1887

Chapter 17 : Hepatitis A and E Viruses

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Hepatitis A and E Viruses, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816902/9781555814571_Chap17-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816902/9781555814571_Chap17-2.gif

Abstract:

In the early 1940s, "infectious" and "serum" hepatitis was identified based on mode of transmission. Enteric hepatitis includes two types: hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV), both of which can be foodborne and waterborne. The genetic characteristics of the enteric hepatitis viruses are discussed in this chapter. Enteric hepatitis infections may also develop asymptomatically; chronic disease has so far never been reported. The absence of a lipid envelope helps ensure the stability of the enteric hepatitis agents in the presence of biliary salts, which is not the case for serum hepatitis viruses. Alum and chlorine treatment prevented bacterial infections in 1955 and 1956, but 30,000 cases of hepatitis occurred among the population. Irrigation of vegetables as well as washing and processing of any food that is consumed raw with HAV- or HEV-contaminated water could lead to enteric hepatitis outbreaks. Enteric hepatitis viruses may become water contaminants through the discharge of untreated sewage and treated wastewater. Molecular epidemiology points to a geographical distribution of hepatitis A and E viruses. Globalization, climate change, and the inherent genetic variability of these viruses may promote the emergence of new variants. All this calls for the need to trace and characterize circulating enteric hepatitis viruses.

Citation: Bosch A, Pintó R. 2011. Hepatitis A and E Viruses, p 247-258. In Fratamico P, Liu Y, Kathariou S (ed), Genomes of Foodborne and Waterborne Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816902.ch17

Key Concept Ranking

Hepatitis E virus
0.7852785
Hepatitis A Virus
0.54191214
0.7852785
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Organization of the hepatitis A virus genome. Top: Diagram of the virus genome depicting the genome-linked VPg protein at the 5′ end and the poly A tail at the 3′ end. Bottom: Proteolytic processing pattern of the polyprotein resulting after translation.

Citation: Bosch A, Pintó R. 2011. Hepatitis A and E Viruses, p 247-258. In Fratamico P, Liu Y, Kathariou S (ed), Genomes of Foodborne and Waterborne Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816902.ch17
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Organization of the hepatitis E virus genome. The viral genome, with its capped 5′ end and its polyadenylated 3′ end, encodes 3 ORFs. Nonstructural proteins are encoded by ORF-1 and are translated from the genomic RNA. Capsid proteins are encoded by ORF-2 and are expressed from a 2.0-kb subgenomic RNA, which also expresses an immunogenic protein of unknown function encoded by ORF-3. The role of a 3.7-subgenomic RNA also found in infected cells is yet to be determined.

Citation: Bosch A, Pintó R. 2011. Hepatitis A and E Viruses, p 247-258. In Fratamico P, Liu Y, Kathariou S (ed), Genomes of Foodborne and Waterborne Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816902.ch17
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555816902.ch17
1. Abad, F. X.,, R. M. Pinto, and, A. Bosch. 1994. Survival of enteric viruses on environmental fomites. Appl. Environ. Mi-crobiol. 60:37043710.
2. Abad, F. X.,, R. M. Pinto,, J. M. Diez, and, A. Bosch. 1994. Disinfection of human enteric viruses in water by copper and silver in combination with low levels of chlorine. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60:23772383.
3. Adzhubei, A. A.,, I. A. Adzhubei,, I. A. Krasheninnikov, and, S. Neidle. 1996. Non-random usage of “degenerate” codons is related to protein three-dimensional structure. FEBS Lett. 399:7882.
4. Aggarwal, R., and, S. R. Naik. 1994. Hepatitis E: intrafamilial transmission versus waterborne spread. J. Hepatol. 21:718723.
5. Agol, V. I. 2002. Picornavirus genetics: an overview, p. 269-284. In B. L. Semler and, E. Wimmer (ed.), Molecular Biology of Picornaviruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
6. Akriviadis, E. A., and, A. G. Redeker. 1989. Fulminant hepatitis A in intravenous drug users with chronic liver disease. Ann. Intern. Med 110:838839.
7. Aragones, L.,, A. Bosch, and, R. M. Pinto. 2008. Hepatitis A virus mutant spectra under the selective pressure of monoclonal antibodies: codon usage constraints limit capsid variability. J. Virol. 82:16881700.
8. Aragones, L.,, S. Guix,, E. Ribes,, A. Bosch, and, R. M. Pintó. 2010. Fine-tuning translation kinetics selection as the driving force of codon usage bias in the hepatitis A virus capsid. PLoS Pathog., 6:e1000797.
