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Chapter 14 : The Changing Nature of Nontuberculous Mycobacteriology

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The Changing Nature of Nontuberculous Mycobacteriology, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

This chapter expands the historical perspective to the present and describes recent developments in mycobacteriology in order to improve clinicians’ ability to consider nontuberculous mycobacterial disease in a variety of settings and to facilitate laboratories’ ability to isolate the more unusual and fastidious pathogens. The first reports of human infections due to the nontuberculous mycobacterial species and their environmental sources, geographic distributions, and animal reservoirs and manifestations are outlined. A table provides a list of the four major disease presentations currently associated with the nontuberculous mycobacteria (pulmonary disease, lymphadenitis, cutaneous and soft tissue infections, and the recently described disseminated infections) and the major host risk factors. Other organisms associated with lymphadenitis include , , , , , , and the rapidly growing mycobacteria. Direct inoculation of mycobacterial organisms present in soil or water via trauma may lead to skin or soft tissue infection. The fluorochrome acid-fast stain permits more rapid examination of smears than does the traditional Kinyoun or Ziehl-Neelsen stain, and it is now considered the preferred method. Laboratories must employ rapid diagnostic and antimicrobial susceptibility tests and be prepared to detect relatively fastidious species of mycobacteria. Clinicians should realize that, although there is a lack of standardized drug testing methods for the slowly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria, testing of initial isolates can be helpful if a comparison of results with those for subsequent isolates suggests developing resistance.

Citation: Kiehn T, White M. 1998. The Changing Nature of Nontuberculous Mycobacteriology, p 207-220. In Scheld W, Armstrong D, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 1. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816940.ch14

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References

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Tables

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Table 1.

Historical perspective and epidemiology of the nontuberculous mycobacteria

Citation: Kiehn T, White M. 1998. The Changing Nature of Nontuberculous Mycobacteriology, p 207-220. In Scheld W, Armstrong D, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 1. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816940.ch14
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Table 2.

Nontuberculous mycobacterial disease manifestations and risk factors

Citation: Kiehn T, White M. 1998. The Changing Nature of Nontuberculous Mycobacteriology, p 207-220. In Scheld W, Armstrong D, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 1. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816940.ch14
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Table 3.

Procedures developed or being developed for diagnostic mycobacteriology laboratories

Citation: Kiehn T, White M. 1998. The Changing Nature of Nontuberculous Mycobacteriology, p 207-220. In Scheld W, Armstrong D, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 1. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816940.ch14
Generic image for table
Table 4.

Agents clinically useful in the treatment of non tuberculous mycobacterial infections

Citation: Kiehn T, White M. 1998. The Changing Nature of Nontuberculous Mycobacteriology, p 207-220. In Scheld W, Armstrong D, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 1. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816940.ch14

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