1887

2 : Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in the Americas

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in the Americas, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816957/9781555811419_Chap02-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816957/9781555811419_Chap02-2.gif

Abstract:

The hantaviruses of the Americas are being recognized as a numerous and growing group of rodent-borne viruses that cause a disease called hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS). The American viruses all belong to the genus Hantavirus of the family . There are recent general reviews of hantaviruses and their molecular genetics, but this chapter emphasizes some of the recent findings in the Americas. Only two hantaviruses were known in the Americas before 1993: Prospect Hill virus from the meadow vole and Seoul virus from the Old World rodent . In 1993 an epidemic of unexplained adult respiratory distress syndrome in the southwestern U.S. was serologically linked to hantaviruses. The most commonly used serological tests are the indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) test and more recently the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Hantavirus vaccine development faces some formidable tasks. There is no animal model of HPS or hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) to measure attenuation or to study possible immunopathological interactions with vaccines. The diversity of the rodent taxon (Muridae and subfamily Sigmodontinae) suggests that there will be variation in the epidemiology and clinical presentation of HPS according to the individual causative virus, although to date the syndrome has been recognizable as HPS, and the epidemiology can be largely understood by patterns of rodent-human interactions.

Citation: Peters C. 1998. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in the Americas, p 17-64. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 2. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816957.ch2

Key Concept Ranking

Sin nombre virus
0.55285126
Hemorrhagic Fever With Renal Syndrome
0.46420416
Central Nervous System Diseases
0.41804066
0.55285126
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Recognized hantaviruses associated with sigmodontine rodents. These are provisional viral species and may be revised in the future. The dot indicates site of identification. but the potential range of the viruses will depend on the distribution of the rodent hoot (compare SNV in Fig. 4 ). (Courtesy of Jim Mills.)

Citation: Peters C. 1998. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in the Americas, p 17-64. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 2. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816957.ch2
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Phylogenetic tree of rodent-borne hantaviruses derived from maximum parsimony analysis of the open reading frame on the M RNA segment that codes for the glycoprotein precursor, GPC. The viruses are all associated with rodents in the family Muridae. The upper branch shows Hanlaan (HTN), Seoul (SEO), Thailand (THAI), and Dobrava (DOB) viruses from rodents of the subfamily Murinae: these are known only from Europe and Asia with the exception of Seoul virus which has a worldwide distribution with the spread of its reservoir. , from its origins in Asia (91), The middle branch has Puumala (PUU), Tula (TUL), and Prospect Hill (PH) viruses from rodents of the subfamily Arvicolinae or voles; these are present in Europe. Asia, and the Americas. The lower branch contains Bayou (BAY), Black Creek Canal (BCC). Laguna Negra (LN), Sin Nombre (SN), NY (New York), and El Moro Canyon (ELMC) viruses from American rodents of the subfamily Sigmodontinae, The inset shows a magnified analysis of Laguna Negra isolates based on a smaller RNA fragment amplified from tissues of humans and rodents. Note the distinctly different LN855H strain from a Chilean patient thought to be have been infected in Bolivia. The LN855H virus differs from the Paraguayan viruses by 16% of the 521 nucleotides examined. but has a 100% identical predicted amino acid sequence. The sigmodontine hantaviruses often show a pattern of much greater variation of nucleotides than amino acids, both within and among virus species. (From reference 80.)

Citation: Peters C. 1998. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in the Americas, p 17-64. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 2. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816957.ch2
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 3
Figure 3

HPS in the United States showing secular trend. The epidemic was recognized in the Four Corners states in 1993. and there was increased transmission there in 1994 as well. More recently a greater proportion of cases have occurred in other states. There is a tendency for greater transmission in summer months, but cases are seen all year. (Courtesy of Joni Carson.)

Citation: Peters C. 1998. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in the Americas, p 17-64. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 2. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816957.ch2
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 4
Figure 4

HPS in North America. Shaded area indicates the recognized range of the deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, and triangles identify cases known or thought to be from SNV. Infections acquired outside the range of the deer mouse are caused by other viruses. (Courtesy of Joni Carson; rodent distribution is from reference 9a.)