9. Aye, T. X,, T. Uchida,, X. Z. Ma,, F. Iida,, T. Shikata,, H. Zhuang, and, K. M. Win. 1992. Complete nucleotide sequence of a hepatitis E virus isolated from the Xinjiang epidemic (1986-1988) of China. Nucleic Acids Res. 20:3512.
10. Balayan, M. S.,, R. K. Usmanov,, N. A. Zamyatina,, D. I. Djumalieva, and, F. R. Karas. 1990. Brief report: experimental hepatitis E infection in domestic pigs. J. Med. Virol. 32:5859.
11. Baroudy, B. M.,, J. R. Ticehurst,, T. A. Miele,, J. V. Maizel, Jr.,, R. H. Purcell, and, S. M. Feinstone. 1985. Sequence analysis of hepatitis A virus cDNA coding for capsid proteins and RNA polymerase. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82:21432147.
12. Barzaga, N. G. 2000. Hepatitis A shifting epidemiology in South-East Asia and China. Vaccine 18:S61S64.
13. Berg, D. E.,, M. A. Kohn,, T. A. Farley, and, L. M. McFarland. 2000. Multi-state outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis traced to fecal-contaminated oysters harvested in Louisiana. J. Infect. Dis. 181(Suppl. 2):381386.
14. Bile, K.,, A. Isse,, O. Mohamud,, P. Allebeck,, L. Nilsson,, H. Norder,, I. K. Mushahwar, and, L. O. Magnius. 1994. Contrasting roles of rivers and wells as sources of drinking water on attack and fatality rates in a hepatitis E epidemic in Somalia. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 51:466474.
15. Borman, A. M.,, R. Kirchweger,, E. Ziegler,, R. E. Rhoads,, T. Skern, and, K. M. Kean. 1997. elF4G and its proteolytic cleavage products: effect on initiation of protein synthesis from capped, uncapped, and IRES-containing mRNAs. RNA 3:186196.
16. Bosch, A.,, F. Lucena,, J. M. Diez,, R. Gajardo, and, M. Blasi. 1991. Waterborne viruses associated with hepatitis outbreak. J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 83:8083.
17. Bostock, A. D.,, P. Mepham,, S. Phillips,, S. Skidmore, and, M. H. Hambling. 1979. Hepatitis A infection associated with the consumption of mussels. J. Infect. 1:171177.
18. Bower, W,, O. Nainan,, X. Han, and,, H. Margolis. 2000. Duration of viremia in hepatitis A virus infection. J. Infect. Dis. 182:1217.
19. Brown, E. A.,, A. J. Zajac, and, S. M. Lemon. 1994. In vitro characterization of an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) present within the 5′ nontranslated region of hepatitis A virus RNA: comparison with the IRES of encephalomyocarditis virus. J. Virol. 68:10661074.
20. Calder, L.,, G. Simmons,, C. Thornley,, P. Taylor,, K. Pritchard,, G. Greening, and, J. Bishop. 2003. An outbreak of hepatitis A associated with consumption of raw blueberries. Epidemiol. Infect. 131:745751.
21. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1997. Hepatitis A associated with consumption of frozen strawberries-Michigan, March 1997. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 46:288295.
22. Ching, K. Z.,, T. Nakano,, L. E. Chapman,, A. Demby, and, B. H. Robertson. 2002. Genetic characterization of wild-type genotype VII hepatitis A virus. J. Gen. Virol. 83:5360.
23. Chou, X, and, G. Lakatos. 2004. Clustered bottlenecks in mRNA translation and protein synthesis. Phys. Rev. Lett. 93:198101198104.
24. Cianciara, J. 2000. Hepatitis A shifting epidemiology in Poland and Eastern Europe. Vaccine 18(Suppl. 1):S68S70.
25. Clayson, E. X,, B. L. Innis,, K. S. Myint,, S. Narupiti,, D. W. Vaughn,, S. Giri,, P. Ranabhat, and, M. P. Shrestha. 1995. Detection of hepatitis E virus infections among domestic swine in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 53:228232.
26. Clemente-Casares, P.,, S. Pina,, M. Buti,, R. Jardi,, M. Martin,, S. Bofill-Mas, and, R. Girones. 2003. Hepatitis E virus epidemiology in industrialized countries. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 9:448454.
27. Cohen, J. I.,, J. R. Ticehurst,, R. H. Purcell,, A. Buckler-White, and, B. M. Baroudy. 1987. Complete nucleotide sequence of wild-type hepatitis A virus: comparison with different strains of hepatitis A virus and other picornaviruses. J. Virol. 61:5059.
