1887

Chapter 17 : Rapid Screening of Animal Feeds for Mycotoxins and Contaminations

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Rapid Screening of Animal Feeds for Mycotoxins and Contaminations, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817121/9781555815424_Chap17-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817121/9781555815424_Chap17-2.gif

Abstract:

Food safety and a rapidly changing global market for animal feed and feed ingredients increase the need and urgency for development of sensitive, accurate, precise, fast, and economically feasible testing methods for multiple mycotoxins and . Rapid methods are entering the market and being developed at an astounding rate, as evidenced by the amount of recent review information. Traditional methods are still widely used, but kits for rapid detection are gaining validation status by standardizing organizations. There are still many issues to resolve including very significant challenges related to representative sample collection to ensure no false negatives occur. Sampling plans will need to be globally harmonized for consistency but must be balanced with equity concerns for economic impact and food security in the sense of an adequate and safe food supply for developing countries. Sample processing and analysis still present limitations for detection of multiple mycotoxins, masked mycotoxins, and metabolically injured (viable but not culturable) .

Citation: Wolf-Hall C, Zhao H, Häggblom P, Hoorfar J. 2011. Rapid Screening of Animal Feeds for Mycotoxins and Contaminations, p 241-254. In Hoorfar J (ed), Rapid Detection, Characterization, and Enumeration of Foodborne Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817121.ch17
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Operations characteristics curve showing the effect of sample size (i.e., number of increments) on the probability of detecting salmonellae based on calculations using the International Commission on Microbial Specifications in Food model (two-class sampling plan). axis, true fraction contaminated with ; axis, probability that the batch is classified as salmonella free (%).