Citation: Peters C. 1998. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in the Americas, p 17-64. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 2. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816957.ch2
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555816957.chap2
1. Abbott, K. D.,, and T. G. Ksiazek. 1998. Long-term hantavirus persistence in rodent populations in central arizona, p. 58. In Abstracts of the Fourth International Conference on HFRS and Hantaviruses.
2. Armstrong, L. A.,, R.T. , Bryan,, J. Sarisky, et al. 1995. Mild hantaviral disease caused by Sin Nombre virus in a four-year-old child. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 14:11081110..
3. Armstrong, L. R.,, S. R. Zaki,, M. J. Goldoft,, R. L. Todd,, A. S. Khan,, R. F. Khabbaz,, T. G. Ksiazek,, and C. J. Peters. 1995. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome associated with entering or cleaning rarely used. rodent-infested structures. J. In! Dis. 172:1166.
4. Armstrong, L. R.,, R. F. Khabbaz,, J. E. Childs, et al. 1994. Occupational exposure to Hantavirus in mammalogists and rodent workers. Am. J. Trap. Med. Hyg. 51(Suppl.):94.
5. Asada, H.,, K. Balachandra,, M. Tamura,, K. Kondo,, and K. Yamanishi. 1989. Cross-reactive immunity among different serotypes of virus causing haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. J. Gen. Virology 70:819825.
6. Avšic-Zupanc, T.,, M. Petrovec,, T. Trilar,, B. Krystufek,, M. Poljak,, and K. Prosenc. Distribution and genetic heterogeneity of multiple hantaviruses circulating in slovenia, abstr., p. 77. In Abstracts of the Fourth International Conference on HFRS and Hantaviruses.
7. Bharadwaj, M.,, J. Botten,, N. Torrez-Martinez,, and B. Hjelle. 1997. Rio Mamore virus: genetic characterization of a newly recognized hantavirus of the pygmy rice rat, Oligoryzomys microtis. from Bolivia. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 57:368374.
8. Bond, C. W.,, B. Irvine,, H. M. Alterson,, R. Van Horn,, and R. Douglass. 1998. Longitudinal incidence of hantavirus infection in deer mice. p. 116. In Abstracts of the Fourth International Conference on HFRS and Hantaviruses.
9. Bryan, R. T.,, T. J. Doyle,, R. L. Moolenaar,, A. K. Pflieger,, A. S. Khan,, T. G. Ksiazek,, and C. J. Peters. 1997. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. Semin. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. 8:4449.
9a.. Burt, W. H.,, and R. P. Grossenheider. 1980. A Field Guide to the Mammals. 3rd ed. Houghton Mifflin Co., New York, N. Y.
10. Butler, J. c.,, and C. J. Peters. 1994. Hantaviruses and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. Clin. Inf. Dis. 19:387395.
11..Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1997. Case definitions for infectious conditions under public health surveillance. Morbid. Mortal. Weekly Rep. 46(RR-10):16.
12.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1993. Hantavirus infection-Southwestern United States: interim recommendations for risk reduction. Morbid. Mortal. Weekly Rep. 42(RR-ll):112.
13.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1994. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome—northeastern United States. Morbid. Mortal. Weekly Rep. 43:548551.
14.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1994. Laboratory management of agents associated with Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome: Interim biosafety guidelines. Morbid. Mortal. Weekly Rep. 43(RR-7):17.
15.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1995. Methods for Trapping and Sampling Small Mammals for Virologic Testing. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Ga.
16.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1994. Newly identified hantavirus—Florida. Morbid. Mortal. Weekly Rep. 43:99, 105.
17.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1993. Update: hantavirus disease-United States. Morbid. Mortal. Weekly Rep. 42:612614.
18.Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1997. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome—Chile, 1997. Morbid. Mortal. Weekly Rep. 46:94995l.
19. Chaparro, J. J.,, J. Vega,, W. Terry,, J. L. Vera,, B. Barra,, R. Meyer,, C. J. Peters,, A. S. Khan,, and T. G. Ksiazek. Assessment of person-to-person transmission of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in a Chilean hospital selling. J. Hosp. Infect., in press.
20. Chapman, L. E.,, G. Mertz,, A. S. Khan,, D. C. Hart,, C. J. Peters,, E. Koster,, T. G. Ksiazek,, P. E. Rollin,, L. Wilson,, K. F. Baum,, A. T. Pavia,, J. C. Christenson,, S. Allen,, P. J. Rubin,, D. Goad, and the Ribavlrin Study Group. 1994. Open label intravenous ribavirin for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, abstr. H-111. In Abstracts of the 34th Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, D.C.
21. Cheek, J.,, R. Bryan,, and G. Glass. Geographic distribution of high-risk, HPS areas in the U.S. southwest, p. 68. In Abstracts of the Fourth International Conference on HFRS and Hantaviruses.
22. Chen, H.·X. 1997. Cooperative Group on the ninth five years National Medical Scientific Study 96-906-03-13. Evaluation on the efficacy of vaccines against HFRS and study on their antibody dependent immunization enhancement and immunological strategy. Chin, J. Prevent. Med. 8:321330.
23. Childs, J. E.,, G. E. Glass,, G. W. Korch,, and J. W. LeDuc. 1989. Effects of hantaviral infection on survival, growth and fertility in wild rat (Rattus norvegicus) populations of Baltimore, Maryland. J. Wild. Dis. 25:469476.
24. Childs, J. E.,, G. E. Glass,, G. W. Korch,, and J. W. LeDuc. 1998. The ecology and epizootiology of hantaviral infections in small mammal communities of Baltimore: a review and synthesis. Bull. Soc. Vector ECol. 13:113122.
25. Childs, J. E.,, J. W. Krebs,, T. G. Ksiazek,, G. O. Maupin,, K. L. Gage,, P. E. Rollin,, P. S. Zeitz,, J. Sarisky,, R. E. Enscore,, J. C. Butler,, J. E. Cheek,, G. E. Glass,, and C. J. Peters. 1995. A household-based. case-control study of environmental factors associated with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the southwestern United States. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 52:393397.
26. Childs, J. E., T. G. Ksiazek,, C. F. Spiropoulo,u, J. W. Krebs,, S. Morzunov,, G. O. Maupin,, K. L. Gage,, P. E. Rollin,, J. Sarisky,, R. E. Enscore,, J. K. Frey,, C. J. Peters,, and S. T. Nichol. 1994. Serologic and genetic identification of Peromyscus maniculatus as the primary reservoir for a new hantavirus in the southwestern United States. J. Infect. Dis. 169:12711280.
27. Chizhikov, V. E.,, C. F. Spiropoulou,, S. P. Morzunov,, M. C. Monroe,, C, J. Peters,, and S. T. Nichol. 1995. Complete genetic characterization and analysis of isolation of Sin Nombre virus. J. Virol. 69:81328136.
28. Chu, Y. K.,, G. B. Jennings,, and C. S. Schmaljohn. 1995. A vaccinia virus-vectored Hantaan virus vaccine protects hamsters from challenge with Hantaan and Seoul viruses but not Puumala virus. J. Virol. 69(10):64176423.
29. Chu, Y-K.,, G. Jennings,, A. Schmaljohn,, F. Elgh,, B. Hjelle,, H. W. Lee, et al. 1995. Cross-neutralization of hantaviruses from immune serum from experimentally-infected animals and from hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome patients. J. Infect. Dis. 172:15811584.