28. Corwin, A. L.,, N. T. Tien,, K. Bounlu,, J. Winarno,, M. P. Putri,, K. Laras,, R. P. Larasati,, N. Sukri,, T. Endy,, H. A. Sulaiman, and, K. C. Hyams. 1999. The unique riverine ecology of hepatitis E virus transmission in South-East Asia. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 93:255260.
29. Costa-Mattioli, M.,, J. Cristina,, H. Romero,, R. Perez-Bercof,, D. Casane,, R. Colina,, L. Garcia,, I. Vega,, G. Glikman,, V. Romanowsky,, A. Castello,, E. Nicand,, M. Gassin,, S. Billaudel, and, V. Ferre. 2002. Molecular evolution of hepatitis A virus: a new classification based on the complete VP1 protein. J. Virol. 76:95169525.
30. Costa-Mattioli, M.,, S. Monpoeho,, E. Nicand,, M. H. Aleman,, S. Billaudel, and, V. Ferre. 2002. Quantification and duration of viraemia during hepatitis A infection as determined by realtime RT-PCR. J. Viral Hepat. 9:101106.
31. Costa-Mattioli, M.,, A. D. Napoli,, V. Ferre,, S. Billaudel,, R. Perez-Bercoff, and, J. Cristina. 2003. Genetic variability of hepatitis A virus. J. Gen. Virol. 84:31913201.
32. Costafreda, M. I.,, A. Bosch, and, R. M. Pinto. 2006. Development, evaluation, and standardization of a real-time TaqMan reverse transcription-PCR assay for quantification of hepatitis A virus in clinical and shellfish samples. Appl. Environ. Micro-biol. 72:38463855.
33. Dentinger, C. M.,, W. A. Bower,, O. V. Nainan,, S. M. Cotter,, G. Myers,, L. M. Dubusky,, S. Fowler,, E. D. Salehi, and, B. P. Bell. 2001. An outbreak of hepatitis A associated with green onions. J. Infect. Dis. 183:12731276.
34. Domingo, E.,, V. Martin,, C. Perales,, A. Grande-Perez,, J. Garcia-Arriaza, and, A. Arias. 2006. Viruses as quasispecies: biological implications. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 299:5182.
35. Dominguez, A.,, M. Oviedo,, G. Carmona,, J. M. Jansa,, E. Borras,, L. Salleras, and, A. Plasencia. 2008. Epidemiology of hepatitis A before and after the introduction of a universal vaccination programme in Catalonia, Spain. J. Viral Hepat. 15:5156.
36. Ehrenfeld, E., and, N. L. Teterina. 2002. Iniciation of translation of picornavirus RNAs: structure and function of the internal ribosome entry site, p. 159-169. In B. L. Semler and, E. Wimmer (ed.), Molecular Biology of Picornaviruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
37. Emerson, S.,, U. Huang,, Y. K. Nguyen,, H. Brockington,, A. Govindarajan,, S. St. Claire,, M. Shapiro, and, R. H. Purcell. 2002. Identification of VP1/2A and 2C as virulence genes of hepatitis A virus and demonstration of genetic instability of 2C. J. Virol. 76:85518559.
38. Emerson, S. U., and, R. H. Purcell. 2003. Hepatitis E virus. Rev. Med. Virol. 13:145154.
39. Emerson, S. U., and, R. H. Purcell. 2007. Hepatitis E virus, p. 3047-3058. In D. M. Knipe and, P. M. Howley (eds.), Fields Virology. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
40. Evans, M. S.,, T. F. Clarke, and, P. L. Clark. 2005. Conformations of co-translational folding intermediates. Protein Pept. Lett. 12:189195.
41. Feagins, A. R.,, T. Opriessnig,, D. K. Guenette,, P. G. Halbur, and, X. J. Meng. 2007. Detection and characterization of infectious Hepatitis E virus from commercial pig livers sold in local grocery stores in the USA. J. Gen. Virol. 88:912917.
42. Fujiwara, K.,, O. Yokosuka,, T. Ehata,, H. Saisho,, N. Saotome,, K. Suzuki,, K. Okita,, K. Kiyosawa, and, M. Omata. 2002. Association between severity of type A hepatitis and nucleotide variations in the 5′ non-translated region of hepatitis A virus RNA: strains from fulminant hepatitis have fewer nucleotide substitutions. Gut 51:8288.
43. Fujiwara, K.,, O. Yokosuka,, K. Fukai,, F. Imazeki,, H. Saisho, and, M. Omata. 2001. Analysis of full-length hepatitis A virus genome in sera from patients with fulminant and self-limited acute type A hepatitis. J. Hepatol. 35:112119.
