5 : The Global Epidemiology of AIDS

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In 1981, the first cases of AIDS were recognized in previously healthy homosexual men residing in the United States. Within just a few years, thousands of cases were recognized in members of other high-risk groups, including injecting drug users (IDUs), hemophiliacs, and recipients of blood transfusions. The diversity of the global AIDS pandemic is also reflected in the heterogeneity of the viral subtypes of HIV. Recent studies have suggested that HIV entered the human population through multiple zoonotic infections from simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected nonhuman primates sometime in the early to mid-20th century. In 1985, a second human retrovirus associated with AIDS, HIV-2, was identified in West Africa. This virus has been found to have relatively high prevalence rates among hospitalized patients, female prostitutes, and patients who attend sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinics in several countries of West Africa. Sub-Saharan Africa represents the epicenter of the global HIV/AIDS pandemic. HIV/AIDS is now the leading cause of death in some countries of the Caribbean basin.

Citation: Quinn T. 2004. The Global Epidemiology of AIDS, p 59-82. In Scheld W, Murray B, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 6. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816995.ch5
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Figure 1

Historical perspective on the timeline of HIV/AIDS as shown by the epidemic increase in the number of people living with HIV/AIDS worldwide. (source: reference .)

Citation: Quinn T. 2004. The Global Epidemiology of AIDS, p 59-82. In Scheld W, Murray B, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 6. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816995.ch5
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Figure 2

According to UNAIDS estimates, 42 million adults and children were living with HIV/AIDS in 2002. Distribution of infected people is shown by region. (source: reference .)

Citation: Quinn T. 2004. The Global Epidemiology of AIDS, p 59-82. In Scheld W, Murray B, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 6. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816995.ch5
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Figure 3

Distribution of HIV/AIDS deaths in 2001 and the number of people using antiretroviral drugs during the same time period by region. Note the extraordinarily large number of deaths in sub-Saharan Africa in contrast to the small number of people using antiretroviral drugs. Data from UNAIDS ( ).

Citation: Quinn T. 2004. The Global Epidemiology of AIDS, p 59-82. In Scheld W, Murray B, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 6. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816995.ch5
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Figure 4

Reduction in life expectancy compared to the “no AIDS” scenario in selected countries, 2000 to 2005. (source: reference .)

Citation: Quinn T. 2004. The Global Epidemiology of AIDS, p 59-82. In Scheld W, Murray B, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 6. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816995.ch5
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Figure 5

Cumulative reported HIV infections per million population in eastern European countries, 1993 to 2001. Data from UNAIDS ( ).

Citation: Quinn T. 2004. The Global Epidemiology of AIDS, p 59-82. In Scheld W, Murray B, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 6. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816995.ch5
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Figure 6

Estimated AIDS incidence, deaths, and prevalence by quarter year of diagnosis or death for the United States, 1981–2000. Data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ( ).

Citation: Quinn T. 2004. The Global Epidemiology of AIDS, p 59-82. In Scheld W, Murray B, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 6. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816995.ch5
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Table 1

Global summary of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, December 2002

Citation: Quinn T. 2004. The Global Epidemiology of AIDS, p 59-82. In Scheld W, Murray B, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 6. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816995.ch5
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Table 2

Regional HIV/AIDS statistics and features at the end of 2002

Citation: Quinn T. 2004. The Global Epidemiology of AIDS, p 59-82. In Scheld W, Murray B, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 6. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816995.ch5

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