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1 : Enterovirus 71, an Emerging Virus

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Enterovirus 71, an Emerging Virus, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

This chapter provides an overview of the 68 types of enterovirus serotypes including the 3 polioviruses, 29 coxsackieviruses, and 32 echoviruses. Enteroviruses are no longer differentiated into these three different groups, and beginning with enterovirus 68, they were named numerically in sequence. Aseptic meningitis, along with less specific respiratory, gastrointestinal, or other skin manifestations, may accompany enterovirus infections. One of the characteristics of Enterovirus 71 (EV 71) outbreaks is that other enteroviruses frequently cocirculate with EV 71. This outbreak was characterized by cocirculation of a number of other enteroviruses, the most prominent one being coxsackievirus A16. There were 226 coxsackievirus A16 isolates, of which 28% were from inpatients and 37% were from outpatients. Significantly more EV 71 isolates were from inpatients and significantly more coxsackievirus A16 isolates were from outpatients. EV 71 can cause large epidemics, and most recently these have occurred in the Far East. These outbreaks are frequently mixtures of EV 71 and other viruses such as coxsackievirus A16, but serious disease and fatalities are caused only by EV 71. Hallmark clinical manifestations are hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD), flaccid paralysis, brain stem encephalitis, and pulmonary edema. EV 71 must be diagnosed by specific virologic procedures.

Citation: Ho M. 2001. Enterovirus 71, an Emerging Virus, p 1-10. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 5. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816988.ch1

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Figures

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Figure 1

Number of cases of HFMD and HA reported in Taiwan as a whole and in each of its four regions by sentinel physicians from the week of 29 March 1998 through the week of 27 December 1998. The total number of cases was 129,106. Reprinted with permission from the New England Journal of Medicine (15). Copyright 1999 Massachusetts Medical Society. All rights reserved.

Citation: Ho M. 2001. Enterovirus 71, an Emerging Virus, p 1-10. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 5. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816988.ch1
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Figure 2

Number of cases and outcomes of severe HFMD and HA in Taiwan from the week of 15 February 1998 through the week of 20 December 1998. A total of 78 patients died, and 327 survived. Reprinted with permission from the ( ). Copyright 1999 Massachusetts Medical Society. All rights reserved.

Citation: Ho M. 2001. Enterovirus 71, an Emerging Virus, p 1-10. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 5. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816988.ch1
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References

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Tables

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Table 1

Enterovirus

Citation: Ho M. 2001. Enterovirus 71, an Emerging Virus, p 1-10. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 5. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816988.ch1
Generic image for table
Table 2

Outbreaks associated with EV 71

Citation: Ho M. 2001. Enterovirus 71, an Emerging Virus, p 1-10. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 5. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816988.ch1
Generic image for table
Table 3

Incidence of cases of severe HFMD and HA and case fatality rates, by geographic region of Taiwan

Citation: Ho M. 2001. Enterovirus 71, an Emerging Virus, p 1-10. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 5. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816988.ch1
Generic image for table
Table 4

Incidence and case fatality ratios for HFMD patients by age in Taiwan, January to December 1998

Citation: Ho M. 2001. Enterovirus 71, an Emerging Virus, p 1-10. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 5. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816988.ch1
Generic image for table
Table 5

Enteroviruses isolated from inpatients and outpatients

Citation: Ho M. 2001. Enterovirus 71, an Emerging Virus, p 1-10. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 5. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816988.ch1
Generic image for table
Table 6

Clinical complications of 96 severe cases and enteroviruses isolated

Citation: Ho M. 2001. Enterovirus 71, an Emerging Virus, p 1-10. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 5. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816988.ch1
Generic image for table
Table 7

Clinical complications of fatalities and their virus isolates

Citation: Ho M. 2001. Enterovirus 71, an Emerging Virus, p 1-10. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 5. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816988.ch1
Generic image for table
Table 8

Molecular epidemiology and evolution of EV 71

Citation: Ho M. 2001. Enterovirus 71, an Emerging Virus, p 1-10. In Scheld W, Craig W, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 5. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816988.ch1

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