44. Gabrieli, R.,, G. Sanchez,, A. Macaluso,, F. Cenko,, S. Bino,, L. Palombi,, E. Buonomo,, R. M. Pinto,, A. Bosch, and, M. Divizia. 2004. Hepatitis in Albanian children: molecular analysis of hepatitis A virus isolates. J. Med. Virol. 72:533537.
45. Gavrilin, G. V.,, E. A. Cherkasova,, G. Y. Lipskaya,, O. M. Kew, and, V. I. Agol. 2000. Evolution of circulating wild poliovirus and vaccine-derived poliovirus in an immunodeficient patient: a unifying model. J. Virol. 74:73817390.
46. Germinario, C.,, P. Luigi Lopalco,, M. Chicanna, and, G. Da Villa. 2000. From hepatitis B to hepatitis A and B prevention: the Puglia (Italy) experience. Vaccine 18:3326.
47. Glikson, M.,, E. Galun,, R. Oren,, R. Tur-Kaspa, and, D. Shouval. 1992. Relapsing hepatitis A. Review of 14 cases and literature survey. Medicine (Baltimore) 71:1423.
48. Goens, S. D., and, M. L. Perdue. 2004. Hepatitis E viruses in humans and animals. Anim. Health Res. Rev. 5:145156.
49. Graff, J.,, U. Torian,, H. Nguyen, and, S. U. Emerson. 2006. A bicistronic subgenomic mRNA encodes both the ORF2 and ORF3 proteins of hepatitis E virus. J. Virol. 80:59195926.
50. Graff, J.,, O. C. Richards,, K. M. Swiderek,, M. T. Davis,, F. Rusnak,, S. A. Harmon,, X. Y. Jia,, D. F. Summers, and, E. Ehrenfeld. 1999. Hepatitis A virus capsid protein VP1 has a heterogeneous C terminus. J. Virol. 73:60156023.
51. Grandadam, M.,, S. Tebbal,, M. Caron,, M. Siriwardana,, B. Larouze,, J. L. Koeck,, Y. Buisson,, V. Enouf, and, E. Nicand. 2004. Evidence for hepatitis E virus quasispecies. J. Gen. Virol. 85:31893194.
52. Guthmann, J. P.,, H. Klovstad,, D. Boccia,, N. Hamid,, L. Pinoges,, J. Y. Nizou,, M. Tatay,, F. Diaz,, A. Moren,, R. F. Grais,, I. Ciglenecki,, E. Nicand, and, P. J. Guerin. 2006. A large outbreak of hepatitis E among a displaced population in Darfur, Sudan, 2004: the role of water treatment methods. Clin. Infect. Dis. 42:16851691.
53. Gyarmati, P.,, N. Mohammed,, H. Norder,, J. Blomberg,, S. Belak, and, F. Widen. 2007. Universal detection of hepatitis E virus by two real-time PCR assays: TaqMan and Primer-Probe Energy Transfer. J. Virol. Methods 146:226235.
54. Halliday, M. L.,, L.-Y. Kang,, T. -Z. Zhou,, M.-D. Hu,, Q. -C. Pan,, T. -Y. Fu,, Y. S. Huang, and, S. -L. Hu. 1991. An epidemic of hepatitis A attributable to the ingestion of raw clams in Shanghai, China. J. Infect. Dis. 164:852859.
55. He, J.,, B. L. Innis,, M. P. Shrestha,, E. T. Clayson,, R. M. Scott,, K. J. Linthicum,, G. G. Musser,, S. C. Gigliotti,, L. N. Binn,, R. A. Kuschner, and, D. W. Vaughn. 2002. Evidence that rodents are a reservoir of hepatitis E virus for humans in Nepal. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:44934498.
56. Hollinger, F. B., and, S. U. Emerson. 2007. Hepatitis A virus, p. 911-947. In D. M. Knipe and, P. M. Howley (ed.), Fields Virology. Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
57. Jackson, T. A. 2002. Proteins involved in the function of pi-cornavirus Internal Ribosome Entry sites, p. 171-186. In B. L. Semler and, E. Wimmer (ed.), Molecular Biology of Picornaviruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
58. Jameel, S.,, M. Zafrullah,, M. H. Ozdener, and, S. K. Panda. 1996. Expression in animal cells and characterization of the hepatitis E virus structural proteins. J. Virol. 70:207216.
59. Jothikumar, N.,, T. L. Cromeans,, B. H. Robertson,, X. J. Meng, and, V. R. Hill. 2006. A broadly reactive one-step real-time RT-PCR assay for rapid and sensitive detection of hepatitis E virus. J. Virol. Methods 131:6571.
