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Chapter 17 : Molecular Evolution of Enterohemorrhagic and Application to Epidemiology

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Molecular Evolution of Enterohemorrhagic and Application to Epidemiology, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

Tom Whittam's pioneering research into the structure of populations not only advanced the field of microbial evolution and genetics, but it also provided a contextual framework for investigating variation in the epidemiology and virulence of bacterial populations. This chapter highlights the work of his laboratory involving the use of various population genetic strategies for characterizing pathotypes, particularly enterohemorrhagic (EHEC) O157:H7, while focusing on contributions to epidemiology and public health. To determine whether specific genotypes are associated with human enteric disease, multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE) was used to examine 1,300 strains representing 16 serotypes, including EHEC O157:H7 from patients with hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Similar to MLEE and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) data, systematic analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) is amenable to both population genetic and phylogenetic analyses. SNPs data can also be used to examine epidemiological associations between bacterial genotypes and clinical disease. By using the SNP genotyping phylogeny as a framework, it is possible to investigate virulence gene diversity, allelic variation, and gene expression differences among genotypes to identify bacterial genomic determinants of colonization, pathogenesis, and transmissibility. The chapter describes differences in stress resistance properties among clades, nonrandom distribution of stx variants, variation in adherence to epithelial cells, and differential expression among shared genes.

Citation: Abu-Ali G, Springman A, Ouellette L, Wick L, Qi W, Vanaja S, Bergholz T, Lacher D, Walk S, Tietjen J, Steinsland H, Riordan J, Manning S. 2011. Molecular Evolution of Enterohemorrhagic and Application to Epidemiology, p 287-302. In Walk S, Feng P (ed), Population Genetics of Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817114.ch17

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Figures

Image of Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Minimum evolution tree showing the phylogenetic relationships among 39 SNP genotypes (SGs) of O157:H7. Numbers at the nodes are the bootstrap confidence values that mark nine distinct clusters, or clades. The gray line separates strains with ancestral traits (GUD, SOR) from those with derived traits (GUD, SOR). Illustration created by Thomas S. Whittam, 2007.

Citation: Abu-Ali G, Springman A, Ouellette L, Wick L, Qi W, Vanaja S, Bergholz T, Lacher D, Walk S, Tietjen J, Steinsland H, Riordan J, Manning S. 2011. Molecular Evolution of Enterohemorrhagic and Application to Epidemiology, p 287-302. In Walk S, Feng P (ed), Population Genetics of Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817114.ch17
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Image of Figure 2.
Figure 2.

Relative differences in gene expression between clades 8 and 2 of O157:H7, as detected by quantitative PCR.

Citation: Abu-Ali G, Springman A, Ouellette L, Wick L, Qi W, Vanaja S, Bergholz T, Lacher D, Walk S, Tietjen J, Steinsland H, Riordan J, Manning S. 2011. Molecular Evolution of Enterohemorrhagic and Application to Epidemiology, p 287-302. In Walk S, Feng P (ed), Population Genetics of Bacteria. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817114.ch17
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References

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