1887

11 : Human African Trypanosomiasis: a Reemerging Public Health Threat

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Human African Trypanosomiasis: a Reemerging Public Health Threat, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816995/9781555812423_Chap11-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555816995/9781555812423_Chap11-2.gif

Abstract:

The explosive increase in the prevalence of human African trypanosomiasis at the beginning of the 20th century is one of the best examples of an emerging infection. Human African trypanosomiasis is caused by two subspecies of , an extracellular, flagellate protozoan parasite. Although the two subspecies that infect humans, and , are morphologically indistinguishable, there are key differences in their abilities to infect nonhuman hosts. Human African trypanosomiasis is a progressive illness that is invariably fatal if untreated. Detection of trypanosome DNA by PCR, although successfully used clinically for the detection of infections imported to other countries from Africa or in research studies, is not practical for diagnosis in the field at present. Accurate assessment of the stage is critical because it dictates the choice of therapy; however, existing tools are not optimal. Chemotherapy for human African trypanosomiasis is far from ideal. Two strategies are used for control of African trypanosomiasis: reduction of the disease reservoir through case detection and treatment and reduction of human-fly contact through vector control. The threat has two components: the lack of secure production of antitrypanosomal drugs and the decreasing efficacy of the most important agent, melarsoprol. Human African trypanosomiasis has dramatically reemerged as a serious public health problem in the central African region. Huge challenges occur in implementing previously successful strategies to regain control of the disease, in view of the weak or absent health systems in some of the most affected areas.

Citation: Moore A. 2004. Human African Trypanosomiasis: a Reemerging Public Health Threat, p 143-157. In Scheld W, Murray B, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 6. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816995.ch11
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 1
Figure 1

Reported incidence of African trypanosomiasis, 1926 to 2000. Data are from the WHO. The countries reporting are shaded.

Citation: Moore A. 2004. Human African Trypanosomiasis: a Reemerging Public Health Threat, p 143-157. In Scheld W, Murray B, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 6. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816995.ch11
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2
Figure 2

Geographic distribution of African trypanosomiasis, 2000. In each country, the spatial distribution is uneven and the disease occurs in foci.

Citation: Moore A. 2004. Human African Trypanosomiasis: a Reemerging Public Health Threat, p 143-157. In Scheld W, Murray B, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 6. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816995.ch11
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 3
Figure 3