60. Jothikumar, N.,, T. L. Cromeans,, M. D. Sobsey, and, B. H. Robertson. 2005. Development and evaluation of a broadly reactive TaqMan assay for rapid detection of hepatitis A virus. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71:33593363.
61. Kabrane-Lazizi, Y.,, X. J. Meng,, R. H. Purcell, and, S. U. Emerson. 1999. Evidence that the genomic RNA of hepatitis E virus is capped. J. Virol. 73:88488850.
62. Kabrane-Lazizi, Y.,, J. B. Fine,, J. Elm,, G. E. Glass,, H. Higa,, A. Diwan,, C. J. J. Gibbs,, S. -J. Meng,, S. U. Emerson, and, R. H. Purcell. 1999. Evidence for widespread infection of wild rats with hepatitis E virus in the United States. Am. J. Trop. Med. 61:331335.
63. Fujiwara, K.,, O. Yokosuka,, F. Imazeki,, H. Saisho,, N. Saotome,, K. Suzuki,, K. Okita,, E. Tanaka, and,, M. Omata. 2003. Analysis of the genotype-determining region of hepatitis A viral RNA in relation to disease severities. Hepatol. Res. 25:124134.
64. Khuroo, M. S.,, S. Kamili, and, S. Jameel. 1995. Vertical transmission of hepatitis E virus. Lancet 345:10251026.
65. Khuroo, M. S.,, M. R. Teli,, S. Skidmore,, M. A. Sofi, and, M. I. Khuroo. 1981. Incidence and severity of viral hepatitis in pregnancy. Am. J. Med. 70:252255.
66. Koizumi, Y.,, N. Isoda,, Y. Sato,, T. Iwaki,, K. Ono,, K. Ido,, K. Sugano,, M. Takahashi,, T. Nishizawa, and, H. Okamoto. 2004. Infection of a Japanese patient by genotype 4 hepatitis e virus while traveling in Vietnam. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:38833885.
67. Kuechler, E.,, J. Seipelt,, H.-D. Liebig, and, W. Sommergruber. 2002. Picornavirus proteinase-mediated shutoff of host cell translation: direct cleavage of a cellular initiation factor, p. 301-312. In B. L. Semler and, E. Wimmer (ed.), Molecular Biology of Picornaviruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
68. Kumar, A.,, M. Beniwal,, P. Kar,, J. B. Sharma, and, N. S. Murthy. 2004. Hepatitis E in pregnancy. Int. J. Gynaecol. Ob-stet. 85:240244.
69. Lemon, S. M., and, L. N. Binn. 1983. Antigenic relatedness of two strains of hepatitis A virus determined by cross neutralization. Infect. Immun. 42:418420.
70. Leong, L. E. C.,, C. T. Cornell, and, B. L. Semler. 2002. Processing determinants and functions of cleavage products of picornavirus, p. 187-198. In B. L. Semler and, E. Wimmer (ed.), Molecular Biology of Picornaviruses. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
71. Li, T. C.,, K. Chijiwa,, N. Sera,, T. Ishibashi,, Y. Etoh,, Y. Shinohara,, Y. Kurata,, M. Ishida,, S. Sakamoto,, N. Takeda, and, T. Miyamura. 2005. Hepatitis E virus transmission from wild boar meat. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 11:19581960.
72. Lu, L.,, C. Li, and, C. H. Hagedorn. 2006. Phylogenetic analysis of global hepatitis E virus sequences: genetic diversity, subtypes and zoonosis. Rev. Med. Virol. 16:536.
73. Lu, L.,, K. Z. Ching,, V. S. de Paula,, T. Nakano,, G. Siegl,, M. Weitz, and, B. H. Robertson. 2004. Characterization of the complete genomic sequence of genotype II hepatitis A virus (CF53/Berne isolate). J. Gen. Virol. 85:29432952.
74. Martin, A.,, D. Bénichou,, S. F. Chao,, L. Cohen, and, S. M. Lemon. 1999. Maturation of the hepatitis A virus capsid protein VP1 is not dependent on processing by the 3Cpro protei-nase. J. Virol. 73:62206227.
75. Mast, E. E., and, K. Krawczynski. 1996. Hepatitis E: an overview. Annu. Rev. Med. 47:257266.
76. Mast, E. E., and, M. J. Alter. 1993. Epidemiology of viral hepatitis: an overview. Sem. Virol. 4:273283.
77. Matsuda, H.,, K. Okada,, K. Takahashi, and, S. Mishiro. 2003. Severe hepatitis E virus infection after ingestion of uncooked liver from a wild boar. J. Infect. Dis. 188:944.
