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Chapter 15 : Mycobacterium avium Subspecies paratuberculosis
Category: Applied and Industrial Microbiology; Food Microbiology
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Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis, the causative agent of Johne’s disease, is distributed worldwide in farmed ruminant animals such as cattle, sheep and goats, and in wildlife such as rabbits, deer, antelopes, and bison. The major impact of this disease is on the world's milk industry. When the focus is on a particular mutant phenotype such as attenuation in cultured macrophages or in mice, then some defined virulence determinants have recently been identified. The key genomic attributes of the bovine isolate of M. aviumsubsp. paratuberculosis, designated strain K-10, are discussed in this chapter. The chapter provides some applications of genome sequences. None of the studies have been applied genomic tools to directly address the role of M. avium subsp. One strain typing study examined caprine isolates of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis using three molecular techniques: PFGE, IS900 RFLP analysis and IS1311 PCR-restriction enzyme analysis. This study found that PFGE analysis was more discriminatory than the other two methods, enabling a resolution of 13 different PFGE profiles among the 44 isolates evaluated. Researchers have also investigated this method but found more consistent expression of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosisproteins using the traditional recombinant protein production approach.
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Transmission electron micrograph of M. avium subsp. para-tuberculosis. The bacterium has a short rod shape about 720 nm in length and 350 nm in width. This bacilli has its outer layer sloughing off. The outer layer of the cell wall is indicated by the black arrow and it has accumulated at one end (black arrowhead). Colloidal gold labeling is observed where monoclonal antibodies against an M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis protein are bound and is indicated by white arrows.
Use of the dot blot protein array to obtain antibody reactivity profiles in experimentally infected calves. Shown are dot blot arrays exposed to sera from experimentally infected calves. The time point for when each serum sample was collected is indicated in the margin beneath the images. The animal number is listed in the right margin. A whole-cell lysate representing a majority of the proteins produced by M. paratuberculosis is spotted in E12 and H12 for all dot blots. Three proteins present on the upper right corner of the array (in column 12) are polyhistidine-tagged proteins (MAP0087, MAP2121c and MAP3084c). The remaining 89 spots contain MBP fusion proteins of M. paratuberculosis coding sequences. The spot assignments are published elsewhere ( 6 ). This figure was originally published by Bannantine et al. 2008 ( 6 ).