Imported trypanosomiasis in the United States, by year, 1967 to 2002

Citation: Moore A. 2004. Human African Trypanosomiasis: a Reemerging Public Health Threat, p 143-157. In Scheld W, Murray B, Hughes J (ed), Emerging Infections 6. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555816995.ch11
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555816995.chap11
1. Aerts, D.,, P. Truc,, L. Penchenier,, Y. Claes,, and D. Le Ray. 1992. A kit for in vitro isolation of trypanosomes in the field: first trial with sleeping sickness patients in the Congo Republic. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 86: 394 395.
2. Barry, J. D., 1997. The biology of antigenic variation in African trypanosomes, p. 89 107. In G. Hide,, J. C. Mottram,, G. H. Coombs,, and P. H. Holmes (ed.), Trypanosomiasis and Leishmaniasis: Biology and Control. CAB International, Oxford, United Kingdom.
3. Barry, J. D. 1997. The relative significance of mechanisms of antigenic variation in African trypanosomes. Parasitol. Today 13: 212 218.
4. Bilenge, C. M. M.,, V. K. B. K. Meso,, F. J. Louis,, and P. Lucas. 2001. Trypanosomiase humaine Africaine en milieu urbain: l'exemple de Kinshasa, Republique du Congo en 1998 et 1999. Med. Trop. 61: 445 448.
5. Brun, R.,, R. Schumacher,, C. Schmid,, C. Kunz,, and C. Burri. 2001. The phenomenon of treatment failures in human African trypanosomiasis. Trop. Med. Int. Health 6: 906 914.
6. Bryan, R.,, H. Waskin,, F. Richards,, T. Bailey,, and D. Juranek,. 1989. African trypanosomiasis in American travelers: a 20-year review, p. 384 388. In R. Steffen,, H. Lobel,, J. Hawarth,, and D. J. Brandley (ed.), Travel Medicine. Springer-Verlag, New York, N.Y.
7. Burri, C.,, and J. Keiser. 2001. Pharmacokinetic investigations in patients from northern Angola refractory to melarsoprol treatment. Trop. Med. Int. Health 6: 412 420.
8. Burri, C.,, S. Nkunku,, A. Merolle,, T. Smith,, J. Blum,, and R. Brun. 2000. Efficacy of a new, concise schedule for melarsoprol in treatment of sleeping sickness caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense: a randomized trial. Lancet 355: 1419 1425.
9. Cross, G. A. M. 1996. Antigenic variation in trypanosomes— secrets surface slowly. Bioessays 18: 283 291.
10. Duggan, A. J., 1970. An historical perspective, p. xli lxxxviii. In H. W. Mulligan, and W. H. Potts (ed.), The African Trypanosomiases. George Allen & Unwin, London, United Kingdom.
11. Ekwanzala, M.,, J. Pepin,, N. Khonde,, S. Molisho,, H. Bruneel,, and P. De Wais. 1996. In the heart of darkness: sleeping sickness in Zaire. Lancet 348: 1427 1430.
12. Fèvre, E. M.,, P. G. Coleman,, M. Odiit,, J. W. Magona,, S. C. Welburn,, and M. E. J. Woolhouse. 2001. The origins of a new Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense sleeping sickness outbreak in eastern Uganda. Lancet 358: 625 628.
13. Gastellu Etchegorry, M.,, J. P. Helenport,, B. Pecoul,, J. Jannin,, and D. Legros. 2001. Availability and affordability of treatment for human African trypanosomiasis. Trop. Med. Int. Health 6: 957 959.
14. Geigy, R.,, P. M. Mwanbu,, and M. Kaufmann. 1971. Sleeping sickness survey in Musoma district, Tanzania. IV. Examination of wild mammals as a potential reservoir for T. rhodesiense. Acta Trop. 30: 49 56.
15. Hide, G. 1999. History of sleeping sickness in East Africa. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 12: 112 125.
16. Kabiri, M.,, J. R. Franco,, P. P. Simarro,, J. A. Ruiz,, M. Sarsa,, and D. Steverding. 1999. Detection of Trypanosoma bruce gambiense in sleeping sickness suspects by PCR amplification of expression-site-associated genes 6 and 7. Trop. Med. Int. Health 4: 658 661.
17. Kanmogne, G. D.,, T. Asonganye,, and W. C. Gibson. 1996. Detection of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, in serologically positive but aparasitemic sleeping-sickness suspects in Cameroon, by PCR. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 90: 475 483.
18. Kirchhoff, L. V. 1988. Use of PCR assay for diagnosing African trypanosomiasis of the CNS: a case report. Cent. Afr. J. Med. 44: 134 136.
19. Legros, D.,, C. Fournier,, M. Gastellu Etchegorry,, F. Maiso,, and E. Szumlin. 1999. Échecs thérapeutiques du mélarsoprol parmi des patients traites au stade tardif de trypanosomose humaine africaine à T. brucei gambiense en Ouganda. Bull. Soc. Pathol. Exot. 92: 171 172.
20. Legros, D.,, S. Evans,, F. Maiso,, J. C. Enyaru,, and D. Mbulamberi. 1999. Risk factors for treatment failure after melarsoprol for Trypanosoma brucei gambiense trypanosomiasis in Uganda. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 93: 439 442.