78. Meng, X. J. 2003. Swine hepatitis E virus: cross-species infection and risk in xenotransplantation. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 278:185216.
79. Meng, X. J.,, R. H. Purcell,, P. G. Halbur,, J. R. Lehman,, D. M. Webb,, T. S. Tsareva,, J. S. Haynes,, B. J. Thacker, and, S. U. Emerson. 1997. A novel virus in swine is closely related to the human hepatitis E virus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94:98609865.
80. Meng, X. J.,, B. Wiseman,, F. Elvinger,, D. K. Guenette,, T. E. Toth,, R. E. Engle,, S. U. Emerson, and, R. H. Purcell. 2002. Prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis E virus in veterinarians working with swine and in normal blood donors in the United States and other countries. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:117122.
81. Mizuo, H.,, Y. Yazaki,, K. Sugawara,, F. Tsuda,, M. Takahashi,, T. Nishizawa, and, H. Okamoto. 2005. Possible risk factors for the transmission of hepatitis E virus and for the severe form of hepatitis E acquired locally in Hokkaido, Japan. J. Med. Virol. 76:341349.
82. Mushahwar, I. K. 2008. Hepatitis E virus: molecular virology, clinical features, diagnosis, transmission, epidemiology, and prevention. J. Med. Virol. 80:646658.
83. Nainan, O. V.,, G. L. Xia,, G. Vaughan, and, H. S. Margolis. 2006. Diagnosis of hepatitis a virus infection: a molecular approach. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 19:6379.
84. Noble, R. C.,, E. M. Kane,, S. A. Reeves, and, I. Roeckle. 1984. Posttransfusional hepatitis A in a neonatal intensive care unit. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 252:27112715.
85. Okamoto, H. 2007. Genetic variability and evolution of hepatitis E virus. Virus Res. 127:216228.
86. Pinto, R. M.,, D. Alegre,, A. Dominguez,, W. M. El Senousy,, G. Sanchez,, C. Villena,, M. I. Costafreda,, L. Aragones, and, A. Bosch. 2007. Hepatitis A virus in urban sewage from two Mediterranean countries. Epidemiol. Infect. 135:270273.
87. Pinto, R. M.,, M. I. Costafreda, and, A. Bosch. 2009. Risk assessment in shellfish-borne outbreaks of hepatitis A. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 75:73507355.
88. Pohl, O.,, J. Brojnas,, E. Rusvai,, K. Ordog,, I. Siska,, G. Faludi,, B. Kapusinszky,, A. Csohan,, K. Lendvai,, A. Lengyel,, I. Mezey, and, G. Berencsi. 2003. Retrospective detection of a subclinical hepatitis A virus (HAV) epidemic affecting juvenile cohorts of the Hungarian population. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 38:8591.
89. Previsani, N.,, D. Lavanchy, and, G. Siegl. 2004. Hepatitis A, p. 1-30. In I. K. Mushahwar (ed.), Viral Hepatitis Molecular Biology, Diagnosis, Epidemiology and Control. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
90. Rab, M. A.,, M. K. Bile,, M. M. Mubarik,, H. Asghar,, Z. Sami,, S. Siddiqi,, A. S. Dil,, M. A. Barzgar,, M. A. Chaudhry, and, M. I. Burney. 1997. Water-borne hepatitis e virus epidemic in Islamabad, Pakistan: a common source outbreak traced to the malfunction of a modern water treatment plant. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 57:151157.
91. Reid, T. M. S., and, H. G. Robinson. 1987. Frozen raspberries and hepatitis A. Epidemiol. Infect. 98:109112.
92. Reuter, G.,, A. Juhász,, L. Kosztolányi, L. Lefler, and, Z. Fekete. 2006. Co-circulation of genotype IA and new variant IB hepatitis A virus in outbreaks of acute hepatitis in Hungary—2003/2004. J. Med. Virol. 78:13921397.
93. Robertson, B. H.,, R. W. Jansen,, B. Khanna,, A. Totsuka,, O. V. Nainan,, G. Siegl,, A. Widell,, H. S. Margolis,, S. Isomura,, K. Ito,, T. Ishizu,, Y. Moritsugu, and, S. M. Lemon. 1992. Genetic relatedness of hepatitis A virus strains recovered from different geographic regions. J. Gen. Virol. 73:13651377.
