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Chapter 23 : Role for Autoinducer-2 in the Development of Commensal Streptococcal Biofilms

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Role for Autoinducer-2 in the Development of Commensal Streptococcal Biofilms, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

This chapter focuses on the role of the candidate interspecies signaling molecule autoinducer-2 (AI-2), which is produced by the activity of the enzyme LuxS. It discusses its contribution to the development of dental plaque. A number of studies have been conducted on the impact of AI-2 and LuxS on dental plaque development. While investigations of the role(s) of AI-2 are still in their infancy, it is clear that the activity of LuxS and AI-2 moderates certain phenotypic characteristics of oral commensal and oral pathogenic bacteria. Particular notice in this chapter is given to LuxS-and AI-2-mediated interactions between the commensals 34 and T14V, which are two initial colonizers of dental plaque. LsrB-like ribose transport periplasmic binding protein, in concert with LsrB, enhances biofilm formation through the recognition and uptake of AI-2. Of relevance to the oral streptococci and this chapter, a cursory examination of streptococcal genomes indicates that various spp. express RbsB-like protein. Thus, membrane-bound receptors and/or transport proteins may facilitate accumulation of AI-2 and intracellular signaling in streptococci. This chapter discusses studies of 34 and T14V and their implication in future studies of AI-2-mediated communication. An interesting aspect of Sorbarod studies was that the data suggested that colocalization of 34 and T14V facilitates the uptake and/or sequestering of AI-2 by one or both species.

Citation: Rickard A, Underwood A, Campagna S. 2011. Role for Autoinducer-2 in the Development of Commensal Streptococcal Biofilms, p 345-355. In Kolenbrander P (ed), Oral Microbial Communities. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817107.ch23

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FIGURE 1

Diagram showing the biochemical pathway by which oral streptococci produce AI-2. DPD is produced as a consequence of the activity of the activated methyl cycle within the streptococcal cell (shown on the right). DPD spontaneously forms a collection of inter-convertible molecules in equilibrium. These are DPD-hydrate, -THMF, -THMF, and - THMF-borate, as well as other possible borated forms. -THMF is recognized by serovar Typhimurium, and -THMF-borate is recognized by Molecules described for the activated methyl cycle include SAM synthetase (MetK), SAM, SAH, adenosylhomocysteine nucleosidase (Pfs), SRH, -ribosylhomocysteinase (LuxS), cobalamin-independent methionine synthase (MetE), cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase (MetH), 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (HC-THF), 5-methyltetrahydropteroryl glutamate (HC-THPG), tetrahydrofolate (THF), and tetrahydropteroryl glutamate (THPG).

Citation: Rickard A, Underwood A, Campagna S. 2011. Role for Autoinducer-2 in the Development of Commensal Streptococcal Biofilms, p 345-355. In Kolenbrander P (ed), Oral Microbial Communities. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817107.ch23
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