21. Lejon, V.,, P. Buscher,, N. H. Sema,, E. Magnus,, and N. Van Meirvenne. 1998. Human African trypanosomiasis: a latex agglutination field test for quantifying IgM in cerebrospinal fluid. Bull. W. H. O. 76: 553 558.
22. Lumsden, W. H. R.,, C. D. Kimber,, D. A. Evans,, and S. J. Doig. 1979. Trypanosoma brucei: miniature anion exchange centrifugation technique for detection of low parasitemias: adaptation to field use. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 73: 312 317.
23. Magnus, E.,, T. Vervoort,, and N. Van Meirvenne. 1978. A card agglutination test with stained trypanosomes (CATT) for serological diagnosis of T. b. gambiense trypanosomiasis. Ann. Soc. Belge Med. Trop. 58: 169 176.
24. Malesker, M. A.,, D. Boken,, T. A. Ruma,, P. J. Vuchetich,, P. J. Murphy,, and P. W. Smith. 1999. Rhodesian trypanosomiasis in a splenectomized patient. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 61: 428 430.
25. Matovu, E.,, J. C. K. Enyaru,, D. Legros,, C. Schmid,, T. Seebeck,, and R. Kaminsky. 2001. Melarsoprol refractory T. b. gambiense from Omugo, northwestern Uganda. Trop. Med. Int. Health 6: 407 411.
26. McGovern, T. W.,, W. Williams,, J. E. Fitzpatrick,, M. S. Cetron,, B. C. Hepburn,, and R. H. Gentry. 1995. Cutaneous manifestations of African trypanosomiasis. Arch. Dermatol. 131: 1178 1182.
27. Miézan, T.,, F. Doua,, P. Cattand,, and P. de Raadt. 1991. Évaluation du Testryp CATT appliqué au sang préléve sur papier filtre and au sang dilué, dans le foyer de trypanosomiase à Trypanosoma brucei gambiense en Côte d'Ivoire. Bull. W. H. O. 69: 603 606.
28. Miézan, T. W.,, H. A. Meda,, F. Doua,, F. B. Yapo,, and T. Baltz. 1998. Assessment of central nervous system involvement in gambiense trypanosomiasis: value of the cerebro-spinal white cell count. Trop. Med. Int. Health 3: 571 575.
29. Moore, A.,, and M. Richer. 2001. Re-emergence of epidemic sleeping sickness in southern Sudan. Trop. Med. Int. Health 6: 342 347.
30. Moore, A.,, E. T. Ryan,, and M. A. Waldron. 2002. A 37-year-old man with fever, hepatosplenomegaly, and a cutaneous foot lesion after a trip to Africa. N. Engl. J. Med. 346: 2069 2076.
31. Moore, D. A. J.,, M. Edwards,, R. Escombe,, D. Agranoff,, J. W. Bailey,, S. B. Squire,, and P. L. Chiodini. 2002. African trypanosomiasis in travelers returning to the United Kingdom. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8: 74 76.
32. Noireau, F.,, J. L. Lemesre,, M. Y. Nzoukoudi,, M. T. Louembet,, J. P. Gouteau,, and J. L. Frézil. 1988. Serodiagnosis of sleeping sickness in the Republic of Congo: comparison of indirect immunofluorescence antibody test and card agglutination test. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 82: 237 240.
33. Pays, E.,, L. Vanhamme,, and M. Berberof. 1994. Genetic controls for the expression of surface proteins in African trypanosomes. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 47: 521 534.
34. Pécoul, B.,, P. Chirac,, P. Trouiller,, and J. Pinel. 1999. Access to essential drugs in poor countries. A lost battle? JAMA 281: 361 367.
35. Penchenier, L.,, G. Simo,, P. Grebaut,, S. Nkinin,, C. Laveissiere,, and S. Herder. 2000. Diagnosis of human trypanosomiasis, due to Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in central Africa, by the polymerase chain reaction. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 94: 392 394.
36. Pepin, J.,, and F. Milord. 1994. The treatment of human African trypanosomiasis. Adv. Parasitol. 33: 1 49.
37. Pepin, J.,, F. Milord,, C. Guern,, B. Mpia,, L. Ethier,, and D. Mansinsa. 1989. Trial of prednisolone for prevention of melarsoprol-induced encephalopathy in gambiense sleeping sickness. Lancet 333: 1246 1249.
38. Pepin, J.,, F. Milord,, N. Khonde,, T. Niyonsenga,, L. Loko,, B. Mpia,, and P. De Wais. 1995. Risk factors for encephalopathy and mortality during melarsoprol treatment of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense sleeping sickness. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 89: 92 97.
39. Pepin, J.,, L. Ethier,, C. Kazadi,, F. Milord,, and R. Ryder. 1992. The impact of HIV infection on the epidemiology and treatment of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense sleeping sickness in Nioki, Zaire. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 47: 133 140.
40. Petru, A. M.,, P. H. Azimi,, S. K. Cummins,, and A. Sjoerdsma. 1988. African sleeping sickness in the United States. Am. J. Dis. Child. 142: 224 228.
41. Poltera, A. A.,, R. Owor,, and J. N. Cox. 1973. Pathological aspects of human African trypanosomiasis in Uganda. A post-mortem survey of fourteen cases. Virchows Arch. Pathol. Histopathol. 373: 249 265.
