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Chapter 2 : Hemorrhagic Fevers: How They Wax and Wane

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Hemorrhagic Fevers: How They Wax and Wane, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

This chapter concentrates on the arena viruses and presents some recent findings on Ebola virus and other hemorrhagic fever viruses. The viral hemorrhagic fevers all have similar clinical pictures, with mortality rates of 15 to 30%, or in the case of Ebola virus up to 80%. Between 1993 and 1996, an increasing number of different viral hemorrhagic fevers and related diseases were seen in any other comparable period over the past 3 decades. The previously known Zaire subtype of Ebola virus caused an epidemic in Kikwit, Zaire, largely through nosocomial amplification and person-to-person transmission. The arenaviruses responsible for naturally occurring human disease are listed in the chapter. There are at least two tools to deal with the shifting, growing target, and there is also the vaccine against Junin virus, which has the possibility to eliminate human disease from Argentine hemorrhagic fever, the largest public health problem caused by the American arenaviruses. One can approach the prevention or treatment of most of the hemorrhagic fevers optimistically, but Ebola virus prevention and treatment still elude us.

Citation: Peters C. 1998. Hemorrhagic Fevers: How They Wax and Wane, p 15-25. In Scheld W, Armstrong D, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 1. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816940.ch2

Key Concept Ranking

Rift Valley fever virus
0.5882353
Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus
0.48529413
Yellow fever virus
0.42639986
0.5882353
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Figures

Image of Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Distribution of American (Tacaribe complex) arenaviruses. Each virus is shown with its date of isolation and putative host species. (Prepared by A. Sanchez and M. D. Bowen.)

Citation: Peters C. 1998. Hemorrhagic Fevers: How They Wax and Wane, p 15-25. In Scheld W, Armstrong D, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 1. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816940.ch2
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Image of Figure 2.
Figure 2.

Phylogeny of arenaviruses estimated by maximum parsimony analysis of partial nucleocapsid gene sequences. Virus abbreviations: LCM, lymphocytic choriomeningitis; LAS, Lassa; MOB, Mobala; MOP, Mopeia; TAM, Tamiami; WWA, Whitewater Arroyo; PAR, Parana; FLE, Flexal; PIC, Pichinde; PIR, Pirital; OLV, Oliveros; LAT, Latino: GUA, Guanarito: AMA, Amapari; JUN, Junin; MAC, Machupo; TCR, Tacaribe; SAB, Sabia. Strain names are indicated by lowercase text. The number to the left of each node indicates percent bootstrap support (1,000 replicates) for that node. Brackets indicate the clade of Old World arenaviruses and the three lineages within the Tacaribe complex. (Adapted from reference .)

Citation: Peters C. 1998. Hemorrhagic Fevers: How They Wax and Wane, p 15-25. In Scheld W, Armstrong D, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 1. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816940.ch2
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References

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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1.

Epidemics of viral hemorrhagic fever, 1993 to 1996

Citation: Peters C. 1998. Hemorrhagic Fevers: How They Wax and Wane, p 15-25. In Scheld W, Armstrong D, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 1. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816940.ch2
Generic image for table
Table 2.

Arenavirus diseases and their causative viruses

Citation: Peters C. 1998. Hemorrhagic Fevers: How They Wax and Wane, p 15-25. In Scheld W, Armstrong D, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 1. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816940.ch2
Generic image for table
Table 3.

Therapeutic and preventive options for viral hemorrhagic fevers

Citation: Peters C. 1998. Hemorrhagic Fevers: How They Wax and Wane, p 15-25. In Scheld W, Armstrong D, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 1. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816940.ch2

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