1887

Chapter 27 : Hepatitis A Virus in Ready-To-Eat Foods

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Hepatitis A Virus in Ready-To-Eat Foods, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817121/9781555815424_Chap27-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817121/9781555815424_Chap27-2.gif

Abstract:

Hepatitis A virus (HAV) outbreaks linked to poor personal hygiene of infected food handlers have been reported in association with highly handled foods such as salads, sandwiches, and bakery products. This chapter lists some of the outbreaks associated with HAV and ready-to-eat (RTE) foods. Typically, detection of viruses in foods requires sequential steps of (i) sampling, (ii) virus concentration, (iii) detection, and (iv) confirmation. Following concentration and purification of HAV from food matrices, detection of the virus can be carried out using the following assays: (i) mammalian cell culture infectivity assays; (ii) immunological methods; or (iii) nucleic acid-based molecular methods. Confirmation methods are needed during the testing of food and environmental samples in order to eliminate false positives, because nonspecific products can be amplified from the food matrix components themselves. Confirmation methods include (i) direct sequencing of amplified PCR product, (ii) restriction digestion of the amplified product, (iii) Southern hybridizations, and (iv) nested PCR. These are briefly described since they are now rarely used. Real-time approaches are now being increasingly used instead.

Citation: D’Souza D, Kniel K, Jaykus L. 2011. Hepatitis A Virus in Ready-To-Eat Foods, p 393-410. In Hoorfar J (ed), Rapid Detection, Characterization, and Enumeration of Foodborne Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817121.ch27
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1.
FIGURE 1.

Scheme for HAV concentration from complex foods ( ).

Citation: D’Souza D, Kniel K, Jaykus L. 2011. Hepatitis A Virus in Ready-To-Eat Foods, p 393-410. In Hoorfar J (ed), Rapid Detection, Characterization, and Enumeration of Foodborne Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817121.ch27
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555817121.ch27
1. Abad, F. X.,, R. M. Pinto, and, A. Bosch. 1997. Disinfection of human enteric viruses on fomites. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 156:107111.
2. Abd El Galil, K. H.,, M. A. El Sokkary,, S. M. Kheira,, A. M. Salazar,, M. V. Yates,, W. Chen, and, A. Mulchandani. 2004. Combined immunomagnetic separation-molecular beacon-reverse transcription-PCR assay for detection of hepatitis A virus from environmental samples. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:43714374.
3. Abd E1 Galil, K. H.,, M. A. El Sokkary,, S. M. Kheira,, A. M. Salazar,, M. V. Yates,, W. Chen, and, A. Mulchandani. 2005. Real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification assay for detection of hepatitis A virus. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71:71137116.
4. Arauz-Ruiz, P.,, L. Sundqvist,, Z. Garcia,, L. Taylor,, K. Visona,, H. Norder, and, L. O. Magnius. 2001. Presumed common source outbreaks of hepatitis A in an endemic area confirmed by limited sequencing within the VP1 region. J. Med. Virol. 65:449456.
5. Ayodeji, M.,, M. Kulka,, S. A. Jackson,, I. Patel,, M. Mammel,, T. A. Cebula, and, B. B. Goswami. 2009. A microarray based approach for the identification of common foodborne viruses. Open Virol. J. 3:720.
6. Bidawid, S.,, J. M. Farber,, S. A. Sattar, and, S. Hayward. 2000a. Heat inactivation of hepatitis A virus in dairy foods. J. Food Prot. 63:522528.
7. Bidawid, S.,, J. M. Farber, and, S. A. Sattar. 2000b. Contamination of foods by food handlers: experiments on hepatitis A virus transfer to food and its interruption. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66:27592763.
8. Bidawid, S.,, J. M. Farber, and, S. A. Sattar. 2000c. Rapid concentration and detection of hepatitis A virus from lettuce and strawberries. J. Virol. Methods 88:175185.
9. Brassard, J.,, L. Lamoureux,, M. J. Gagné,, E. Poitras,, Y. L. Trottier, and, A. Houde. 2009. Comparison of commercial viral genomic extraction kits for the molecular detection of foodborne viruses. Can. J. Microbiol. 55:10161019.
10. Brooks, H. A.,, R. M. Gersberg, and, A. K. Dhar. 2005. Detection and quantification of hepatitis A virus in seawater via real-time RT-PCR. J. Virol. Methods 127:109118.
11. Butot, S.,, T. Putallaz, and, G. Sánchez. 2007. Procedure for rapid concentration and detection of enteric viruses from berries and vegetables. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73:186192.