42. Radwanska, M.,, F. Claes,, S. Magez,, E. Magnus,, D. Perez-Morga,, E. Pays,, and P. Buscher. 2002. Novel primer sequences for polymerase chain reaction-based detection of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 67: 289 295.
43. Radwanska, M.,, S. Magez,, H. Perry-O'Keefe,, H. Stender,, J. Coull,, M. Sternberg,, P. Büscher,, and J. J. Hyldig-Nielsen. 2002. Direct detection and identification of African trypanosomes by fluorescence in situ hybridization with peptide nucleic acid probes. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40: 4295 4297.
44. Raper, J.,, M. P. M. Portela,, E. Lugli,, U. Frevert,, and S. Tomlinson. 2001. Trypanosome lytic factors: novel mediators of human innate immunity. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 4: 402 408.
45. Ripamonti, D.,, M. Massari,, C. Arici,, E. Gabbi,, C. Farina,, M. Brini,, C. Capatti,, and F. Suter. 2002. African sleeping sickness in tourists returning from Tanzania: the first 2 Italian cases from a small outbreak among European travelers. Clin. Infect. Dis. 34: e18 e22.
46. Robinson, B.,, R. M. Clark,, J. F. King,, B. Hurt,, and J. A. Mohr. 1980. Chronic Gambian trypanosomiasis. South. Med. J. 73: 516 518.
47. Schofield, C. J.,, and I. Maudlin. 2001. Trypanosomiasis control. Int. J. Parasitol. 31: 615 620.
48. Scott, D., 1970. The epidemiology of Gambian sleeping sickness, p. 614 644. In H. W. Mulligan, and W. H. Potts (ed.), The African Trypanosomiases. George Allen & Unwin, London, United Kingdom.
49. Sinha, A.,, C. Grace,, W. K. Alston,, F. Westenfeld,, and J. H. Maguire. 1999. African trypanosomiasis in two travelers from the United States. Clin. Infect. Dis. 29: 840 844.
50. Smith, A. B.,, J. D. Esko,, and S. L. Hajduk. 1995. Killing of trypanosomes by the human haptoglobin-related protein. Science 268: 284 286.
51. Smith, D. H.,, J. Pepin,, and A. H. Stich. 1998. Human African trypanosomiasis: an emerging public health crisis. Br. Med. Bull. 54: 341 355.
52. Spencer, H. C.,, J. J. Gibson,, R. E. Brodsky,, and M. G. Schultz. 1975. Imported African trypanosomiasis in the United States. Ann. Intern. Med. 82: 633 638.
53. Stanghellini, A.,, and T. Josenando. 2001. The situation of sleeping sickness in Angola: a calamity. Trop. Med. Int. Health 6: 330 334.
54. Truc, P.,, G. Jamonneau,, G. Cuny,, and J. L. Frezil. 1999. Use of polymerase chain reaction in human African trypanosomosis stage determination and follow-up. Bull. W. H. O. 77: 745 748.
55. Vanhamme, L.,, and E. Pays. 1995. Control of gene expression in trypanosomes. Microbiol. Rev. 59: 223 240.
56. Van Meirvenne, N., 1999. Biological diagnosis of human African trypanosomiasis, p. 235 252. In M. Dumas,, B. Bouteille,, and A. Buguet (ed.), Progress in Human African Trypanosomiasis, Sleeping Sickness. Springer-Verlag, Paris, France.
57. Van Nieuwenhove, S., 1999. Present strategies in the treatment of human African trypanosomiasis, p. 253 280. In M. Dumas,, B. Bouteille,, and A. Buguet (ed.), Progress in Human African Trypanosomiasis, Sleeping Sickness. Springer-Verlag, Paris, France.
58. Van Nieuwenhove, S. 2000. Gambiense sleeping sickness: re-emerging and soon untreatable? Bull. W. H. O. 78: 1283.
59. Van Nieuwenhove, S.,, V. K. Betu-Ku-Mesu,, P. M. Diabakana,, J. Declercq,, and C. M. M. Bilenge. 2001. Sleeping sickness resurgence in the DRC: the past decade. Trop. Med. Int. Health 6: 335 341.
60. Waddy, B. B., 1970. Chemoprophylaxis of human trypanosomiasis, p. 711 725. In H. W. Mulligan, and W. H. Potts (ed.), The African Trypanosomiases. George Allen & Unwin, London, United Kingdom.
61. Woo, P. T. K. 1971. Evaluation of the haematocrit centrifuge and other techniques for the field diagnosis of human trypanosomiasis and filariasis. Acta Trop. 28: 298 303.
62. World Bank. 1993. World Development Report: Investing in Health, p. 216219. Oxford University Press, New York, N.Y.
63. World Health Organization. 1998. Control and surveillance of African trypanosomiasis. WHO Tech. Rep. Ser. 881: 1114.
64. World Health Organization. 2000. The World Health Report 2000: Health Systems Improving Performance. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
65. Xong, H. V.,, L. Vanhamme,, M. Chamekh,, C. E. Chimfwembe,, J. Van den Abbeele,, E. Pays,, N. Van Meirvenne,, R. Hamers,, P. De Baetseller,, and E. Pays. 1998. A VSG expression site associated gene confers resistance to human serum in Trypanosoma brucei. Cell 95: 893 896.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error