10 : : Whence and Where to?

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To the casual reader of the lay press and to the nonparasitologist, appears to have come "out of nowhere". A discussion of this apparently changing dynamic teaches about how new microbial threats to health are recognized and understood. was detected in fecal specimens from three unrelated individuals in Papua New Guinea in the absence of any other known diarrheal disease agents. The phylogenetic relationships between the human-associated and the suggest that the former may also exhibit restricted host species range. is transmitted from person to person via ingestion of contaminated water and food. Water has been a consistently identified risk factor for cyclosporiasis in most regions of the world where is endemic, although it has rarely been detected in the incriminated water supply. Immunologically compromised hosts also appear to be at greater risk of disease from both and , persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are well-represented among the reported cases of cyclosporiasis. The infectious dose of for humans is unknown. Estimates based upon well-characterized inocula in an epidemic setting indicate that as few as 10 to 100 oocysts may be sufficient. Many investigators have emphasized the utility of epifluorescence microscopy for improving the detection of the autofluorescent oocysts in rapid screening of fecal samples. Ultimately, a means of propagating the human-associated , a reliable and relevant disease model, and a system for genetic manipulation are required.

Citation: Reiman D. 1998. : Whence and Where to?, p 185-194. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 2. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816957.ch10

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Cyclospora cayetanensis
Blue Green Algae
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Figure 1

Evolutionary relationships of Cyclospora. The dendrogram was generated from 18S rDNA sequence analysis using parsimony methods. The hosts for the eimeriids are indicated to the right in underlined texl. Morphologic features for some of the coccidians are shown in schematic form at the far right.

Citation: Reiman D. 1998. : Whence and Where to?, p 185-194. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 2. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816957.ch10
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Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Factors involved in the emergence of Cyclospora.

Citation: Reiman D. 1998. : Whence and Where to?, p 185-194. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 2. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816957.ch10
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Generic image for table
Table 1

Designations previously given to the human-associated

Citation: Reiman D. 1998. : Whence and Where to?, p 185-194. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 2. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816957.ch10
Generic image for table
Table 2

Clinical features of human cyclosporiasisª

Citation: Reiman D. 1998. : Whence and Where to?, p 185-194. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 2. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816957.ch10

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