12. Butot, S.,, T. Putallaz, and, G. Sánchez. 2008. Effects of sanitation, freezing and frozen storage on enteric viruses in berries and herbs. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 126:3035.
13. Butot, S.,, T. Putallaz,, R. Amoroso, and, G. Sánchez. 2009. Inactivation of enteric viruses in minimally processed berries and herbs. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 75:41554161.
14. Calder, L.,, G. Simmons,, C. Thornley,, P. Taylor,, K. Pritchard,, G. Greening, and, J. Bishop. 2003. An outbreak of hepatitis A associated with consumption of raw blueberries. Epidemiol. Infect. 131:745751.
15. Casas, N.,, F. Amarita, and, I. M. de Marañón. 2007. Evaluation of an extracting method for the detection of hepatitis A virus in shellfish by SYBR-Green real-time RT-PCR. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 120:179185.
16. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1993. Foodborne hepatitis A—Missouri, Wisconsin, and Alaska, 1990–1992. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 42:526534.
17. Compton, J. 1991. Nucleic acid sequence-based amplification. Nature 350:9192.
18. Costafreda, M. I.,, A. Bosch, and, R. M. Pintó. 2006. Development, evaluation, and standardization of a real-time TaqMan reverse transcription-PCR assay for quantification of hepatitis A virus in clinical and shellfish samples. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72:38463855.
19. Costa-Mattioli, M.,, S. Monpoeho,, E. Nicand,, M. H. Aleman,, S. Billaudel, and, V. Ferré. 2002. Quantification and duration of viraemia during hepatitis A infection as determined by realtime RT-PCR. J. Viral Hepat. 9:101106.
20. Croci, L.,, D. De Medici,, G. Morace,, A. Fiore,, C. Scalfaro,, F. Beneduce, and, L. Toti. 2002. The survival of hepatitis A in fresh produce. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 73:2934.
21. Di Pasquale, S.,, M. Paniconi,, B. Auricchio,, L. Orefice,, A. C. Schultz, and, D. De Medici. 2010. Comparison of different concentration methods for the detection of hepatitis A virus and calicivirus from bottled natural mineral waters. J. Virol. Methods 165:5763.
22. D’Souza, D. H.,, C. L. Moe, and, L. A. Jaykus. 2007. Foodborne viral pathogens, p. 581–607. In M. P. Doyle and, L. R. Beuchat (ed.), Food Microbiology: Fundamentals and Frontiers, 3rd ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
23. D’Souza, D. H.,, J. Jean, and, L. Jaykus. 2006. Methods for the detection of viral and parasitic protozoan pathogens in foods, p. 188-1–188-23. In Y. H. Hui (ed.), Handbook of Food Technology and Engineering, vol. 4. CRC-Taylor and Francis, Boca Raton, FL.
24. D’Souza, D. H.,, and L. Jaykus. 2006. Molecular approaches for the detection of foodborne viral pathogens. In J. Maurer (ed), PCR Methods in Foods. Springer, New York, NY.
25. Dubois, E.,, C. Agier,, O. Traoré,, C. Hennechart,, G. Merle,, C. Crucière, and, H. Laveran. 2002. Modified concentration method for the detection of enteric viruses on fruits and vegetables by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction or cell culture. J. Food Prot. 65:19621969.
26. Dubois, E.,, C. Hennechart,, N. Deboosère,, G. Merle,, O. Legeay,, C. Burger,, M. Le Calvé,, B. Lombard,, V. Ferré, and, O. Traoré. 2006. Intra-laboratory validation of a concentration method adapted for the enumeration of infectious F-specific RNA coliphage, enterovirus, and hepatitis A virus from inoculated leaves of salad vegetables. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 108:164171.
27. Fino, V. R.,, and K. E. Kniel. 2008. UV light inactivation of hepatitis A virus, Aichi virus, and feline calicivirus on strawberries, green onions, and lettuce. J. Food Prot. 71:908913.
28. Fiore, A. E. 2004. Hepatitis A transmitted by food. Clin. Infect. Dis. 38:705715.
29. FitzSimons, D.,, G. Hendrickx,, A. Vorsters, and, P. Van Damme. 2010. Hepatitis A and E: update on prevention and epidemiology. Vaccine 28:583588.
30. Frank, C.,, J. Walter,, M. Muehlen,, A. Jansen,, U. van Treeck,, A. M. Hauri,, I. Zoellner,, E. Schreider,, O. Hamouda, and, K. Stark. 2005. Large outbreak of hepatitis A in tourists staying at a hotel in Hurghada, Egypt, 2004—orange juice implicated. Euro Surveill. 10(6):E050609.2.
