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Chapter 18 : in Milk, Cheese, and the Dairy Environment

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Abstract:

The realization that listeriosis was a foodborne disease was largely due to the involvement of -contaminated dairy products in the earliest recognized foodborne outbreaks. Thus, dairy sample matrices are routinely included in developing and validating rapid methods for in all food categories. Dairy samples represent a full range of physical characteristics from fluid (milk) through semisolid (yogurt) to soft solid (butter, cream, some cheeses) and hard solid (other cheeses). Environmental sampling can be relatively simple physically but can possibly be complicated by the degree of attachment to surfaces and sequestration in biofilm matrices. Sampling of the production and processing environment can be a useful tool to identify and prevent the presence of in dairy products and also for validating and verifying the correct functioning of their procedures based on hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) principles and good hygiene practice. A proper sample preparation is critical for rapid methods of listeria detection and enumeration. This chapter presents guidelines for the various general types of dairy samples. Rapid methods for detection of can be interpreted as a reduction in the number of days to obtain a result, but the process may still take a relatively long time, i.e., days rather than hours. These rapid methods include (i) agar-based methods including chromogenic agars, (ii) immunoassay-based methods, (iii) concentration methods, and (iv) molecular methods.

Citation: Hitchins A, Jordan K, Sanaa M, Wagner M. 2011. in Milk, Cheese, and the Dairy Environment, p 257-274. In Hoorfar J (ed), Rapid Detection, Characterization, and Enumeration of Foodborne Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817121.ch18
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Alternative modes of complementation of standard cultural detection methods with rapid methods.

Citation: Hitchins A, Jordan K, Sanaa M, Wagner M. 2011. in Milk, Cheese, and the Dairy Environment, p 257-274. In Hoorfar J (ed), Rapid Detection, Characterization, and Enumeration of Foodborne Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817121.ch18
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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Sampling plans for applied in Europe (EC 2073/2005)

Citation: Hitchins A, Jordan K, Sanaa M, Wagner M. 2011. in Milk, Cheese, and the Dairy Environment, p 257-274. In Hoorfar J (ed), Rapid Detection, Characterization, and Enumeration of Foodborne Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817121.ch18
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Real-time PCR MPN enumeration of viable scheme

Citation: Hitchins A, Jordan K, Sanaa M, Wagner M. 2011. in Milk, Cheese, and the Dairy Environment, p 257-274. In Hoorfar J (ed), Rapid Detection, Characterization, and Enumeration of Foodborne Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817121.ch18
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

Enumeration scheme for environmental

Citation: Hitchins A, Jordan K, Sanaa M, Wagner M. 2011. in Milk, Cheese, and the Dairy Environment, p 257-274. In Hoorfar J (ed), Rapid Detection, Characterization, and Enumeration of Foodborne Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817121.ch18

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