and biofilm formation. Environ. Microbiol. 10:589604.
149. Wick, L. M., W. Qi, D. W. Lacher, and, T. S. Whittam. 2005. Evolution of genomic content in the stepwise emergence of Escherichia coli O157:H7. J. Bacteriol. 187:17831791.
150. Wickham, M. E.,, C. Lupp,, M. Mascarenhas,, A. Vazquez,, B. K. Coombes,, N. F. Brown,, B. A. Coburn,, W. Deng,, J. L. Puente,, M. A. Karmali, and, B. B. Finlay. 2006. Bacteriol genetic determinants of non-O157 STEC outbreaks and hemolytic-uremic syndrome after infection. J. Infect. Dis. 194:819827.
151. Wilgenbusch, J. C., and, D. Swofford. 2003. Inferring evolutionary trees with PAUP*. Curr. Protoc. Bioinformatics Chapter 6, Unit 6.4.
152. Willshaw, G. A.,, T. Cheasty,, H. R. Smith,, S. J. O’Brien, and, G. K. Adak. 2001. Verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) O157 and other VTEC from human infections in England and Wales: 1995-1998. J. Med. Microbiol. 50:135142.
153. Wood, T. K. 2009. Insights on Escherichia coli biofilm formation and inhibition from whole-transcriptome profiling. Environ. Microbiol. 11:115.
154. Woodward, D. L.,, C. G. Clark,, R. A. Caldeira,, R. Ahmed, and, F. G. Rodgers. 2002. Verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC): a major public health threat in Canada. Can. J Infect. Dis. 13:321330.
155. Wu, W.,, B. P. Stupi,, V. A. Litosh,, D. Mansouri,, D. Farley,, S. Morris,, S. Metzker, and, M. L. Metzker. 2007. Termination of DNA synthesis by N6-alkylated, not 3′-O-alkylated, pho-tocleavable 2′-deoxyadenosine triphosphates. Nucleic Acids Res. 35:63396349.
156. Yoon, J. W., and, C. J. Hovde. 2008. All blood, no stool: en-terohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection. J. Vet. Sci. 9:219231.
157. Zhang, L.,, U. Srinivasan,, C. F. Marrs,, D. Ghosh,, J. R. Gilsdorf, and, B. Foxman. 2004. Library on a slide for bacterial comparative genomics. BMC Microbiol. 4:12.
158. Zhang, W.,, W. Qi,, T. J. Albert,, A. S. Motiwala,, D. Alland,, E. K. Hyytia-Trees,, E. M. Ribot,, P. I. Fields,, T. S. Whittam, and, B. Swaminathan. 2006. Probing genomic diversity and evolution of Escherichia coli O157 by single nucleotide polymorphisms. Genome Res. 16:757767.
159. Zhang, X.,, A. D. McDaniel,, L. E. Wolf,, G. T. Keusch,, M. K. Waldor, and, D. W. K. Acheson. 2000. Quinolone antibiotics induce Shiga toxin-encoding bacteriophages, toxin production, and death in mice. J. Infect. Dis. 181:664670.
160. Zhang, Y.,, C. Laing,, M. Steele,, K. Ziebell,, R. Johnson,, A. Benson,, E. Taboada, and, V. Gannon. 2007. Genome evolution in major Escherichia coli O157:H7 lineages. BMC Genomics 8:121.
161. Ziebell, K.,, M. Steele,, Y. Zhang,, A. Benson,, E. N. Taboada,, C. Laing,, S. McEwen,, B. Ciebin,, R. Johnson, and, V. Gannon. 2008. Genotypic characterization and prevalence of virulence factors among Canadian Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74:43144323.


Generic image for table
Table 1

Major outbreaks of O157 infections since 1982

Citation: Gannon V, Laing C, Zhang Y. 2011. Insights from Genomic Studies of the Foodborne and Waterborne Pathogen O157:H7, p 1-21. In Fratamico P, Liu Y, Kathariou S (ed), Genomes of Foodborne and Waterborne Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816902.ch1
Generic image for table
Table 2

Bacteriophages present in O157:H7 lineage I strain Sakai

Citation: Gannon V, Laing C, Zhang Y. 2011. Insights from Genomic Studies of the Foodborne and Waterborne Pathogen O157:H7, p 1-21. In Fratamico P, Liu Y, Kathariou S (ed), Genomes of Foodborne and Waterborne Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816902.ch1
Generic image for table
Table 3

Selected O islands (OI) of O157:H7 strain EDL933 and their corresponding S-loops of O157:H7 strain Sakai, the location of each within the genome, and their function

Citation: Gannon V, Laing C, Zhang Y. 2011. Insights from Genomic Studies of the Foodborne and Waterborne Pathogen O157:H7, p 1-21. In Fratamico P, Liu Y, Kathariou S (ed), Genomes of Foodborne and Waterborne Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816902.ch1

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error