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13 : The North American Liver Fluke,

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The North American Liver Fluke, , Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

This chapter provides a descripition of an outbreak of a new clinical disease, acute metorchiasis. is a fluke belonging to the family Opisthorchidae, in which human infections with the closely related , and have been extensively investigated. Like other flukes in this family, it lives within the biliary tree of the definitive host. The first intermediate host of is the aquatic snail . The second intermediate hosts include several freshwater fish species; the most important is the white sucker. Asymptomatic human infection with has been seen occasionally during stool parasite surveys in aboriginal populations in Canada. The morbidity associated with fish parasites varies from asymptomatic to serious and is based on the parasite itself, the parasite load, and host response. The fish tapeworms spp. (of which there are three and possibly more species described in North America) are the most frequently described human helminths of fish origin on the continent. The present outbreak and the prevalence of the fluke place this parasite among the more common fish-borne helminths that infect humans in North America.

Citation: MacLean J. 1998. The North American Liver Fluke, , p 243-256. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 2. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816957.ch13

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Figures

Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Total and fresh/frozen fish consumption (pounds of edible fish) in North America. Solid columns represent total; shaded columns represent fresh/frozen. (Source: Personal communication from the National Marine Fisheries Service, Fisheries Statistics and Economics Division.)

Citation: MacLean J. 1998. The North American Liver Fluke, , p 243-256. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 2. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816957.ch13
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Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Egg of M. conjunctus from golden hamsters (average size 28.5 by 15.6 μm).

Citation: MacLean J. 1998. The North American Liver Fluke, , p 243-256. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 2. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816957.ch13
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Image of Figure 3
Figure 3

Metacercaria (0.27 mm by 0.29 mm) of M. conjunctus recovered from the flesh of C. commersoni. (Reproduced from reference with permission of the publisher.)

Citation: MacLean J. 1998. The North American Liver Fluke, , p 243-256. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 2. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816957.ch13
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Image of Figure 4
Figure 4

Adult fluke removed from golden hamster biliary tree (size range, 3.56 to 3.90 by 1.16 mm). (Reproduced from reference with permission of the publisher.)

Citation: MacLean J. 1998. The North American Liver Fluke, , p 243-256. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 2. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816957.ch13
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Image of Figure 5
Figure 5

Results of ELISA for antibodies to M. conjunctus serology. Vertical bars are standard error of the mean. (Reproduced from reference with permission of the publisher.)

Citation: MacLean J. 1998. The North American Liver Fluke, , p 243-256. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 2. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816957.ch13
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Image of Figure 6
Figure 6

Life cycle of M. conjunctus. Hosts: (A) definitive human, dog, etc.); (B) first intermediate (snail [A. limosa limosa]: (C) second intermediate (fish [C. commersoni]). Stages: ( ) adult fluke, ( ) egg, ( ) cercaria, ( ) metacercaria. (Reproduced from reference with permission of the publisher.)

Citation: MacLean J. 1998. The North American Liver Fluke, , p 243-256. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 2. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816957.ch13
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Image of Figure 7
Figure 7

Range (shaded area) of C. commersoni and of human (black dots; larger dots represenl larger outbreaks) and animal (shaded dots) infection with M. conjunctus. The arrow indicates the present outbreak. (Reproduced from reference with permission of the publisher.)

Citation: MacLean J. 1998. The North American Liver Fluke, , p 243-256. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 2. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816957.ch13
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References

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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1

Laboratory results of index case

Citation: MacLean J. 1998. The North American Liver Fluke, , p 243-256. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 2. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816957.ch13
Generic image for table
Table 2

Clinical and laboratory features in 19 cases

Citation: MacLean J. 1998. The North American Liver Fluke, , p 243-256. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 2. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816957.ch13
Generic image for table
Table 3

Course of illness related to quantity of fish (sashimi) eaten

Citation: MacLean J. 1998. The North American Liver Fluke, , p 243-256. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 2. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816957.ch13
Generic image for table
Table 4

Fish parasites infecting persons in the United States and Canada

Citation: MacLean J. 1998. The North American Liver Fluke, , p 243-256. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 2. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816957.ch13
Generic image for table
Table 5

Features of most frequent parasite infections acquired from North American parasites acquired from raw fish

Citation: MacLean J. 1998. The North American Liver Fluke, , p 243-256. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 2. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816957.ch13

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