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Chapter 25 : Practical Sampling Plans, Indicator Microorganisms, and Interpretation of Test Results from Trouble-Shooting

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Abstract:

Food service can be defined as those entities responsible for meals prepared outside the home. Included in this definition are restaurants, schools, catering companies, hospital cafeterias, and commercial or institutional kitchens operating within other venues. Food service distributors typically supply foods in bulk to these entities. Consequently, these institutions have a need to understand and implement appropriate microbiological specifications, such as sampling plans, rapid testing, and interpretation of data. In food service operations as well as the rest of the food industry, the question, ‘‘How many samples should I require be taken and tested?’’ is an important question that is frequently asked and is particularly important in the context of establishing supplier microbiological criteria. Related to that question are deeper considerations and questions including the following: (i) Is the target organism likely to be evenly distributed in my food sample? and (ii) if the organism is evenly distributed, does that mean one sample is enough? Another critical concern relates to interpretation of results, particularly as they relate to retesting, and addresses the questions, ‘‘Is retesting an appropriate means to verify the accuracy of my test data? And, if so, when is it appropriate?’’ All these issues are addressed in this chapter.

Citation: Kornacki J. 2011. Practical Sampling Plans, Indicator Microorganisms, and Interpretation of Test Results from Trouble-Shooting, p 373-379. In Hoorfar J (ed), Rapid Detection, Characterization, and Enumeration of Foodborne Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817121.ch25
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ICMSF Attributes Sampling Plans. (Amended from .)

Citation: Kornacki J. 2011. Practical Sampling Plans, Indicator Microorganisms, and Interpretation of Test Results from Trouble-Shooting, p 373-379. In Hoorfar J (ed), Rapid Detection, Characterization, and Enumeration of Foodborne Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817121.ch25
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References

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1. Clavero, R. 2010. Solving microbial spoilage problems in processed foods, chapt. 3, p. 63–78. In J. L. Kornacki (ed.), Principles of Microbiological Troubleshooting in the Industrial Food Processing Environment. Springer, New York, NY.
2. Curiale, M. 2000. Validation of the use of composite sampling for Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat meat and poultry products. http://www.amif.org/ht/d/sp/i/26883/pid/26883#. Accessed 22 June 2010.
3. Gabis, D. A.,, and R. E. Faust. 1988. Controlling microbial growth in the food-processing environment. Food Technol. December:8182, 89.
4. International Commission on the Microbiological Specifications for Foods. 2002. Microorganisms in Foods, vol. 7. Springer, New York, NY.
5. Kornacki, J. L.,, and E. H. Marth. 1982. Food-borne illness caused by Escherichia coli: a review. J. Food Prot. 45:10511067.
6. Kornacki, J. L.,, and J. Johnson. 2001. Enterobacteriaceae, coliforms, and Escherichia coli as quality and safety indicators, chapt. 8. In F. P. Downes and, K. Ito (ed.), Compendium of Methods for the Microbiological Examination of Foods. American Public Health Association, Washington, DC.
7. Kornacki, J. L. 2009a. The missing element in microbiological food safety inspection approaches, part 1. Food Safety Magazine 2009:(February–March).
8. Kornacki, J. L. 2009b. The missing element in microbiological food safety inspection approaches, part 2. Food Safety Magazine 2009:(April–May).
9. Kornacki, J. L. 2010a. Where are these contaminants found?, chapt. 4, p. 79–102. In J. L. Kornacki (ed.), Principles of Microbiological Troubleshooting in the Industrial Food Processing Environment. Springer, New York, NY.
10. Kornacki, J. L. 2010b. What factors are required for microbes to grow, survive and die?, chapt. 5, p. 103–116. In J. L. Kornacki (ed.), Principles of Microbiological Troubleshooting in the Industrial Food Processing Environment. Springer, New York, NY.
11. Kornacki, J. L. 2010c. Where do I start?, chapt. 6, p. 117–123. In J. L. Kornacki (ed.), Principles of Microbiological Troubleshooting in the Industrial Food Processing Environment. Springer, New York, NY.
12. Kornacki, J. L. 2010d. How do I sample the environment and equipment?, chapt. 7, p. 125–136. In J. L. Kornacki (ed.), Principles of Microbiological Troubleshooting in the Industrial Food Processing Environment. Springer, New York, NY.
13. Kornacki, J. L. 2010e. How many samples do I take?, chapt. 8, p. 137–149. In J. L. Kornacki (ed.), Principles of Microbiological Troubleshooting in the Industrial Food Processing Environment. Springer, New York, NY.
14. McMahon, W. A.,, A. M. McNamara,, A. M. Schultz,, P. Hall,, L. Ledenbach, and, M. Clark. 2005. Validation of the Use of Composite Sampling for the Detection of Listeria monocytogenes in a Variety of Food Products. Int. Assoc. Food Prot. Annu. Meet., 17 August 2005, Baltimore, MD.
15. National Research Council. 1985. An Evaluation of the Role of Microbiological Criteria for Foods and Food Ingredients. National Academic Press, Washington, DC.
16. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 2003. Food sampling preparation of sample homogenate, chapt. 1. In Bacteriological Analytical Manual. http://www.fda.gov/Food/ScienceResearch/LaboratoryMethods/BacteriologicalAnalyticalManualBAM/UCM063335. Accessed 23 June 2010.

Tables

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TABLE 1

ICMSF severe hazards for the general population (cases 13 through 15)

Citation: Kornacki J. 2011. Practical Sampling Plans, Indicator Microorganisms, and Interpretation of Test Results from Trouble-Shooting, p 373-379. In Hoorfar J (ed), Rapid Detection, Characterization, and Enumeration of Foodborne Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817121.ch25
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TABLE 2

ICMSF severe hazards for restricted populations (cases 13 through 15)

Citation: Kornacki J. 2011. Practical Sampling Plans, Indicator Microorganisms, and Interpretation of Test Results from Trouble-Shooting, p 373-379. In Hoorfar J (ed), Rapid Detection, Characterization, and Enumeration of Foodborne Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817121.ch25
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TABLE 3

ICMSF serious microbiological and viral hazards (cases 10 through 12)

Citation: Kornacki J. 2011. Practical Sampling Plans, Indicator Microorganisms, and Interpretation of Test Results from Trouble-Shooting, p 373-379. In Hoorfar J (ed), Rapid Detection, Characterization, and Enumeration of Foodborne Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817121.ch25
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TABLE 4

ICMSF serious hazards (cases 10 through 12) associated with toxins

Citation: Kornacki J. 2011. Practical Sampling Plans, Indicator Microorganisms, and Interpretation of Test Results from Trouble-Shooting, p 373-379. In Hoorfar J (ed), Rapid Detection, Characterization, and Enumeration of Foodborne Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817121.ch25
Generic image for table
TABLE 5

ICMSF moderate hazards (cases 7 through 9)

Citation: Kornacki J. 2011. Practical Sampling Plans, Indicator Microorganisms, and Interpretation of Test Results from Trouble-Shooting, p 373-379. In Hoorfar J (ed), Rapid Detection, Characterization, and Enumeration of Foodborne Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817121.ch25

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