94. Robertson, B. H.,, R. W. Jansen,, B. Khanna,, A. Totsuka,, O. V. Nainan,, G. Siegl,, A. Widell,, H. S. Margolis,, S. Isomura,, K. Ito,, T. Ishizu,, Y. Moritsugu, and, S. M. Lemon. 1992. Genetic relatedness of hepatitis A virus strains recovered from different geographical regions. J. Gen. Virol. 73:13651377.
95. Robinson, M.,, R. Lilley,, S. Little,, J. S. Emtage,, G. Yarranton,, P. Stephens,, A. Millican,, M. Eaton, and, G. Humphreys. 1984. Codon usage can affect efficiency of translation of genes in Escherichia coli. Nucleic Acids Res. 12:66636671.
96. Rosemblum, L. S.,, I. R. Mirkin,, D. T. Allen,, S. Safford, and, S. C. Hadler. 1990. A multistate outbreak of hepatitis A traced to commercially distributed lettuce. Am. J. Public Health 80:10751080.
97. Rosenblum, L. S.,, I. R. Mirkin,, D. T. Allen,, S. Safford, and, S. C. Hadler. 1990. A multifocal outbreak of hepatitis A traced to commercially distributed lettuce. Am. J. Public Health 80:10751079.
98. Rutjes, S. A.,, W. J. Lodder,, F. Lodder-Verschoor, H. H. van den Berg, H. Vennema, E. Duizer, M. Koopmans, and, A. M. Roda Husman. 2009. Sources of hepatitis E virus genotype 3 in The Netherlands. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 15:381387.
99. Sanchez, G.,, A. Bosch,, G. Gomez-Mariano,, E. Domingo, and, R. M. Pinto. 2003. Evidence for quasispecies distributions in the human hepatitis A virus genome. Virology 315:3442.
100. Sanchez, G.,, A. Bosch, and, R. M. Pinto. 2003. Genome variability and capsid structural constraints of hepatitis a virus. J. Virol. 77:452459.
101. Sanchez, G.,, R. M. Pinto,, H. Vanaclocha, and, A. Bosch. 2002. Molecular characterization of hepatitis a virus isolates from a transcontinental shellfish-borne outbreak. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:41484155.
102. Schlauder, G. G 2004. Viral hepatitis: molecular biology, diagnosis, epidemiology and control, p. 199-222. In A. J. Zuckerman and, I. K. Mushahwar (ed.), Perspectives in Medial Virology. Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
103. Schultheiss, T.,, S. U. Emerson,, R. H. Purcell, and, V. Gauss-Muller. 1995. Polyprotein processing in echovirus 22: a first assessment. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 217:11201127.
104. Schultheiss, X,, Y. Y. Kusov, and, V. Gauss-Muller. 1994. Proteinase 3C of hepatitis A virus (HAV) cleaves the HAV polyprotein P2- P3 at all sites including VP1/2A and 2A/2B. Virology 198:275281.
105. Shao, Z. J.,, J. H. Li,, Y. J. Zheng,, J. X. Zhang,, Y. H. Ma,, W. T. Ma,, Q. W. Jiang, and, R. L. Dang. 2009. Epidemiological screening for hepatitis e virus in bile specimens from livestock in northwest China. J. Clin. Microbiol. 47:814816.
106. Sheretz, R. J., B. A. Russell, and, P. D. Reunman. 2005. Transmission of hepatitis A by transfusion of blood products. Arch. Intern. Med. 1441:15791580.
107. Shieh, Y. C.,, Y. E. Khudyakov,, G. Xia,, L. M. Ganova-Raeva,, F. M. Khambaty,, J. W. Woods,, J. E. Veazey,, M. L. Motes,, M. B. Glatzer,, S. R. Bialek, and, A. E. Fiore. 2007. Molecular confirmation of oysters as the vector for hepatitis A in a 2005 multistate outbreak. J. Food Prot. 70:145150.
108. Skidmore, S. 2002. Overview of hepatitis E virus. Curr. Infect. Dis. Rep. 4:118123.
109. Smith, J. L. 2001. A review of hepatitis E virus. J. Food Prot. 64:572586.
110. Sorensen, M. A.,, C. G. Kurland, and, S. Pedersen. 1989. Codon usage determines translation rate in Escherichia coli. J. Mol. Biol. 207:365377.
111. Stene-Johansen, K.,, P. A. Jenum,, T. Hoel,, H. Blystad,, H. Sunde, and, K. Skaug. 2002. An outbreak of hepatitis A among homosexuals linked to a family outbreak. Epidemiol. Infect. 129:113117.