Citation: Wolf-Hall C, Zhao H, Häggblom P, Hoorfar J. 2011. Rapid Screening of Animal Feeds for Mycotoxins and Contaminations, p 241-254. In Hoorfar J (ed), Rapid Detection, Characterization, and Enumeration of Foodborne Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817121.ch17
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555817121.ch17
1. Alakomi, H. L.,, and M. Saarela. 2009. Salmonella importance and current status of detection and surveillance methods. Qual. Assur. Saf. Crops Foods 3:142152.
2. American Association of Cereal Chemists. 2010. Approved Methods of Analysis, 11th ed. American Association of Cereal Chemists, AACC International, St. Paul, MN. http://www.aaccnet.org/ApprovedMethods/default.aspx
3. Andersson, M. G.,, and P. Haggblom. 2009. Sampling for contaminants in feed. Feed Int. March:1619.
4. Anonymous. 2008. Scientific opinion of the Panel on Biological Hazards on a request from the Health and Consumer Protection, Directorate General, European Commission on Microbiological Risk Assessment in feedingstuffs for food producing animals. EFSA J. 720:184.
5. AOAC International. 2005. Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International (OMA), 18th ed. Association of Analytical Communities, AOAC International, Gaithersburg, MD. http://www.eoma.aoac.org/.
6. AOAC International. 2010. Performance Tested Methodssm Validated Methods. Association of Analytical Communities, AOAC International, Gaithersburg, MD. http://www.aoac.org/testkits/testedmethods.html.
7. Cheli, F.,, A. Campagnoli,, L. Pinottie,, E. Fusi, and, V. Dell’Orto. 2009. Sampling feed for mycotoxins: acquiring knowledge from food. Ital. J. Anim. Sci. 8:522.
8. Codex Alimentarius Commission 2009. Codex Alimentarius Current Official Standards. Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization, Rome, Italy. http://www.codexalimentarius.net/web/standard_list.do?lang=en.
9. Coffey, R.,, and E. Cummins. 2008. Feed to food risk assessment, with particular reference to mycotoxins in bovine feed. Int. J. Risk Assess. Manag. 8:266286.
10. Dohlman, E. 2003. Mycotoxin hazards and regulations: impacts on food and animal feed crop trade. In J. C. Buzby (ed.), International Trade and Food Safety: Economic Theory and Case Studies. U.S. Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service, Agricultural Economic Report No. AER828. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. http://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/aer828/.
11. European Communities Commission. 2006. Commission recommendation of 17 August 2006 on the presence of deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, ochratoxin a, T-2 and HT-2 and fumonisins in products intended for animal feeding, 2006/576/EC. Off. J. Eur. Union L 229:79.
12. European Mycotoxin Awareness Network. 2010. European Mycotoxin Awareness Network. http://www.mycotoxins.org/.
13. Fierens, H.,, and A. Huyghebaert. 1996. Screening of Salmonella in naturally contaminated feeds with rapid methods. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 31:301309.
14. Food and Agriculture Organization. 2001a. Feed and Food Safety Gateway. United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, Italy. http://www.fao.org/ag/AGa/AGAP/FRG/Feedsafety/feedsafety.htm.
15. Food and Agriculture Organization. 2001b. Manual on the Application of the HACCP System in Mycotoxin Prevention and Control. United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, Italy. http://www.fao.org/docrep/y1390e/y1390e00.HTM.
16. Food and Drug Administration. 2010. Animal Feed Safety System. Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, MD. http://www.fda.gov/Animal-Veterinary/SafetyHealth/AnimalFeedSafetySystemAFSS/default.htm.
17. Food and Drug Administration. 2009. Bacteriological Analytical Manual. Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, MD. http://www.fda.gov/Food/ScienceResearch/LaboratoryMethods/BacteriologicalAnalyticalManualBAM/default.htm.
18. Food and Drug Administration. 1989. Animal feeds contaminated with Salmonella microorganisms. CFR 500.35. Title 21—Food and Drugs, chapt. I. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Department of Health and Human Services, Subchapter E–Animal drugs, feeds, and related products. Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, MD. http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm.
19. Food and Drug Administration. 2005. Apple Juice, Apple Juice Concentrates, and Apple Juice Products—Adulteration with Patulin. CPG 510.150. Food and Drug Administration Compliance Policy Guide. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, MD. http://www.fda.gov/ICECI/ComplianceManuals/CompliancePolicyGuidanceManual/ucm074427.htm.
20. Food and Drug Administration. 1994. Action Levels for Aflatoxins in Animal Feeds. U.S. Food and Drug Administration Compliance Policy Guide. CPG 683.100. Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, MD. http://www.fda.gov/ICECI/ComplianceManuals/CompliancePolicyGuidanceManual/ucm074703.htm.
21. Food and Drug Administration. 1993. Guidance for Industry and FDA Letter to State Agricultural Directors, State Feed Control Officials, and Food, Feed, and Grain Trade Organizations Final Guidance. U.S. Food and Drug Administration Compliance Policy Guide. Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, MD. http://www.fda.gov/Food/GuidanceComplianceRegulatoryInformation/GuidanceDocuments/NaturalToxins/ucm120184.htm.
22. Food and Drug Administration. 2001. Guidance for Industry: Fumonisin Levels in Human Foods and Animal Feeds; Final Guidance. Guidance for Industry no. 112. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, MD. http://www.fda.gov/Food/GuidanceComplianceRegulatoryInformation/GuidanceDocuments/ChemicalContaminantsandPesticides/ucm109231.htm.
23. Goryacheva, I. Y.,, S. De Saeger,, S. A. Eremin, and, C. Van Peteghem. 2007. Immunochemical methods for rapid mycotoxin detection: evolution from single to multiple analyte screening: a review. Food Addit. Contam. 24:11691183.
24. International Commission on Microbial Specifications in Food. 2002. Microbiological testing of Food Safety Management. Kluwer Academic Publishing/Plenum Press, New York, NY.