31. Frank, C.,, J. Walter,, M. Muehlen,, A. Jansen,, U. van Treeck,, A. M. Hauri,, I. Zoellner,, M. Rakha,, M. Hoehne,, O. Hamouda,, E. Schreier, and, K. Stark. 2007. Major outbreak of hepatitis A associated with orange juice among tourists, Egypt, 2004. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 13:156158.
32. Gómara, M. J.,, G. Ercilla,, M. A. Alsina, and, I. Haro. 2000. Assessment of synthetic peptides for hepatitis A diagnosis using biosensor technology. J. Immunol. Methods 246:1324.
33. Goswami, B. B.,, M. Kulka,, D. Ngo,, P. Istafanos, and, T. A. Cebula. 2002. A polymerase chain reaction-based method for the detection of hepatitis A virus in produce and shellfish. J. Food Prot. 65:393402.
34. Grove, S. F.,, A. Lee,, T. Lewis,, C. M. Stewart,, H. Chen, and, D. G. Hoover. 2006. Inactivation of foodborne viruses of significance by high pressure and other processes. J. Food Prot. 69:957968.
35. Guévremont, E.,, J. Brassard,, A. Houde,, C. Simard, and, Y. L. Trottier. 2006. Development of an extraction and concentration procedure and comparison of RT-PCR primer systems for the detection of hepatitis A virus and norovirus GII in green onions. J. Virol. Methods 134:130135.
36. Hewitt, J.,, and G. E. Greening. 2004. Survival and persistence of norovirus, hepatitis A virus, and feline calicivirus in marinated mussels. J. Food Prot. 67:17431750.
37. Hirneisen, K. A.,, D. G. Hoover, and, K. E. Kniel. 2009. Isolation and infectivity of potential foodborne viral pathogens by immunomagnetic capture. Food Prot. Trends 29:564570.
38. Hollinger, F. B.,, and S. U. Emerson. 2001. Hepatitis A virus, p. 799–840. In D. M. Knipe,, P. M. Howley,, D. E. Griffin,, R. A. Lamb,, M. A. Martin,, B. Roizman, and, S. E. Straus (ed.), Fields Virology. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
39. Hu, Y.,, and I. Arsov. 2009. Nested realtime PCR for hepatitis A detection. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 49:615619.
40. Hutin, Y. J.,, V. Pool,, E. H. Cramer,, O. V. Nainan,, J. Weth,, I. T. Williams,, S. T. Goldstein,, K. F. Gensheimer,, B. P. Bell,, C. N. Shapiro,, M. J. Alter, and, H. S. Margolis. 1999. A multistate foodborne outbreak of hepatitis A. N. Engl. J. Med. 340:595601.
41. Jean, J.,, B. Blais,, A. Darveau, and, I. Fliss. 2001. Detection of hepatitis A virus by the nucleic acid sequence-based amplification technique and comparison with reverse transcription-PCR. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67:55935600.
42. Jean, J.,, B. Blais,, A. Darveau, and, I. Fliss. 2002. Simultaneous detection and identification of hepatitis A virus and rotavirus by multiplex nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) and micro-titer plate hybridization system. J. Virol. Methods 105:123132.
43. Jean, J.,, D. H. D’Souza, and, L. Jaykus. 2004. Multiplex nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) for the simultaneous detection of enteric viruses in ready-to-eat food. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 70:66036610.
44. Jothikumar, N.,, T. L. Cromeans,, M. D. Sobsey, and, B. H. Robertson. 2005. Development and evaluation of a broadly reactive TaqMan assay for rapid detection of hepatitis A virus. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71:33593363.
45. Kingsley, D. H.,, D. G. Hoover,, E. Papafragkou, and, G. P. Richards. 2002. Inactivation of hepatitis A virus and a calicivirus by high hydrostatic pressure. J. Food Prot. 65:16051609.
46. Kingsley, D. H.,, D. Guan, and, D. G. Hoover. 2005. Pressure inactivation of hepatitis A virus in strawberry puree and sliced green onions. J. Food Prot. 68:17481751.
47. Kingsley, D. H.,, D. Guan,, D. G. Hoover, and, H. Chen. 2006. Inactivation of hepatitis A virus by high-pressure processing: the role of temperature and pressure oscillation. J. Food Prot. 69:24542459.
48. Kovac, K.,, I. Gutiérrez-Aguirre,, M. Banjac,, M. Peterka,, M. Poljsak-Prijatelj,, M. Ravnikar,, J. Z. Mijovski,, A. C. Schultz, and, P. Raspor. 2009. A novel method for concentrating hepatitis A virus and caliciviruses from bottled water. J. Virol. Methods 162:272275.