30. Chu, Y-K.,, C. Rossi,, J. LeDuc,, H. W. Lee,, C. S. Schmaljohn,, and J. M. Dalrymple. 1994. Serological relationships among viruses in the Hantavirus genus. family Bunyaviridae. Virology 198:196204.
31. Clement, J.,, P. McKenna,, and P. Colson. 1994. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in New England and Europe. N. Engl. J. Med. 331:545546. (Letter.)
32. Clement, J.,, P. McKenna,, G. van der Groen,, A. Vaheri,, and C. J. Peters,. 1998. Hantaviruses, p. 331351. In S. R. Palmer,, E. J. L. Soulsby,, and D. I. H. Simpson (ed.), Zoonoses: Biology, Clinical Practice, and Public Health Control. Oxford University Press, Oxford, United Kingdom.
33.Comisión Conjunta de Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Pan American Health Organization and ANLIS-Argentina. 1997. Informe Final de las Actividades Realizadas por Comisión Conjunta—Centers for Disease Control and Prevention de Estados Unidos de América, Ministerion de Salud, Organización Panamericana de la Salud y ANLIS, Argentina-en Relación a la infección por Hantavirus en Chile. Rev. Chil. Infect. 14:123134.
34. Cortes, J.,, M. L. Cacace,, A. Seijo,, M. N. Parisi,, and L. T. Ayala. 1994. Distress respiratorio del adulto en Oran, Salta. Presented in the 11th Simposio Internacional de Infectologia Pediátrica, Córdoba, Argentina, 9 to 11 May 1994.
35. Da Silva, M. V.,, M. J. Vasconcelos,, N. T. R. Hidalgo,, A. P. R. Veiga,, M. Canzian,, P. C. F. Marotto,, and Y. C. P. Lima. 1997. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. report of the first three cases in São Paulo, Brazil. Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. S. Paulo 39(4):231234.
35.a. de Souza, Luiza. Personal communication.
36. Douglass, R. J.,, and R. Van Horn. 1998. Ecology of deer mice in western and central Montana, p. 123. In Abstracts of the Fourth International Conference on HFRS and Hantaviruses.
37. Douglass, R. J.,, and D. White. 1998. Ecology of deer mice in peridomestic settings, p. 56. In Abstracts of the Fourth International Conference on HFRS and Hantaviruses.
38. Doyle, T. J.,, D. B. Coultas,, J. C. Young,, A. S. Khan,, C. J. Peters,, and R. T. Bryan. Etiology of respiratory distress in patients testing negative for hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. Submitted for publication.
39. Duchin, J. S.,, F. T. Koster,, C. J. Peters,, G. L. Simpson,, B. Tempest,, S. R. Zaki,, T. G. Ksiazek,, P. E. Rollin,, S. Nichol,, E. T. Umland,, R. L. Moolenaar,, S. E. Reef,, K. R. Nolte,, M. M. Gallaher,, J. C. Butler,, R. F. Breiman, and the Hantavirus Study Group. 1994. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome: a clinical description of 17 patients with a newly recognized disease. N. Engl. J. Med. 330:949955.
40. Dunnum, J. L.,, T. L. Yates,, K. H. Abbott,, C. H. Calisher,, B. J. Frey,, K. K. Lamke,, C. A. Parmenter,, P. J. Polechla,, and D. S. Tinnin. 1998. The need for long-term monitoring in understanding epizootic events, p. 124. In Abstracts of the Fourth International Conference on HFRS and Hantaviruses.
41. Elliott, L. H.,, T. G. Ksiazek,, P. E. Rollin,, C. F. Spiropoulou,, S. Morzunov,, M. Monroe,, C. S. Goldsmith,, C. D. Humphrey,, S. R. Zaki,, J. W. Krebs,, G. Maupin,, K. Gage,, J. E. Childs,, S. T. Nichol,, and C. J. Peters. 1994. Isolation of Muerto Canyon virus, causative agent of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 51:102108.
42. Ennis, F. A.,, J. Cruz,, C. F. Spiropoulou,, D. Waite,, C. J. Peters,, S. T. Nichol,, H. Kariwa,, and F. T. Koster. 1997. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome: CD8+ and CD4+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes to epitopes on Sin Nombre virus nucleocapsid protein isolated during acute illness. Virology 238:380390.
42.a. Enria, D. Personal communication.
43. Enria, D.,, P. Padula,, E. L. Segura,, N. Pini,, A. Edelstein,, C. Riva Posse,, and M. C. Weissenbacher. 1996. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Argentina: Possibility of person-to-person transmission. Medicina (B. Aires) 58:709711.
44. Enria, D.,, M. Bowen,, J. N. Mills,, W. J. Shieh,, D. Bausch,, and C. J. Peters,. Arenaviruses. In R. L. Guerrant,, D. H. Walker,, and P. F. Weller (ed.), Tropical Infectious Diseases: Principles, Pathogens, & Practice, in press. W. B. Saunders, New York, N.Y.
45. Espinosa, M. A.,, C. Lucero,, P. Alvarez,, I. Durán,, C. Mansilla,, M. Tapia,, A. S. Khan,, W. Terry. 1998. Hantavirus infection in children, p. 106. In Abstracts of the Fourth International Conference on HFRS and Hantaviruses.
46. Espinoza, R.,, P. Vial,, L. M. Noriega,, A. Johnson,, S. T. Nichol,, P. E. Rollin,, R. Wells,, S. Zaki,, E. Reynolds,, and T. G. Ksiazek. 1998. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in a Chilean patient with recent travel in Bolivia. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 4:9394.
47. Feldmann, H.,, A. Sanchez,, S. Morzunov,, C. F. Spiropoulou,, P. E. Rollin,, T. G. Ksiazek,, C. J. Peters,, and S. T. Nichol. 1993. Utilization of autopsy RNA for the synthesis of the nucleocapsid antigen of a newly recognized virus associated with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. Virus Res. 30:351367.
48. Ferrer, J. F.,, C. Jonsson,, N. Esteban,, D. Galligan,, M. A. Bosombrio,, M. Peralta-Ramos,, M. Bharadwaj,, N. Torrez-Martinez,, J. Callahan,, A. Segovia,, and B. Hjelle. 1998. Epidemiological features of SNV-related hantavirus infection in high prevalence Gran Chaco indian populations, p. 144. In Abstracts of the Fourth International Conference on HFRS and Hantaviruses.
49. Frampton, J. W.,, S. Lanser,, C. R. Nichols,, and P. J. Ettestad. 1995. Sin Nombre virus infection in 1959. Lancet 346:781782. (Letter.)
50. Franze-Fernandez, M. T.,, N. Lopez,, and C. Rossi. 1997. Caracterisation genetique du virus Andes, un hantavirus emergeant en Argentine. Annales de l'Institut Pasteur 8:251256.
50.a. Fulhorst, C. F. Personal communication.
51. Fulhorst, C. F.,, M. C. Monroe,, R. A. Salas,, G. Duno,, A. Utrera,, T. G. Ksiazek,, S. T. Nichol,, N. M. C. de Manzione,, D. Tovar,, and R. B. Tesh. 1997. Isolation, characterization, and geographic distribution of Caño Delgadito virus, a newly discovered South American hantavirus (family Bunyaviridae). Virus Res. 51:159171.
52. Gavrilovskaya, I. N.,, N. S. Apekina,, A. D. Bernshtein,, V. T. Demina,, N. M. Okulova,, Y. A. Myasnikov,, and M. P. Chumakov. 1990. Pathogenesis of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome virus infection and mode of horizontal transmission of Hantavirus in bank voles. Arch. Virol. Suppl. 1:5762.
53. Gilson, G. J.,, J. A. Maciulla,, B. G. Nevils,, L. E. Izquierdo,, M. S. Chatterjee,, and L. B, Curet. 1994. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome complicating pregnancy. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 171:550554.
54. Glass, G. E.,, J. E. Childs,, G. W. Korch,, and J. W. LeDuc. 1998. Association of intraspecific wounding with hantaviral infection in wild rats (Rattus norvegicus). Epidemiol. Infect. 101:459472.
55. Glass, G. E.,, J. S. Johnson,, G. A. Hodenbach,, C. L. DiSalvo,, C. J. Peters,, J. E. Childs,, and J. N. Mills. 1997. Experimental evaluation of rodent exclusion methods to reduce hantavirus transmission to humans in rural housing. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 56:359364.
