Chapter 23 : Norovirus, Hepatitis A Virus, and Indicator Microorganisms in Shellfish, Soft Fruits, and Water

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Norovirus, Hepatitis A Virus, and Indicator Microorganisms in Shellfish, Soft Fruits, and Water, Page 1 of 2

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Viruses such as hepatitis A virus (HAV), noroviruses (NoV), sapoviruses, enteroviruses, astroviruses, adenoviruses, rotaviruses, and hepatitis E virus have all been implicated in food- and/or water-borne outbreaks of illness. This chapter deals with NoV and HAV detection in bivalve mollusks, soft fruits, and water. For bivalve mollusks, fecal indicators are measured either in the shellfish themselves or in their growing waters. When virus detection procedures are mentioned, the recurrent issue of detecting infectious or physical particles comes into discussion. Whenever possible, infectious assays coupled with identification methods are preferred for direct assessment of human health risk. Nucleic acid amplification techniques are currently the most widely used methods for detection of viruses in food and water and also enable investigators to gather information on the virus genotypes occurring in the environment and in food products, thus providing the most relevant epidemiological information, particularly important for the implementation and follow-up of vaccination programs in the human population.

Citation: Bosch A, Bidawid S, Le Guyader F, Lees D, Jaykus L. 2011. Norovirus, Hepatitis A Virus, and Indicator Microorganisms in Shellfish, Soft Fruits, and Water, p 333-347. In Hoorfar J (ed), Rapid Detection, Characterization, and Enumeration of Foodborne Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817121.ch23
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Summary of the principles of virus concentration, purification, and RNA extraction from soft fruits

Citation: Bosch A, Bidawid S, Le Guyader F, Lees D, Jaykus L. 2011. Norovirus, Hepatitis A Virus, and Indicator Microorganisms in Shellfish, Soft Fruits, and Water, p 333-347. In Hoorfar J (ed), Rapid Detection, Characterization, and Enumeration of Foodborne Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817121.ch23
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Summary of candidate methodological approaches to the detection of virus contamination in soft fruits

Citation: Bosch A, Bidawid S, Le Guyader F, Lees D, Jaykus L. 2011. Norovirus, Hepatitis A Virus, and Indicator Microorganisms in Shellfish, Soft Fruits, and Water, p 333-347. In Hoorfar J (ed), Rapid Detection, Characterization, and Enumeration of Foodborne Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817121.ch23
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Procedures for the concentration of viruses from water samples

Citation: Bosch A, Bidawid S, Le Guyader F, Lees D, Jaykus L. 2011. Norovirus, Hepatitis A Virus, and Indicator Microorganisms in Shellfish, Soft Fruits, and Water, p 333-347. In Hoorfar J (ed), Rapid Detection, Characterization, and Enumeration of Foodborne Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817121.ch23

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