112. Stene-Johansen, K.,, G. Tjon,, E. Schreier,, V. Bremer,, S. Bruisten,, S. L. Ngui,, M. King,, R. M. Pinto,, L. Aragones,, A. Mazick,, S. Corbet,, L. Sundqvist,, H. Blystad,, H. Norder, and, K. Skaug. 2007. Molecular epidemiological studies show that hepatitis A virus is endemic among active homosexual men in Europe. J. Med. Virol. 79:356365.
113. Tallo, X, H. Norder,, V. Tefanova,, K. Ott,, V. Ustina,, T. Prukk,, O. Solomonova,, J. Schmidt,, K. Zilmer,, L. Priimägi,, T. Krispin, and, L. O. Magnius. 2003. Sequential changes in hepatitis A virus genotype distribution in Estonia during 1994 to 2001. J. Med. Virol. 70:187193.
114. Tam, A. W.,, M. M. Smith,, M. E. Guerra,, C. C. Huang,, D. W. Bradley,, K. E. Fry, and, G. R. Reyes. 1991. Hepatitis E virus (HEV): molecular cloning and sequencing of the full-length viral genome. Virology 185:120131.
115. Tanaka, J. 2000. Hepatitis A shifting epidemiology in Latin America. Vaccine 18:S57S60.
116. Tei, S.,, N. Kitajima,, K. Takahashi, and, S. Mishiro. 2003. Zoonotic transmission of hepatitis E virus from deer to human beings. Lancet 362:3713737143.
117. Weitz, M.,, B. M. Baroudy,, W. L. Maloy,, J. R. Ticehurst, and, R. H. Purcell. 1986. Detection of a genome-linked protein (VPg) of hepatitis A virus and its comparison with other pi-cornaviral VPgs. J. Virol. 60:124130.
118. Wheeler, C.,, T. M. Vogt,, G. L. Armstrong,, G. Vaughan,, A. Weltman,, O. V. Nainan,, V. Dato,, G. L. Xia,, K. Waller,, J. Amon,, T. M. Lee,, A. Highbaugh-Battle,, C. Hembree,, S. Evenson,, M. A. Ruta,, I. T. Williams,, A. E. Fiore, and, B. P. Bell. 2005. An outbreak of hepatitis A associated with green onions. N. Engl. J. Med. 353:890897.
119. Whetter, L. E.,, S. P. Day,, O. Elroystein,, E. A. Brown, and, S. M. Lemon. 1994. Low efficiency of the 5′ nontranslated region of hepatitis A virus RNA in directing cap-independent translation in permissive monkey kidney cells. J. Virol. 68:52535263.
120. Wong, D. C.,, R. H. Purcell,, M. A. Sreenivasan,, S. R. Prasad, and, K. M. Pavri. 1980. Epidemic and endemic hepatitis in India: evidence for a non-A, non-B hepatitis-virus etiology. Lancet ii:876879.
121. Worm, H. C.,, G. G. Schlauder, and, G. Brandstatter. 2002. Hepatitis E and its emergence in non-endemic areas. Wien. Klin. Wochenschr. 114:663670.
122. Worm, H. C.,, W. H. van der Poel, and, G. Brandstatter. 2002. Hepatitis E: an overview. Microbes Infect. 4:657666.
123. Yazaki, Y.,, H. Mizuo,, M. Takahashi,, T. Nishizawa,, N. Sasaki,, Y. Gotanda, and, H. Okamoto. 2003. Sporadic acute or fulminant hepatitis E in Hokkaido, Japan, may be food-borne, as suggested by the presence of hepatitis E virus in pig liver as food. J. Gen. Virol. 84:23512357.
124. Zafrullah, M.,, M. H. Ozdener,, R. Kumar,, S. K. Panda, and, S. Jameel. 1999. Mutational analysis of glycosylation, membrane translocation, and cell surface expression of the hepatitis E virus ORF2 protein. J. Virol. 73:40744082.
125. Zhai, L.,, X. Dai, and, J. Meng. 2006. Hepatitis E virus geno-typing based on full-length genome and partial genomic regions. Virus Res. 120:5769.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1

Examples of documented hepatitis A water and foodborne transmission

Citation: Bosch A, Pintó R. 2011. Hepatitis A and E Viruses, p 247-258. In Fratamico P, Liu Y, Kathariou S (ed), Genomes of Foodborne and Waterborne Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816902.ch17
Generic image for table
Table 2

Examples of documented hepatitis E water and foodborne transmission

Citation: Bosch A, Pintó R. 2011. Hepatitis A and E Viruses, p 247-258. In Fratamico P, Liu Y, Kathariou S (ed), Genomes of Foodborne and Waterborne Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816902.ch17

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error