56. Glass, G. E.,, W. Livingstone,, J. Mills,, W. Hlady,, J. Fine,, P. Rollin,, P. Ksiazek,, C. Peters,, J. Childs. Black Creek Canal virus infection in Sigmodon hispidus in southern Florida. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., in press.
57. Glass, G. E.,, A. J. Watson,, J. W. LeDuc,, and J. E. Childs. 1994. Domestic cases of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in the United States. Nephron 68:4851.
58. Goade, D. E.,, F. T. Koster,, G. J. Mertz,, G. Hjelle, and the Hantavirus Survivors Follow-up Study Group. Preliminary evidence for pulmonary dysfunction in survivors of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, abstr., p. 35. In Abstracts of the Fourth International Conference on HFRS and Hantavirus.
59. Hallin, G. W.,, S. Q. Simpson,, R. E. Crowell,, D. S. James,, F. T. Koster,, G. J. Mertz,, and H. Levy. 1996. Cardiopulmonary manifestations of hantavirus pulmonary symptoms. Crit. Care Med. 24:252258.
60. Henderson, W. W.,, M. C. Monroe,, S. C. St Jeor,, W. P. Thayer,, J. E. Rowe,, C. J. Peters,, and S. T. Nichol. 1995. Naturally occurring Sin Nombre virus genetic reassortants. Virology 214:602610.
61. Hinrichsen, S.,, A. Medeiros de Andrade,, J. Clement,, H. Leirs,, P. McKenna,, P. Matthys,, and G. Neild. 1993. Evidence of hantavirus infection in Brazilian patients from Recife with suspected leptospirosis. Lancet 341:50.
62. Hjelle, B.,, B. Anderson,, N. Torrez-Martinez,, W. Song,, W. L. Gannon,, and T. L. Yates. 1995. Prevalence and geographic genetic variation of hantaviruses of New World harvest mice (Reithrodontomys): identification of a divergent genotype from a Costa Rican Reithrodontomys mexicanus. Virology 207:452459.
63. Hjelle, B.,, F. Chavez-Giles,, N. Torrez-Martinez, et al. 1994. Genetic identification of a novel hantavirus of the harvest mouse Reithrodontomys megalotis. J. Virology 68:67516754.
64. Hjelle, B.,, D. Goade,, N. Torrez-Martinez,, M. Lang-Williams,, J. Kim,, R. L. Harris,, and J. A. Rawlings. 1996. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. renal insufficiency, and myositis associated with infection by Bayou hantavirus. Clin. Infect. Dis. 23:495500.
65. Hjelle, B.,, S. Jenison,, N. Torrez-Martinez,, B. Herring,, S, Quan,, A. Polito,, S. Pichuantes,, T. Yamada,, C. Morris,, F. Elgh,, H. W. Lee,, H. Artsob,, and R. Dinello. 1997. Rapid and specific detection of Sin Nombre virus antibodies in patients with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome by a strip immunoblot assay suitable for field diagnosis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:600608.
66. Hjelle, B.,, J. Krolikowski,, N, Torrez-Martinez,, F. Chavez-Giles,, C. Vanner,, and E. Laposata. 1995. Phylogenetically distinct hantavirus implicated in a case of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the northeastern United States. J. Med. Virol. 46:2127.
67. Hjelle, B.,, S-W. Lee,, W. Song, et al. 1995. Molecular linkage of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome to the white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus: genetic characterization of the M genome of New York virus. J. Virol. 69:8137-8141.
68. Hjelle, B.,, C. E. Spiropoulou,, N. Torrez-Martinez,, S. Morzunov,, C. J. Peters,, and S. T. Nichol. 1994. Detection of Muerto Canyon virus RNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. J. Infect. Dis. 170:10131017.
69. Hjelle, B.,, N. Torrez-Martinez,, and F. T. Koster. 1996. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome-related virus from Bolivia. (Letter.). Lancet 57:347.
70. Hjelle, B.,, N. Torrez-Martinez,, F. T. Koster,, M. Jay,, M. S. Ascher,, T. Brown,, P. Reynolds,, P. Ettestad,, R. E. Voorhees,, J. Sarisky,, R. E. Enscore,, L. Sands,, D. G. Mosley,, C. Kioski,, R. T. Bryan,, and C. M. Sewell. 1996. Epidemiologic linkage of rodent and human hantavirus genomic sequences in case investigations of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. J. Infect. Dis. 173:781786.
71. Hoddenbach, G.,, J. Johnson,, and C. DiSalvo. 1997. Mechanical Rodent-Proofing Techniques. National Park Service Public Health Program, U.S. Department of the Interior, Washington, D.C.
72. Horwitz, I.,, L. Thompson,, V. Luchsinger,, R. Lagos,, E. Villagra,, and R. Espinoza. 1997. Infección por hantavirus: orientaciones generales para el diagnóstico y manejo de pacientes hospitalizados por sospecha o confirmación de síndrome pulmonar por hantavirus. Rev. Chil. Inject. 14:7482.
73. Howard, M.,, T. Doyle,, F. Koster,, S. R. Zaki,, A. S. Khan,, C. J. Peters,, and R. T. Bryan. 1998. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in pregnancy, p. 108. In Abstracts of the Fourth International Conference on HFRS and Hantaviruses.
74. Huggins, J. W.,, C. M. Hsiang,, T. M. Cosgriff,, M. Y. Guang,, J. I. Smith,, Z. O. Wu,, J. W. LeDuc,, Z. M. Zheng,, J. M. Meegan,, Q. N. Wang,, D. D. Oland,, X. E. Gui,, P. H. Gibbs,, G. H. Yuan,, and T. M. Zhang. 1991. Prospective. double·blind. concurrent. placebo-controlled clinical trial of intravenous ribavirin therapy of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. J. Infect. Dis. 164:11191127.
75. Hutchinson, K. L.,, P. E. Rollin,, and C. J. Peters. Pathogenesis of a North American hantavirus. Black Creek Canal virus, in experimentally infected Sigmodon hispidus. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., in press.
76. Iversson, L. B.L,, H. Matida,, M. A. Zaparoli,, and J. J. B. Ferreira. 1994. Doença human por hantavirus na área rural do município de Juquitiba, Área Metropolitana de São Paulo, Brasil. Presented at the XXX Congresso da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical, Bahia, Brazil, 6 to 11 March 1994.
77. Iversson, L. B.,, A. P. A,, Travassos da Rosa, M. D,, B, Rosa,, A, V. Lomar,, M, D G. M. Sasaki,, and J. W. LeDuc. 1994. Human infection by Hantavirus in southern and southeastern Brazil Rev. Ass. Med. Brasil 40(2):8592.
78. Jay, M.,, M. S. Ascher,, B. B. Chomel,, M. Madon,, D. Sesline,, B. A,, Enge,, B. Hjelle,, T. G. Ksiazek, P. E. Rollin,, P. H. Kass,, and K. Reilly. 1997. Seroepidemio10gic studies of hantavirus infection among wild rodents in California. Emerging Infect. Dis. 3(2):183190.
79. Jenison, S.,, T. Yamada,, C. Morris, et al. 1994. Characterization of human antibody responses to Four Corners hantavirus infections among patients with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. J. Virol. 68:30003006.
80. Johnson, A, M.,, M. D, Bowen,, T. G. Ksiazek,, R. J, Williams,, R. T, Bryan,, J. N. Mills,, C. J. Peters,, and S, T, Nichol. 1997. Laguna Negra virus associated with HPS in western Paraguay and Bolivia. Virology 238: 115127.
81. Ketai, L. H.,, M, R, Williamson,, R. J. Telepak,, H. Levy,, F. T. Koster,, K. B. Nolte,, and S. E. Allen. 1994. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome: radiographic findings in 16 patients. Radiology 191:665668.
82. Khan, A. S.,, M. Gaviria,, P. E. Rollin,, W. G. Hlady,, T. G. Ksiazek,, L. R. Armstrong,, R. Greenman,, E. Ravkov,, M. Kolber,, H. Anapol,, E. D. Sfakianaki,, S. T. Nichol,, C. J. Peters,, and R. F. Khabbaz. 1996. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Florida: association with the newly identified Black Creek Canal virus. Am. J. Med. 100:4648.
83. Khan, A. S.,, R. F. Khabbaz,, L, R, Armstrong,, R, C, Holman,, S. P. Bauer,, J. Graber,, T. Strine,, G, Miller,, S. Reef,, J. Tappero,, P. E. Rollin,, S. T. Nichol,, S, R. Zaki,, R. T, Bryan,, L. E. Chapman,, C. J. Peters,, and T, G. Ksiazek. 1996. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome: the first 100 U.S. cases. J. Infect. Dis. 173:12971303.