25. International Organization for Standardization. 2002. Microbiology of Food and Animal Feeding Stuffs—Horizontal Method for the Detection of Salmonella spp. ISO 6579:2002. International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, Switzerland. http://www.iso.org/iso/iso_catalogue/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=29315&commid=47858.
26. International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. 2010. International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. http://www.iupac.org/.
27. Jarquin, R.,, I. Hanning,, S. Ahn, and, S. C. Ricke. 2009. Development of rapid detection and genetic characterization of Salmonella in poultry breeder feeds. Sensors 9:53085323.
28. Kleter, G. A.,, A. Prandini,, L. Filippi, and, H. J. P. Marvin. 2009. Identification of potentially emerging food safety issues by analysis of reports published by the European Community’s Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) during a four-year period. Food Chem. Toxicol. 47:932950.
29. Koyuncu, S.,, and P. Haggblom. 2009. A comparative study of cultural methods for the detection of Salmonella in feed and feed ingredients. BMC Vet. Res. 5:615.
30. Koyuncu, S.,, M. G. Andersson, and, P. Haggblom. 2010. Accuracy and sensitivity of commercial PCR-based methods for detection of Salmonella enteric in feed. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 76:28152822.
31. Löfström, C.,, R. Knutsson,, C. E. Axelsson, and, P. Radstrom. 2004. Rapid and specific detection of Salmonella spp. in animal feed samples by PCR after culture enrichment. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:6975.
32. Malorny, B.,, S. Huchn,, R. Dieckmann,, N. Kramer, and, R. Helmuth. 2009. Polymerase chain reaction for the rapid detection and serovar identification of Salmonella in food and feeding stuff. Food Anal. Methods 2:8195.
33. Maragos, C. 2009. Fluorescence polarization immunoassay of mycotoxins: a review. Toxins 1:196207.
34. Murphy, P. A.,, S. H. Hendrich,, C. Landgren, and, C. M. Bryant. 2006. Food mycotoxins: an update. J. Food Sci. 71:R51R65. http://members.ift.org/NR/rdonlyres/62024337-FB0E-4952-AD9F-55E860551809/0/mycotoxins.pdf.
35. Reiter, E.,, J. Zentek, and, E. Razzazl. 2009. Review on sample preparation strategies and methods used for the analysis of aflatoxins in food and feed. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 53:508524.
36. Schneider, E.,, V. Curtui,, C. Seidler,, R. Dietrich,, E. Usleber, and, E. Martlbauer. 2004. Rapid methods for deoxynivalenol and other trichothecenes. Toxicol. Lett. 153:113121.
37. Shephard, G. S.,, F. Berthiller,, J. Dorner,, R. Krska,, G. A. Lombaert,, B. Malone,, C. Maragos,, M. Sabina,, M. Solfrizzo,, M. W. Truck-sess,, H. P. van Egmond, and, T. B. Whitaker. 2010. Developments in mycotoxins analysis: an update for 2008–2009. World Mycotoxin J. 3:323.
38. Sulyok, M.,, F. Berthiller,, R. Krska, and, R. Schuhmacher. 2006. Development and validation of a liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectro-metric method for the determination of 39 mycotoxins in wheat and maize. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 20:26492659.
39. U.S. Department of Agriculture–Food Safety Inspection Service. 2008. Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. http://www.fsis.usda.gov/Science/Microbiological_Lab_Guidebook/index.asp.
40. U.S. Department of Agriculture–Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration. 2006. Mycotoxins in grain and feed, chapt. 3. In Grain Fungal Diseases & Mycotoxin Reference. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. http://archive.gipsa.usda.gov/pubs/mycobook.pdf.
41. U.S. Department of Agriculture–Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration. 2010. Mycotoxins. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. http://www.gipsa.usda.gov/GIPSA/webapp?area=home&subject=grpi&topic=rd-my.
42. Wales, A. D.,, V. M. Aallen, and, R. H. Davies. 2010. Chemical treatments of animal feed and water for the control of Salmonella (report). Foodborne Pathog. Dis. 1:315.
43. Whitaker, T. B.,, A. B. Slate,, J. G. Adams,, T. Birmingham, and, F. G. Giesbrecht. 2010. Comparing the performance of sampling plans that use a single regulatory limit based upon total aflatoxins to sampling plans that use dual limits based upon B1 and total aflatoxins. World Mycotoxin J. 3:3544.
44. Wierup, M.,, and P. Haggblom. 2010. An assessment of soybeans and other vegetable proteins as source of Salmonella contamination in pig production. Acta Vet. Scand. 52:1523.
45. Wolf-Hall, C. 2010. Mold and mushroom toxins, p. 275–285. In V. Juneja and, J. Sofos (ed.), Pathogens and Toxins in Foods: Challenges and Interventions. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
46. Zachariasova, M.,, O. Lacinaa,, A. Malachovaa,, M. Kostelanskaa,, J. Poustkaa,, M. Godulab, and, J. Hajslova. 2010. Novel approaches in analysis of Fusarium mycotoxins in cereals employing ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with high resolution mass spectrometry. Anal. Chim. Acta 662:5161.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Examples of validated methods for mycotoxins and

Citation: Wolf-Hall C, Zhao H, Häggblom P, Hoorfar J. 2011. Rapid Screening of Animal Feeds for Mycotoxins and Contaminations, p 241-254. In Hoorfar J (ed), Rapid Detection, Characterization, and Enumeration of Foodborne Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817121.ch17
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

U.S. Department of Agriculture–Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration-verified rapid methods for mycotoxins in various commodities

Citation: Wolf-Hall C, Zhao H, Häggblom P, Hoorfar J. 2011. Rapid Screening of Animal Feeds for Mycotoxins and Contaminations, p 241-254. In Hoorfar J (ed), Rapid Detection, Characterization, and Enumeration of Foodborne Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817121.ch17
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

Summary of types of immunoassays for mycotoxin analysis

Citation: Wolf-Hall C, Zhao H, Häggblom P, Hoorfar J. 2011. Rapid Screening of Animal Feeds for Mycotoxins and Contaminations, p 241-254. In Hoorfar J (ed), Rapid Detection, Characterization, and Enumeration of Foodborne Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817121.ch17

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error