Chapter 9 : Gene Acquisition and Loss in the Phylogenetic Lineages of the Invasive

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and enteroinvasive (EIEC) are a class of enteric pathogens that have evolved the ability to invade epithelial cells and cause severe intestinal illness. In a study on evolutionary analysis of Shigella at the DNA sequence level, the nucleotide sequence of 7,160 bp representing eight housekeeping loci from four regions of the genome was determined. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of three marker loci was used to screen for SHI-4, which appeared to be widespread among the clonal groups. Since the isolates used in a study on molecular epidemiology of the island 4 (SHI-4) PAI were selected on the basis of resistance to multiple antibiotics, it is possible that the actual distribution of these loci among and EIEC may be different in a randomly sampled collection of strains. Other reports of gene acquisition stem from comparisons of available genome sequences. In contrast to gene acquisition, there is growing evidence that gene loss has been important in the adaptive radiation of and EIEC. Both gene acquisition and loss have played a major role in the adaptation of these radiations; selection has favored both the establishment of certain virulence factors in particular lineages and the independent deletion of antivirulence functions.

Citation: Bumbaugh A, Lacher D. 2011. Gene Acquisition and Loss in the Phylogenetic Lineages of the Invasive , p 135-156. In Walk S, Feng P (ed), Population Genetics of Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817114.ch9

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Mobile Genetic Elements
Type III Secretion System
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Image of Figure 1.
Figure 1.

General genetic composition of an invasive isolate. The pINV plasmid encodes genes involved in host cell entry and it is found in all and EIEC. The chromosome contains the locus, which regulates the acquired pINV plasmid. Example PAIs (SHI-2 and SHI-3) are incorporated in or near tRNA sites. The distribution of PAIs and other virulence loci is variable among the invasive .

Citation: Bumbaugh A, Lacher D. 2011. Gene Acquisition and Loss in the Phylogenetic Lineages of the Invasive , p 135-156. In Walk S, Feng P (ed), Population Genetics of Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817114.ch9
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Image of Figure 2.
Figure 2.

General phylogenetic relationships between the invasive and other pathotypes. Patterns of gene acquisition are indicated as follows: * = pINV; square = SHI-1; circle = aerobactin operon; triangle = . The unfilled symbols indicate variable presence of the virulence genes within the group. EAEC, enteroaggregative ; STEC, Shiga toxin-producing .

Citation: Bumbaugh A, Lacher D. 2011. Gene Acquisition and Loss in the Phylogenetic Lineages of the Invasive , p 135-156. In Walk S, Feng P (ed), Population Genetics of Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817114.ch9
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Table 1.

Classification of and EIEC serotypes into phylogenetic groups

Citation: Bumbaugh A, Lacher D. 2011. Gene Acquisition and Loss in the Phylogenetic Lineages of the Invasive , p 135-156. In Walk S, Feng P (ed), Population Genetics of Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817114.ch9
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Table 2.

PAIs identified in strains

Citation: Bumbaugh A, Lacher D. 2011. Gene Acquisition and Loss in the Phylogenetic Lineages of the Invasive , p 135-156. In Walk S, Feng P (ed), Population Genetics of Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817114.ch9
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Table 3.

Invasive genome sequences publicly available through the NCBI Genomes database

Citation: Bumbaugh A, Lacher D. 2011. Gene Acquisition and Loss in the Phylogenetic Lineages of the Invasive , p 135-156. In Walk S, Feng P (ed), Population Genetics of Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817114.ch9

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