84. Khan, A. S.,, T. G. Ksiazek,, S. R. Zaki,, S. T. Nichol,, P. E. Rollin,, C. J. Peters,, R. F. Khabbaz J,, E, Cheek,, L. A. Shireley,, S. L. McDonough,, T. K. Welty,, and D. Kuklinski. 1995. Fatal hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in an adolescent. Pediatrics 95:276280.
85. Khan, A. S.,, C. S. Spiropoulou,, S. Morzunov,, S. R. Zaki,, M, A. Kohn,, S. R. Nawas,, L. McFarland,, and S, T. Nichol. 1995. A fatal illness associated with a new hantavirus in Louisiana. J. Med. Virol. 46:281286.
86. Koster, F. T.,, and S, A. Jenison,, 1988. Hantaviruses, p. 21402147. In S. L. Gorbach,, J. G. Bartlett,, N. R. Blacklow (ed.), Infectious Diseases, 2nd ed. W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia, Pa.
86.a. Ksiazek, T. G. Personal communication.
87. Ksiazek, T. G.,, S. T. Nichol,, J. N. Mills,, M. G. Groves,, A. Wozniak,, S. McAdams,, M. Monroe,, A. Johnson,, M. L. Martin,, C. J. Peters,, and P. E. Rollin. 1997. Isolation, genetic diversity, and geographic distribution of Bayou virus (Bunyaviridae: Hantavirus). Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 57:445448.
88. Ksiazek, T. G.,, C. J. Peters,, P. E. Rollin,, S. Zaki,, S. Nichol,, C. Spiropoulou,, S. Morzunov,, H. Feldmann,, A. Sanchez,, A. S. Khan,, B. W. J. Mahy,, K. Wachsmuth,, and J. C. Butler. 1995. Identification of a new North American hantavirus that causes acute pulmonary insufficiency. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 52:117123.
89. Lazaro, M. E.,, A. M. Resa,, S. C. Levis,, C. Y. Riva Posse,, L. Zamengo,, J. C. Merceob,, I. Rojo,, F. Bruzzo,, and D. Enria. Distres respiratorio del adulto en El Bolson, Río Negro, Presented at the I Congreso Argentino de Zoonosis and I Congreso Latinoamericano de Zoonosis, Buenos Aires, Argentina. 14 to 17 August 1995.
90. LeDuc, J. W.,, G. A. Smith,, F. P. Pinheiro,, P. Vasconcelos,, E. Rosa,, and J. I. Maiztegui. 1985. Isolation of a Hantaan-related virus from Brazilian rats and serologic evidence of its widespread distribution in South America. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 34:810815.
91. LeDuc, J. W.,, G. A. Smith,, J. E. Childs,, F. P. Pinheiro,, J. I. Maiztegui,, B. Niklasson,, A. Antoniadis,, D. M. Robinson,, M. Khin,, K. E. Shortridge,, M. T. Wooster,, M. R. Elwell,, P. L. T. Ilberty,, D. Koech,, E. S. T. Rosa,, and L. Rosen. Global survey of antibody to Hantaan-related viruses among peridomestic rodents. Bull. W H. O. 64:139144.
92. Lee, H. W. 1982. Korean hemorrhagic fever. Prog. Med. Virol. 28:96113.
93. Lee, H. W.,, P. W. Lee,, L. J. Baek,, C. K. Song,, and I. W. Soong. 1981. Intraspecific transmission of Hantaan Virus, Etiologic agent of Korean hemorrhagic fever, in the rodent Apodemus agrarius. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 30:11061112.
94. Levis, S. C.,, G. E. Calderon,, N. Pini,, T. G. Ksiazek,, C. J. Peters,, and D. A. Enria. Síndrome pulmonar por hantavirus (SPH): resultados preliminares de estudios orientados a establecer los potenciales reservorios en Ia Argentina. Presented at the V Congreso Argentino de Virologia, Tandil. Argentina. 24 to 27 April 1996.
95. Levis, S. C.,, J. E. Rowe,, S. Morzunov,, D. A. Enria,, and S. S. Jeor. 1997. New hantaviruses causing hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in central Argentina. Lancet 349:998999. (Letter.)
96. Levis, S.,, A. M. Briggiler,, M. Cacass,, C. J. Peters,, T. G. Ksiazek,, J . Cortes,, M. E. Lazaro,, A. Resa,, P. E. Rollin,, F. P. Pinheiro,, and D. Enria. Emergence of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Argentina, abstr. 441. In Abstracts of the 44th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
97. Levis, S.,, S. Morzunov,, J. Rowe,, D. Enria,, N. Pini,, G. Calderon,, M. Saballini,, and S. St. Jeor. 1998. Genetic diversity and epidemiology of hantaviruses in Argentina. J. Infect. Dis. 177:529538.
97.a. Levis, S.,, and J. Mills. Unpublished data.
98. Li, 0.,, A. L. Schmaljohn,, K. Anderson,, and C. S. Schmaljohn. 1995. Complete nucleotide sequences of the M and S segments of two hantavirus isolates from California: evidence for reassortment in nature among viruses related to hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. Virology 206:973983.
99. Linderholm, M.,, T. Sandström,, O. Rinnström,, S. Groth,, A. Blomberg,, and A. Tärnvik. Pulmonary function in hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), p. 38. In Abstracts of the Fourth International Conference on HFRS and Hantaviruses.
100. Lopez, N.,, P. Padula,, C. Rossi,, M. E. Lazaro,, and M. T. Franze-Fernandez. 1996. Genelic identification of a new hantavirus causing severe pulmonary syndrome in Argentina. Virology 220:223226.
101. Lopez, N.,, P. Padula,, C. Rossi,, S. Miguel,, A. Edelstein,, E. Ramirez,, and M. T. Franze-Fernandez. 1997. Genetic characterization and phylogeny of Andes virus and variants from Argentina and Chile. Virus Res. 50:7784.
102. Lundkvist, A.,, M. Hukic,, J. Horling,, M. Gilljam,, S. Nichol,, and B. Niklasson. 1997. Puumala and Dobrava viruses cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in Bosnia-Herzegovina: evidence of highly cross-neutralizing antibody responses in early palient sera. J. Med. Virol.53:5159.
103. Lyubsky, S.,, I. Gavrilovskaya,, B. Luft,, and E. Mackow. 1996. Histopathology of Peromyscus leucopus naturally infected with pathogenic NY-1 hantaviruses: pathologic markers of HPS viral infection in mice. Laboratory Investigation 74:627633.
104. Maiztegui, J. I.,, J. L. Becker,, and J. W. LeDuc. 1983. Actividad del virus de la fiebre hemorrágica de Corea o virus muroide en ratas del puerto de la ciudad de Buenos Aires. Medicina (Buenos Aires) 43:871.
105. Mills, J. N.,, J. M. Johnson,, T. G. Ksiazek,, B. A. Ellis,, P. E. Rollin,, T. L. Yates,, M. O. Mann,, R. M. Johnson,, M. L. Campbell,, J. Miyashiro,, M. Patrick,, M. Zyzak,, D. Lavender,, M. G. Novak,, K. Schmidt,, C. J. Peters,, and J. E. Childs. 1998. A survey of hantavirus antibody in small-mammal populations in selected U.S. national parks. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 58:525532.
106. Mills, J. N.,, T. L. Yates,, J. E. Childs,, R. R. Parmenter,, T. G. Ksiazek,, P. E. Rollin,, and C. J. Peters. 1995. Guidelines for working with rodents potentially infected with hantavirus. J. Mammal. 76:716722.
107. Mills, J. N.,, T. G. Ksiazek,, B. A. Ellis,, P. E. Rollin,, S. T. Nichol,, T. L. Yates,, W. L. Gannon,, C. E. Levy,, D. M. Engelthaler,, T. Davis,, D. T. Tanda,, J. W. Frampton,, C. R. Nichols,, C. J. Peters,, and J. E. Childs. 1997. Patterns of association with host and habitat: antibody reactive with Sin Nombre virus in small mammals in the major biotic communities of the southwestern United States. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 56:273284.
108. Moolenaar, R. L.,, C. Dalton,, H. B. Lipman,, E. T. Umland,, M. Gallaher,, J. S. Duchin,, L. Chapman,, S. R. Zaki,, T. G. Ksiazek,, P. E. Rollin,, S. T. Nichol,, J. E. Cheek,, J. C. Butler,, and R. F. Breiman. 1995. Clinical features that differentiate hantavirus pulmonary syndrome from three other acute respiratory illnesses. Clin. Infect. Dis. 21:643649.
