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5 : Monkeypox: an Emerging Infection for Humans?

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Abstract:

Human monkeypox was first identified in 1970 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) in an area where smallpox had been eliminated about 2 years previously. Monkeypox, a zoonotic and probably respiratorily acquired disease, resembles smallpox clinically but differs biologically and epidemiologically of all these differences, the most important is that spread between humans is limited. Experimental monkeypox infections in several species of animals, including nonhuman primates, have demonstrated infectivity and pathogenesis following infection by aerosol, intranasal inoculations, or parenteral administration. Numerous infections and other syndromes that cause papulovesicular and vesiculopustular eruptions can resemble human monkeypox. Clinical manifestations of human diseases caused by poxviruses have been provided in this chapter. There was evidence to suggest cocirculation of varicella-zoster virus, as five of six active monkeypox cases living in one household also had serological evidence (IgM) of recent varicella-zoster virus infection. In January 1999, the Technical Advisory Group Meeting on Human Monkeypox was convened by the World Health Organization (WHO). The advisory group reviewed the clinical, epidemiologic, and laboratory results from the recent outbreaks and identified areas for further surveillance and research on the public health impact of human monkeypox. The WHO document on collection, storage and shipping of specimens from humans for monkeypox and hemorrhagic viruses should be updated.

Citation: Breman J. 2000. Monkeypox: an Emerging Infection for Humans?, p 45-67. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 4. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816971.ch5
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Figures

Image of Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Dendrogram illustrating the similarities and differences between orthopoxvirus DNAs. Modified from reference .

Citation: Breman J. 2000. Monkeypox: an Emerging Infection for Humans?, p 45-67. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 4. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816971.ch5
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Image of Figure 2.
Figure 2.

Five photos of a child with monkeypox on the 8th day of rash. Note inguinal lymphadenopathy and dense concentration of lesions on the lower face and hands. (Photos courtesy of World Health Organization, M. Szczeniowski.)

Citation: Breman J. 2000. Monkeypox: an Emerging Infection for Humans?, p 45-67. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 4. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816971.ch5
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Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1.

Monkeypox in captive animals, 1958 to 1968

Citation: Breman J. 2000. Monkeypox: an Emerging Infection for Humans?, p 45-67. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 4. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816971.ch5
Generic image for table
Table 2.

Causes of papulovesicular and maculopapular eruptions

Citation: Breman J. 2000. Monkeypox: an Emerging Infection for Humans?, p 45-67. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 4. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816971.ch5
Generic image for table
Table 3.

Clinical manifestations of human diseases caused by poxviruses

Citation: Breman J. 2000. Monkeypox: an Emerging Infection for Humans?, p 45-67. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 4. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816971.ch5
Generic image for table
Table 4.

Human monkeypox patients reported from western and central Africa, 1970-1999

Citation: Breman J. 2000. Monkeypox: an Emerging Infection for Humans?, p 45-67. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 4. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816971.ch5

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