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4 : Human Herpesvirus 8 and Kaposi's Sarcoma

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Abstract:

This chapter reviews the association between the recently recognized virus human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) and Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), the most common malignancy seen in persons with AIDS. Other malignancies associated with HHV- 8 are also reviewed. The chapter illustrates the use of epidemiologic methods to indicate an infectious agent as the cause of a disease of unknown etiology and the use of molecular biologic methods to identify infectious agents that may have remained undetectable by more conventional approaches. KS is by far the most common malignancy found in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons. Paucity of KS cases among HIV-infected transfusion recipients, hemophiliacs, and injection drug users argues against KS agent's being a blood-borne pathogen. Even before the increased incidence of KS associated with HIV infection, researchers had been looking for a possible infectious agent as a cause of KS. Use of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect HHV-8 DNA is one of the primary methods of determining HHV-8 infection. PCR-based studies have also examined the rate of positivity of KS biopsies based on the stage of the lesion. If HHV-8, like many other human herpesviruses, were ubiquitous among American and European adults, questions would remain regarding the connection between HHV-8 and KS. Several epidemiologic studies have examined the effect of antivirals active against herpesviruses on the development of KS. Knowledge about HHV-8 also may provide insights which may be useful to treat existing disease.

Citation: Spira T, Jaffe H. 1998. Human Herpesvirus 8 and Kaposi's Sarcoma, p 81-104. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 2. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816957.ch4

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Kaposi's Sarcoma
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Human herpesvirus 8
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Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha
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Figure 1.1

(A) Electron micrograph of HHV-8 grown in BCBL-1 cells, showing viral nucleocapsids (arrowheads) in the cell nucleus and cytoplasmic particles (arrow) budding upon the membranes of the Golgi apparatus. (B) Extracellular particles containing nucleocapsid (arrowhead) surrounded by a layer of tegument and enclosed in viral envelope (arrow). Bars, 100 nm. (Courtesy of C. Goldsmith [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention] and M. Offerman [Emory University School of Medicine].)

Citation: Spira T, Jaffe H. 1998. Human Herpesvirus 8 and Kaposi's Sarcoma, p 81-104. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 2. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816957.ch4
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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1

HHV-8 PCR of KS tissue biopsies

Citation: Spira T, Jaffe H. 1998. Human Herpesvirus 8 and Kaposi's Sarcoma, p 81-104. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 2. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816957.ch4
Generic image for table
Table 2

HHV·8 PCR of peripheral blood mononuclear cells

Citation: Spira T, Jaffe H. 1998. Human Herpesvirus 8 and Kaposi's Sarcoma, p 81-104. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 2. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816957.ch4
Generic image for table
Table 3

HHV-8 serology detected by IFA, immunoblot, and ELISA

Citation: Spira T, Jaffe H. 1998. Human Herpesvirus 8 and Kaposi's Sarcoma, p 81-104. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 2. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816957.ch4
Generic image for table
Table 4

PCR of HHV-8-associated malignancies: body-cavity-based lymphoma/primary effusion lymphoma

Citation: Spira T, Jaffe H. 1998. Human Herpesvirus 8 and Kaposi's Sarcoma, p 81-104. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 2. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816957.ch4
Generic image for table
Table 5

PCR of HHV-8-associated malignancies: MCD

Citation: Spira T, Jaffe H. 1998. Human Herpesvirus 8 and Kaposi's Sarcoma, p 81-104. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 2. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816957.ch4

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