109. Morzunov, S. P.,, J. E. Rowe,, T. G. Ksiazek,, C. J. Peters,, S. C. St Jeor,, and S. T. Nichol. 1998. Genetic analysis of the diversity and origin of hantaviruses in Peromyscus leucopus mice in North America. J. Virol. 72:5764.
110. Morzunov, S. P.,, V. Feldmann,, C. F. Spiropoulou,, V. A. Semenova,, P. E. Rollin,, T. G. Ksiazek,, C. J. Peters,, and S. T. Nichol. 1995. A newly recognized virus associated wilh a falal case of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Louisiana. J. Virol. 69:19801983.
111. Murua, R.,, L. E. Gonzalez,, M. Gonzalez,, and Y. C. Joffre. 1996. Efectos del florecimiento del arbusto Chusquea quila Kunlh (Poaceae) sabre la demografía de poblaciones de roedores de los bosques templados fríos del sur Chileno. Bol. Soc. Biol. (Concepción) 67:3742.
111.a. Nichol, S.. Personal communication.
112. NichOl, S.,, C. Spiropoulou,, S. Morzunov,, P. Rollin,, G. Ksiazek,, H. Feldmann,, A. Sanchez,, G. Childs,, S. Zaki,, and C. J. Peters. 1993. Genetic identification of a Hantavirus associated with an outbreak of acute respiratory illness. Science 262:914917.
113.. Nichol, S. T.,, T. G. Ksiazek,, P. E. Rollin,, and C. J. Peters,. 1996. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome and newly described hantaviruses in the United States, p. 269280. In R. M. Elliott (ed.). The Bunyaviridae. Plenum Press, New York, N.Y.
114. Nolte, K. B.,, R. M. Feddersen,, K. Foucar,, S. R. Zaki,, F. T. Koster,, D. Madar,, T. L. Merlin,, P. J. McFeeley,, E. T. Umland,, and R. E. Zumwalt. 1995. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the United States: a pathological description of a disease caused by a new agent. Hum. Pathol. 26:110120.
115. O'Connor, C.,, J. P. Hayes,, and S. C. St. Jeor. 1997. Sin Nombre virus does not impair respiratory function of wild deer mice. J. Mammal. 78:661668.
115.a. Padula, P. J. Unpublished data.
116. Padula, P. J.,, A. Edelstein,, S. D. L. Miguel,, N. M. López,, C. M. Rossi,, and R. D. Rabinovich. 1998. Brote epidémico del síndrome pulmonar por hantavirus en la Argentina: evidencia molecular de la transmisión persona a persona del virus Andes. Medicina (Buenos Aires) 58(Suppl. 1):2736.
117. Padula, P. J.,, A. Edelstein,, S. D. L. Miguel,, N. M. López,, C. M. Rossi,, and R. D. Rabinovich. 1998. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) outbreak in Argentina: molecular evidence for person-to-person transmission of Andes virus. Virology 241:323330.
117.a. Padula, P. J. Personal communication.
118.Pan American Health Organization. Hantaviruses in the Americas: Guidelines for Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, and Control, in press. Pan American Health Organization, Washington, D.C..
119. Parisi, M. N.,, E. Tiano,, D. Enria,, M. Sabattine,, and J. Maiztegui. Actividad de un hantavirus en pacientes de la zona endémica de fiebre hemorrágica argentina. Presented at the XIV Reunión Cientifica Anual de la Sociedad Argentina de Virología, Buenos Aires. Argentina, 10 to 11 December 1992.
120. Parisi, M. D. N.,, D. A. Enria,, N. C. Pini,, and M. S. Sabattini. 1996. Retrospective detection of clinical infections caused by hantavirus in Argentina. Medicina (Buenos Aires) 56(1):113.
121. Parmenter, R. R.,, and R. Vigil. 1993. The HARDS Epidemic in the Southwest: on Assessment of Autumn Rodent Densities and Population Demographics in Central and Northern New Mexico, October 1993. Department of Biology. University of New Mexico. Albuquerque.
122. Peters, C. J.,, J. N. Mills,, C. Spiropoulou,, S. R. Zaki,, and P. E. Rollin,. Hantaviruses. In R. L. Guerrant,. D. H. Walker,, and P. F. Weller (ed.), Tropical Infectious Diseases: Principles, Pathogens, & Practice. in press. The W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia. Pa..
123. Peters, C. J.,, P. B. Jahrling,, and A. S. Khan. 1996. Management of patients infected with high-hazard viruses: scientific basis for infection control. Arch. Virol. Suppl. 11:128.
124. Peters, C. J.,, and J. W. LeDuc,. 1996. Viral hemorrhagic fevers: persistent problems. persistent in reservoirs, p. 211233. In B. W. J. Mahy., and R. W. Compans (ed.), Immunobiology and Pathogenesis of Persistent Virus Infections. Harwood Academic Publishers GmbH, Chur, Switzerland.
125. Peters, C. J.,, and S. R. Zaki,. 1998. Viral hemorrhagic fever: an overview. In R. L. Guerrant,, D. H. Walker,. P. F. Weller (ed.). Tropical Infectious Diseases: Principles. Pathogens. & Practice. in press. The W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia. Pa.
126. Peters, C. J., 1997. Pathogenesis of viral hemorrhagic fevers, p. 779799. In N. Nathanson,. R. Ahmed,. F. Gonzalez-Scarano,. D. Griffin,. K. V. Holmes,. F. Murphy,. and H. L. Robinson (ed.). Viral Pathogenesis. Lippincott-Raven Publishers. Philadelphia. Pa..
127. Pinheiro, F. P.,, A. P. A. Travassos da Rosa,, R. B. Freitas,, J. F. S. Travassos da Rosa,, and P. F. C. Vasconcelos. 1986. Aspectos clínico-epidemiológicos. p. 395, 401402. In Instituto Evandro Chagas—50 Anos de Contribução as Ciéncias Biológicas e á Medicina Tropical: 1936-1986. Ministerio da Saúde·Fundaçao Servicos de Saúde Pública. Belém. Brazil.
128. Pini, N.,, A. Resa,, G. Laime,, G. Lecot,, T. Ksiazek,, S. Levis,, and D. Enria. 1998. Hantavirus infection in children in Argentina. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 4:8587.
129. Plyusnin, A.,, O. Vapalahti,, and A. Vaheri. 1996. Hantaviruses: genome structure, expression and evolution. J. Gen. Virol. 77:26772687.
129a.. Qian, D. Y.,, Y. S. Ding,, G. F. Chen,, J. J. Ding,, Y. X. Chen,, T. F. Lu,, Z. X. Wang,, and R. A. Smego, Jr. 1990. A placebo-controlled clinical trial of prednisone in the treatment of early hemorrhagic fever. J. Infect. Dis. 162:12131214. (Letter.)
130. Ravkov, E. V.,, P. E. Rollin,, T. G. Ksiazek,, C. J. Peters,, and S. T. Nichol. 1995. Genetic and serologic analysis of Black Creek Canal virus and its association with human disease and Sigmodon hispidus infection. Virology 210:482489.
131. Ravkov, E. V.,, S. T. Nichol,, and R. W. Compans. 1997. Polarized entry and release in epithelial cells of Black Creek Canal virus. a New World hantavirus. J. Virol. 71:11471154.
132. Rawlings, J.,, N. Torrez·Martinez,, S. Neill,, G. Moore,, B. Hicks,, S. Pichuantes, et al. 1996. Cocirculation of multiple hantaviruses in Texas, with characterization of the S genome of a previously-undescribed virus of cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus). Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 55:672679.
133. Rodriguez, L. L.,, J. H. Owens,, C. J. Peters,, and S. T. Nichol. 1998. Genetic reassortment among viruses causing hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. Virology 242:99106.
134. Rollin, P. E.,, T. G. Ksiazek,, L. H. Elliott,, E. Ravkov,, M. L. Martin,, S. Morzunov,, W. Livingstone,, M. Monroe,, G. Glass,, S. Ruo,, A. S. Khan,, J. E. Childs,, S. T. Nichol,, and C. J. Peters. 1995. Isolation of Black Creek Canal virus, a new hantavirus from Sigmodon hispidus in Florida. J. Med. Virol. 46:3539.
135. Rowe, J. E.,, S. C. St. Jeor,, J. Riolo,, E. W. Otteson,, M. C. Monroe,, W. W. Henderson,, T. G. Ksiazek,, P. E. Rollin,, and S. T. Nichol. 1995. Coexistence of several novel hantaviruses in rodents indigenous to North America. Virology 213:122130.