49. Leggitt, P. R.,, and L. A. Jaykus. 2000. Detection methods for human enteric viruses in representative foods. J. Food Prot. 63:17381744.
50. Le Guyader, F.,, L. Haugarreau,, L. Miossec,, E. Dubois, and, M. Pommepuy. 2000. Three-year study to assess human enteric viruses in shellfish. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66:32413248.
51. Macinga, D. R.,, S. A. Sattar,, L. A. Jaykus, and, J. W. Arbogast. 2008. Improved inactivation of nonenveloped enteric viruses and their surrogates by a novel alcohol-based hand sanitizer. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74:50475052.
52. Mariam, T. W.,, and D. O. Cliver. 2000. Hepatitis A virus control in strawberry products. Dairy Food Environ. Sanit. 20:612616.
53. Mbithi, J. N.,, V. S. Springthorpe, and, S. A. Sattar. 1990. Chemical disinfection of hepatitis A virus on environmental surfaces. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56:36013604.
54. Mbithi, J. N.,, V. S. Springthorpe, and, S. A. Sattar. 1991. Effect of relative humidity and air temperature on survival of hepatitis A virus on environmental surfaces. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57:13941399.
55. Mbithi, J. N.,, V. S. Springthorpe, and, S. A. Sattar. 1993. Comparative in vivo efficiencies of hand-washing agents against hepatitis A virus (HM-175) and poliovirus type 1 (Sabin). Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59:34633469.
56. Mbithi, J. N.,, V. S. Springthorpe,, J. R. Boulet, and, S. A. Sattar. 1992. Survival of hepatitis A virus on human hands and its transfer on contact with animate and inanimate surfaces. J. Clin. Microbiol. 30:757763.
57. Morales-Rayas, R.,, P. F. Wolffs, and, M. W. Griffiths. 2010. Simultaneous separation and detection of hepatitis A virus and norovirus in produce. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 139:4855.
58. Nainan, V. O.,, G. Xia,, G. Vaughon, and, H. S. Margolis. 2006. Diagnosis of hepatitis A virus infection: a molecular approach. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 19:6379.
59. Niu, M. T.,, L. B. Polish,, B. H. Robertson,, B. K. Khanna,, B. A. Woodruff,, C. N. Shapiro,, M. A. Miller,, J. D. Smith,, J. K. Gedrose,, M. J. Alterand, and, H. S. Margolis. 1992. Multistate outbreak of hepatitis A associated with frozen strawberries. J. Infect. Dis. 166:518524.
60. Notomi, T.,, H. Okayama,, H. Masubuchi,, T. Yonekawa,, K. Watanabe,, N. Amino, and, T. Hase. 2000. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification of DNA. Nucleic Acids Res. 28(12):E63.
61. Nuanualsuwan, S.,, T. Mariam,, S. Himathongkham, and, D. O. Cliver. 2002. Ultraviolet inactivation of feline calicivirus, human enteric viruses and coliphages. Photochem. Photobiol. 76:406410.
62. Papafragkou, E.,, M. Plante,, K. Mattison,, S. Bidawid,, K. Karthikeyan,, J. M. Farber, and, L. A. Jaykus. 2008. Rapid and sensitive detection of hepatitis A virus in representative food matrices. J. Virol. Methods 147:177187.
63. Papafragkou, E.,, D. H. D’Souza, and, L. Jaykus. 2006. Foodborne viruses: prevention and control. In S. M. Goyal (ed.), Food Virology. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, NY.
64. Parry, J. V.,, and P. P. Mortimer. 1984. The heat sensitivity of hepatitis A virus determined by a simple tissue culture method. J. Med. Virol. 14:277283.
65. Richards, G. P. 2001. Food-borne pathogens: enteric virus contamination of foods through industrial practices: a primer on intervention strategies. J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 27:117125.
66. Roberts, P.,, and A. Hope. 2003. Virus inactivation by high intensity broad spectrum pulsed light. J. Virol. Methods 1:6165.
67. Robesyn, E.,, K. De Schrijver,, E. Wollants,, G. Top,, J. Verbeeck, and, M. Van Ranst. 2009. An outbreak of hepatitis A associated with the consumption of raw beef. J. Clin. Virol. 44:207210.
68. Rzezutka, A.,, M. D’Agostino, and, N. Cook. 2006. An ultracentrifugation-based approach to the detection of hepatitis A virus in soft fruits. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 108:315320.
