Chapter 15 : in Poultry, Pork, and Beef

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infection has become one of the most important zoonoses worldwide. A low prevalence of is generally found in beef and pork at retail, although they may still be sources of infection. Based on the high prevalence of poultry-associated infections, this chapter mainly focuses on rapid methods for detection of in this particular production chain, and describes the routes of transmission and sampling in the different levels as well as intervention strategies. The chapter focuses on the introduction, infection dynamics, and sampling of throughout the poultry production chain, from farm to consumer level. It also describes culture-based, immunological, and molecular methods for rapid detection, characterization, and enumeration for . Rapid methods can generally be also more sensitive and specific than culture-based methods, and other advantages can be a high possibility of automation and detection of viable but nonculturable (VBNC) cells. The strength of rapid methods lies in their ability to screen large numbers of samples, identify the negative ones, allowing resources to be focused on confirming and culturing of presumptive positive samples to produce isolates for further characterization. The choice of a rapid method will always depend on the requested information and be influenced by the relevant matrix and the expected level of contamination.

Citation: Josefsen M, Carroll C, Rudi K, Olsson Engvall E, Hoorfar J. 2011. in Poultry, Pork, and Beef, p 209-227. In Hoorfar J (ed), Rapid Detection, Characterization, and Enumeration of Foodborne Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817121.ch15
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Schematic outline of the protocol for culture-independent enumeration of viable thermo-tolerant in chicken carcass rinse by quantitative PMA-PCR ( ).

Citation: Josefsen M, Carroll C, Rudi K, Olsson Engvall E, Hoorfar J. 2011. in Poultry, Pork, and Beef, p 209-227. In Hoorfar J (ed), Rapid Detection, Characterization, and Enumeration of Foodborne Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817121.ch15
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Image of FIGURE 2

The workflow of multiplex PCR followed by MLST, typing, and genetic determination of antimicrobial resistance of and according to Korczak et al. ( ).

Citation: Josefsen M, Carroll C, Rudi K, Olsson Engvall E, Hoorfar J. 2011. in Poultry, Pork, and Beef, p 209-227. In Hoorfar J (ed), Rapid Detection, Characterization, and Enumeration of Foodborne Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817121.ch15
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