136. Ruedas, L. A.,, T. L. Yates,, M. L. Campbell,, K. H. Abbott,, C. H. Calisher,, J . L. Dunnum,, J. Mills,, T. G. Ksiazek,, C. A. Parmenter,, C. J. Peters,, and P. J. Polechla. 1998. Effects of hantavirus infection on natural populations of rodents (Muridae peromyscus) p. 134. In Abstracts of the Fourth International Conference on HFRS and Hantaviruses..
136a.. Ruo, S.,, and C. J. Peters. Unpublished data.
137. Sayer, W. J .,, G. M. Entwisle,, B. T. Uyeno,, and R. C. Bignall. 1955. Cortisone therapy of early epidemic hemorrhagic fever: a preliminary report. Ann. Intern. Med. 42:839.
138. Schmaljohn, A. L.,, D. Li,, D. L. Negley,, D. S. Bressler,, M. J. Turell,, G. W. Korch,, M. S. Ascher,, and C. S. Schmaljohn. 1995. Isolation and initial characterization of a newfound hantavirus from California. Virology 206:963972.
139. Schmaljohn, C. 1994. Prospects for vaccines to control viruses in the family Bunyaviridae. Rev. Med. Virol. 4:185196.
140. Schmaljohn, C.,, S. Hasty,, J. Dalrymple,, J. LeDuc,, H. W. Lee,, C. von Bonsdorff,, M. Brummer-Korvenkontio,, A. Vaheri,, T. Tsai,, H. Regnery,, D. Goldgaber,, and P. W. Lee. 1985. Antigenic and genetic properties of viruses linked to hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. Science 227:10411044.
141. Schmaljohn, C. S.,, and B. Hjelle. 1997. Hantaviruses: a global disease problem. Emerg. Inject. Dis. 3:95104.
142. Schmaljohn, C. S.,, C. Calisher,, and H. W. Lee. Manual of Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome and Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome, in press. Ui-Sul Munwhasa, Seoul, Republic of Korea.
143. Simonsen, L.,, M. J. Dalton,, R. F. Breiman,, T. Hennessy,, F. T. Umland,, C. M. Sewell,, P. E. Rollin,, T. G. Ksiazek,, and C. J. Peters. 1995. Evalution of the magnitude of the 1993 hantavirus outbreak in the southwestern United States. J. Inject. Dis. 172:729733.
144. Simpson, S. Q.,, V. Mapel,, F. T. Koster,, J. Montoya,, D. E. Bice,, and A. J. Williams. 1995. Evidence for lymphocyte activation in the hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. Chest 108:97S.
145. Simpson, S. Q.,, V. Mapel,, F. T. Koster,, J. Montoya,, D. E. Bice,, and A. J. Williams. 1996. Evidence for tumor necrosis factor activation in the hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. Crit. Care Med. 24:A26.
146. Song, J. W.,, L. J. Baek,, I. N. Gavrilovskaya,, E. R. Mackow,, B. Hjelle,, and R. Yanagihara. 1996. Sequence analysis of the complete S genomic segment of a newly identified hantavirus isolated from the white-footed mouse (Pemmyscus leucopus): phylogenetic relationship with other sigmodontine rodent-borne hantaviruses. Virus Genes 12:249256.
147. Song, J. W.,, L. J. Baek,, J. W. Nagle,, D. Schlitter,, and R. Yanagihara. 1996. Genetic and phylogenetic analyses of hantaviral sequences amplified from archival tissues of deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus nubiterrae) captured in the eastern United States. Arch. Virol. 141:959967.
148. Spiropoulou, C.,, S. Morzunov,, H. Feldman,, A. Sanchez,, C. J. Peters,, and S. T. Nichol. 1994. Genome structure and variability of a virus causing hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. Virology 200:715723.
149. Steier, K. J.,, and R. Clay, 1993. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS): report of first case in Louisiana. J. Am. Osteopath. Assoc. 93:12861289.
150. Sundstrom, J. B.,, S. Mahanty,, D. F. Spiropoulou,, D. Bressler,, and P. E. Rollin. 1998. Comparison of the direct effects of Sin Nombre (SNV) and Hantaan (HTN) virus infection on the activation of human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC-L) in vitro, p. 44. In Abstracts of the Fourth International Conference on HFRS and Hantaviruses.
151. Tamura, M.,, S. Ogino,, T. Matsunaga, et al. 1991. Experimental labyrinthitis in guinea pigs caused by a hantavirus. ORL 53:15.
152. Tapia, M. 1997. Síndrome pulmonar por hantavirus. Rev. Chil. Enferm. Respir. 13:103110.
153. Tapia, M.,, C. Mansilla,, H. Villalón,, B. Vallejos,, J. L. Vera,, N. Gallegos,, S. Zaki,, W. Shieh,, and A. S. Khan. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome: clinical description of thirteen cases in the XIth region of Aysén, Chile, p. 36. In Abstracts of the Fourth International Conference on HFRS and Hantaviruses.
154. Tappero, J. W.,, A. S. Khan,, R. W. Pinner,, J. D. Wenger,, J. M. Graber,, L. R. Armstrong,, R. C. Holman,, T. G. Ksiazek,, R. F. Khabbaz, and the Hantavirus Task Force. 1996. Utility of emergency, telephone-based national surveillance for Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. JAMA 275:398400.
154.a. Tesh, R. B.,, and D. M. Watts. Personal communication.d>
155. Theiler, M.,, and W. G. Downs. 1973. The Arthropod-Borne Viruses of Vertebrates. Yale University Press, New Haven, Conn.
156. Toro, J.,, J. Vega,, J. Mills, et al. An outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, Chile 1997. Emerg. Infect. Dis., in press.
157. Torrez-Martinez, N.,, M. Bharadwaj,, D. Goade,, J. Delury,, D. Moran,, B. Hicks,, B. Nix,, J. L. Davis,, and B. Hjelle. 1998. Bayou virus·associated hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in eastern Texas: identification of the rice rat. Oryzomys palustris, as reservoir host. Ernerg. Infect. Dis. 4:105111.
158. Torrez-Martinez, N.,, and B. Hjelle. 1995. Enzootic of Bayou hantavirus in rice rats (Oryzomys palustris) in 1993. Lancet 346:780781. (Letter.)
159. Traub, R.,, and C. L. Wisseman. 1978. Korean hemorrhagic fever. J. Infect. Dis. 138:267272.
160. Tsai, T. F.,, Y. W. Tang,, S. L. Hu,, K. L. Ye,, G. L. Chen,, and Y. X. Xu. 1984. Hemagglutination-inhibiting antibody in hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome. J. Infect. Dis. 150:8951215.
161. Tsai, T. F. 1987. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome: mode of transmission to humans. Lab. Anim. Sci. 37:428430.
162. Tsai, T. F.,, S. P. Bauer,, D. R. Sasso,, S. G. Whitfield,, J. B. McCormick,, C. T. Caraway,, L. M. McFarland,, H. Bradford,, and T. Kurata. 1985. Serological and virological evidence of a hantaan virus-related enzootic in the United States. J. Infect. Dis. 152:126136.
163. Valderamma, R.,, J. Vega,, and W. Terry. Community serological survey of infection by hantavirus in the XI region, Aysen, Chile, p. 155. In Abstracts of the Fourth International Conference on H FRS lind Hantaviruses.
164. Vasconcelos, M.,, V. Lima,, L. Iversson,, M. Rosa,, A. Travassos da Rosa,, E. Travassos da Rosa,, L. Pereira,, E. Nassar,, G. Katz,, L. Matida,, M. Zaparoli,, J. Ferreira,, and C. Peters. 1997. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in the rural area of Juquitiba. São Paulo Metropolitan Area, Brazil. Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. (S. Paulo) 39:237238.
165. Vasconcelos, P. F. c.,, E. S. Travassos da Rosa,, A. P. A. Travassos da Rosa,, and J. F. S. Travassos da Rosa. 1992. Evidence of circu lating hantaviruses in Brazilian Amazonia through high prevalence of antibodies in residents of Manaus, Brazil. Ciencia e Cullura 44: 162163.
166. Vasilenko, V.,, I. Golivljova,, Å. Lundkwist,, O. Vapalahti,, H. Henltonen,, A. Plyusnin,, and A. Vaheri. 1998. Studies on the distribution of hantaviruses in Estonia. 1990-1997, p. 57. In Abstracts of the Fourth International Conference on HFRS and Hantaviruses.
167. Vitek, C. R.,, R. F. Breiman,, T. G. Ksiazek,, P. E. Rollin,, J. C. McLaughlin,, E. T. Umland, et al. 1996. Evidence against person-to-person transmission of hantavirus to health care workers. Clin. Infect. Dis. 22:824826.
