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Chapter 2 : Strengths and Shortcomings of Advanced Detection Technologies
Category: Applied and Industrial Microbiology; Food Microbiology
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To overcome the sensitivity and specificity issues, current confirmatory foodborne pathogen detection methods generally require an initial, time-consuming growth step in culture media, followed by isolation on solid media, biochemical identification, and molecular or serological conformation. Rapid-detection-based technologies can reduce the time and labor involved in screening food products for the presence of pathogens. Many of the rapid tests can be completed within 24 h, with high throughput, thereby reducing the labor involved in the testing process. These assays can be broadly grouped into three categories including immunologically based methods, nucleic acid-based assays, and biosensors. This review focuses on methods to isolate and detect pathogens in food samples. The presence of pathogens in air and the transmission of infections in air is an intriguing phenomenon, which, although subject to a never-ending debate, incidentally plays prominent epidemiological roles in husbandry and transmission of zoonotic microorganisms from the primary sources of infection, i.e., animals. The detection of microorganisms in air traditionally has been accomplished by sampling of airborne particles with subsequent analysis of the samples by a vast variety of detection methods. Principles of air sampling include solid and liquid impaction, filter-based samplers, and electrostatic absorption.