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15 : Food-Borne Diseases in the Global Village: What's on the Plate for the 21st Century

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Abstract:

At the beginning of 21st century, food-borne diseases were a common cause of illness because of poor sanitation, inadequate refrigeration and canning practices, and because diseased animals were killed under unsanitary conditions. Improvements in hygiene, availability of refrigeration, educational efforts, and industry regulations have improved many of these conditions; however, food-borne diseases remain a major public health problem. This chapter presents examples of new and emerging food-borne pathogens followed by examples of how changes in the food industry and in the population affect the safety of food supply. Approaches that may help to prevent and control emerging food-borne hazards are discussed. Emerging food-borne pathogens include new or newly recognized pathogens such as , 0157:H7, , and ; previously recognized pathogens that have emerged because of new modes of transmission such as serotype Enteritidis transmitted by shell eggs; pathogens recently recognized to be transmitted by food-borne routes such as ; and pathogens that have selectively adapted to environmental conditions such as antimicrobial-resistant Typhimurium DTI 04. The public health infrastructure consists of the personnel (epidemiologists, laboratorians, support staff) and the tools (computers and diagnostic laboratory equipment) necessary to conduct surveillance, investigation, and prevention activities to protect the public's health. Existing technologies (e.g., pasteurization, chlorination, and refrigeration) and new technologies (e.g., Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) and food irradiation) are promising methods of food protection.

Citation: Swerdlow D, Altekruse S. 1998. Food-Borne Diseases in the Global Village: What's on the Plate for the 21st Century, p 273-294. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 2. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816957.ch15

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Figure 1

Salmonella serotype Enteritidis isolations in the United States from 1976 to 1996. Source: CDC, National Center for Infectious Diseases, Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases.

Citation: Swerdlow D, Altekruse S. 1998. Food-Borne Diseases in the Global Village: What's on the Plate for the 21st Century, p 273-294. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 2. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816957.ch15
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Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Percentage of selected produce items from Mexico sold in the United States, by quarter, 1989 to 1992. Source: reference 49.

Citation: Swerdlow D, Altekruse S. 1998. Food-Borne Diseases in the Global Village: What's on the Plate for the 21st Century, p 273-294. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 2. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816957.ch15
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Image of Figure 3
Figure 3

Potential sites of contamination during Farm-to-table production of produce. Adapted from reference 49.

Citation: Swerdlow D, Altekruse S. 1998. Food-Borne Diseases in the Global Village: What's on the Plate for the 21st Century, p 273-294. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 2. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816957.ch15
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Image of Figure 4
Figure 4

Percentage of U.S. population over 65 years of age, from 1900 to 2040. Source: U.S. Bureau of the Census.

Citation: Swerdlow D, Altekruse S. 1998. Food-Borne Diseases in the Global Village: What's on the Plate for the 21st Century, p 273-294. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 2. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816957.ch15
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Image of Figure 5
Figure 5

Annual incidence (per 100.000 population) of laboratory-confirmed cases of Campylobacte, Salmonella, Shigella, and E. coli O157:H7 infections, by selected sites, 1996. Source: reference 6.

Citation: Swerdlow D, Altekruse S. 1998. Food-Borne Diseases in the Global Village: What's on the Plate for the 21st Century, p 273-294. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 2. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816957.ch15
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Tables

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Table 1

Estimated illnesses and deaths per year caused by selected food-borne pathogens in the United States and commonly implicated foods

Citation: Swerdlow D, Altekruse S. 1998. Food-Borne Diseases in the Global Village: What's on the Plate for the 21st Century, p 273-294. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 2. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816957.ch15
Generic image for table
Table 2

Selected fruit- and vegetable-associated outbreaks of food-borne disease in the United States and Canada between 1990 and 1997

Citation: Swerdlow D, Altekruse S. 1998. Food-Borne Diseases in the Global Village: What's on the Plate for the 21st Century, p 273-294. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 2. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816957.ch15

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