168. Weissenbacher. M.,, M. S. Merani,, V. L. Hodara, et al. 1990. Hantavirus infection in laboratory and wild rodents in Argentina. Medicina (Buenos Aires) 50:4346.
169. Weissenbacher, M. C.,, E. Cura,, E. L. Segura, et al. 1996. Serological evidence of human hantavirus infection in Argentina, Bolivia. and Uruguay. Medicina (Buenos Aires) 56:1722.
170. Weissenbacher, M. C.,, H. W. Lee,, E. Cura,, and E. L. Segura. Anti-Hantaan antibody prevalence among Argentinian laboratory workers and general population. Presented at the Pacific Science Association 16th Congress. Seoul. Republic of Korea. 20 to 30 August 1987.
171. Wells, R. M.,, S. Sosa Estani,, Z. E. Yadon,, D. Enria,, P. Padula,, N. Pini,, J. N. Mills,, C. J. Peters,, E. L. Segura, and the Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome Study Group for Patagonia. 1997. An unusual hantavirus outbreak in southern Argentina: person-to-person transmission? Emerg. Infect. Dis. 3:171174.
172. Wells, R. M.,, S. S. Sosa Estani,, Z. E. Yadon,, D. Enria,, P. Padula,, N. Pini,, M. Gonzalez Della Vaile,, J. N. Mills,, and C. J. Peters. Hantaviral antibodies in health care workers and other residents of southern Argentina. Submitted for publication.
173. Wells, R. M.,, J. Young,, R. J. Williams,, L. R. Armstrong,, K. Busico,, A. S. Khan,, T. G. Ksiazek,, P. E. Rollin,, S. R. Zaki,, S. T. Nichol,, and C. J. Peters. 1997. Hantavirus transmission in the United States. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 3:361365.
174. Williams, R. J.,, R. T. Bryan,, J. N. Mills,, R. E. Palma,, I. Vera,, F. Velasquez,, E. M. Baez,, W. E. Schmidt,, R. E. Figueroa,, C. J. Peters,, S. R. Zaki,, A. S. Khan,, and T. G. Ksiazek. 1997. An outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in western Paraguay. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 57:274282.
175. Wolfe, J. L. 1982. Oryzomys palustris. Mamm. Species 176:15.
176. Xiao, S. Y.,, J. LeDuc,, K. C. Yong,, and C. Schmaljohn. 1994. Phylogenetic analyses of virus isolates in the genus Hantavirus, family Bunyaviridae. Virology 198:205217.
177. Yadon, Z. E. 1998. Epidemiología del síndrome pulmonar por hantavi rus en la Argentina (1991-1997). Medicina (Buenos Aires) 58(Supp. 1):2526.
178. Yadon, Z. E.,, S. Sosa Estanl,, R. Wells,, J. N. Mills,, K. Busico,, P. Padula,, D. Enria,, C. J. Peters,, and E. L. Segura, and Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome Study Group for Patagonia. Evidence of person-to-person transmission of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) during an outbreak in the Patagonia region of Argentina, a case control study. Submitted for publication.
179. Yanagihara, R.,, H. L. Amyx,, and D. C. Gajdusek. 1985. Experimental infection with Puumala virus, the etiologic agent of Nephropathia epidemica in bank voles (Clethrionomy glareolus). J. Viral. 55:3438.
180. Yanagihara, R. 1990. Hantavirus infection in the United States: epizootiology and epidemiology. Rev. Infect. Dis. 12:449457.
181. Yang, L. L. Hantavirus: an integrated multi-faceted communication campaign. Presented at the American Public Health Association l25th Annual Meeting and Exposition, Indianapolis, Ind., 9 to 13 November 1997
182. Yao, J, S.,, J. Arikawa,, H. Kariwa,, K. Yoshimatsu,, I. Takashima,, and N. Hashimoto. 1992. Effect of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies on Hantaan virus infection of the macrophage P399D1 cell line. Jpn. J. Vet. Res. 40: 8797.
182a.. Yates, T.,, T. Ksiazek,, and S. T. Nichol. Personal communication.
183. Yates, T.,, T. Ksiazek,, R. Parmenter,, P. Rollin,, S. Nichol,, J. Dunnum,, R. Baker,, C. Parmenter,, and C, Peters, Hantavirus outbreaks and rodent ecology: the role of El Niño. p. 6 1. In Abstracts of the Fourth International Conference on HFRS and Hantaviruses.
184. Yu, Y.,, X. Yiao,, and G. Dong. 1989. Comparative studies of the immunogenicity of different types of HFRS inactivated vaccines made in China. JE and HFRS Bulletin 3:6568.
184a.. Zaki, S. R. Unpublished data.
184b.. Zaki, S. R. Personal communication.
184c.. Zaki, S. R.,, and W. J. Shieh. Personal communication.
185. Zaki, S. R.,, A. S. Khan,, R, A. Goodman,, L. R. Armstrong,, P. W. Greer,, L. M. Coffield,, T. G. Ksiazek,, P. E. Rollin,, C. J. Peters,, and R. F. Khabbaz, 1996. Retrospective diagnosis of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. 1978-1993. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 120:134139.
186. Zaki, S. R., 1997. Hantavirus-associated diseases. p. 125136. In D. H. Connor,. F. W. Chandler,. D. A. Schwartz,, H. J. Manz,. and E. E. Lack (ed.), The Pathology of Infectious Diseases. Appleton and Lange, Norwalk, Conn.
187. Zaki, S. R.,, P. W. Greer,, L. M. Coffield,, C. S,, Goldsmith, K,, B. Nolte,, K. Foucar,, R. M. Feddersen,, R. E. Zumwalt,, G. L. Miller,, A. S. Khan,, P. E, Rollin,, T. G. Ksiazek,, S. T. Nichol,, B. W. J, Mahy,, and C. J. Peters. 1995. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome: pathogenesis of an emerging infectious disease. Am. J. Pathol. 146:552579.
188. Zaparoli, M. A.,, L. B. Iversson,, M. D. Rosa, et a1. 1995. Investigation on case-contacts of human disease caused by hantavirus in Juquitiba, State of São Paulo. Brazil. Am. J. Trop. Med. 53:232233. (Abstract.)
189. Zeitz, P. S.,, J. C. Butler,, J. E. Cheek,, M. C. Samuel,, J. E. Childs,, L. A. Shands,, R. E. Turner,, R, E. Voorhees,, J. Sroisky,, P. E. Rollin,, T. G. Ksiazek,, L. Chapman,, S. E. Reef,, K. K. Komatsu,, C. Dalton,, J. W. Krebs,, G. O. Maupin,, C. M, Sewell,, R, F. Breiman,, and C. J. Peters, 1995. A case-control study of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome during an outbreak in the southwestern United States. J. Infect. Dis. 171:864870.
190. Zeitz, P. S.,, J. M. Graber,, R. A. Voorhees,, C. Kioski,, L. A, Shands,, T. G. Ksiazek,, S. Jenison,, and R. F. Khabbaz. 1997. Assessment of occupational risk for hantavirus infection in Arizona and New Mexico. J. Occup. Environ. Med. 39:463467.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1

Hantaviruses of sigmodontine rodents in the Americas

Citation: Peters C. 1998. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in the Americas, p 17-64. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 2. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816957.ch2
Generic image for table
Table 2

HPS recognition in South America

Citation: Peters C. 1998. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in the Americas, p 17-64. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 2. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816957.ch2
Generic image for table
Table 3

Estimates of HPS cases identified in the Americas as of March, 1998, by country of infection

Citation: Peters C. 1998. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in the Americas, p 17-64. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 2. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816957.ch2
Generic image for table
Table 4

Clinical features of hantavirus infections

Citation: Peters C. 1998. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in the Americas, p 17-64. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 2. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816957.ch2

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error