69. Sair, A. I.,, D. H. D’Souza, and, L. Jaykus. 2002a. Human enteric viruses as causes of foodborne disease. Comp. Rev. Food Sci. Saf. 1:7389.
70. Sair, A. I.,, D. D’Souza,, C. L. Moe, and, L. A. Jaykus. 2002b. Improved detection of human enteric viruses in foods by RT-PCR. J. Virol. Methods 100:5769.
71. Sánchez, G.,, S. Populaire,, S. Butot,, T. Putallaz, and, H. Joosten. 2006. Detection and differentiation of human hepatitis A strains by commercial quantitative realtime RT-PCR tests. J. Virol. Methods 132:160165.
72. Sanchez, G.,, A. Bosch, and, R. M. Pinto. 2007. Hepatitis A virus detection in food: current and future prospects. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 45:15.
73. Sattar, S. A. 2004. Microbicides and the environmental control of nosocomial viral infections. J. Hosp. Infect. 56:564569.
74. Sattar, S. A.,, V. S. Springthorpe,, J. Tetro,, R. Vashon, and, B. Keswick. 2002. Hygienic hand antiseptics: should they not have activity and label claims against viruses? Am. J. Infect. Control 30:355372.
75. Schenkel, K.,, V. Bremer,, C. Grabe,, U. Van Treeck,, E. Schreier,, M. Höhne,, A. Ammon, and, K. Alpers. 2006. Outbreak of hepatitis A in two federal states of Germany: bakery products as vehicle of infection. Epidemiol. Infect. 134:12921298.
76. Schmid, D.,, R. Fretz,, G. Buchner,, C. König,, H. Perner,, R. Sollak,, A. Tratter,, M. Hell,, M. Maass,, M. Strasser, and, F. Allerberger. 2009. Foodborne outbreak of hepatitis A, November 2007–January 2008, Austria. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 28:385391.
77. Schwab, K. J.,, F. H. Neill,, F. Le Guyader,, M. K. Estes, and, R. L. Atmar. 2001. Development of a reverse transcription-PCR-DNA enzyme immunoassay for detection of “Norwalk-like” viruses and hepatitis A virus in stool and shellfish. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 67:742749.
78. Schwab, K. J.,, F. H. Neill,, R. L. Fankhauser,, N. A. Daniels,, S. S. Monroe,, D. A. Bergmire-Sweat,, M. K. Estes, and, R. L. Atmar. 2000. Development of methods to detect “Norwalk-like viruses” (NLVs) and hepatitis A virus in delicatessen foods: application to a food-borne NLV outbreak. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66:213218.
79. Schwarz, N. G.,, M. Revillion,, A. M. Roque-Afonso,, E. Dussaix,, M. Giraud,, C. Liberpre,, E. Couturier, and, E. Delarocque Astagneau. 2008. A food-borne outbreak of hepatitis A virus HAV) infection in a secondary school in Upper Normandy, France, in November 2006. Euro Surveill. 13(22):pii=18885.
80. Shan, X. C.,, P. Wolffs, and, M. W. Griffiths. 2005. Rapid and quantitative detection of hepatitis A virus from green onion and strawberry rinses by use of real-time reverse transcription-PCR. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 71:56245626.
81. Shimasaki, N.,, T. Kiyohara,, A. Totsuka,, K. Nojima,, Y. Okada,, K. Yamaguchi,, J. Kajioka,, T. Wakita, and, T. Yoneyama. 2009. Inactivation of hepatitis A virus by heat and high hydrostatic pressure: variation among laboratory strains. Vox Sang. 96:1419.
82. Tang, D.,, J. Tang,, B. Su,, J. Ren, and, G. Chen. 2010. Simultaneous determination of five-type hepatitis virus antigens in 5 min using an integrated automatic electrochemical immunosensor array. Biosens. Bioelectron. 25:16581662.
83. Warburton, A. R.,, T. G. Wreghitt,, A. Rampling,, R. Buttery,, K. N. Ward,, K. R. Perry, and, J. V. Parry. 1991. Hepatitis A outbreak involving bread. Epidemiol. Infect. 106:199202.
84. Weltman, A. C.,, N. M. Bennett,, D. A. Ackman,, J. H. Misage,, J. J. Campana,, L. S. Fine,, A. S. Doniger,, G. J. Balzano, and, G. S. Birkhead. 1996. An outbreak of hepatitis A associated with a bakery, New York, 1994: the 1968 “West Branch, Michigan” outbreak repeated. Epidemiol. Infect. 117:333341.
85. Wheeler, C.,, T. M. Vogt,, G. L. Armstrong,, G. Vaughan,, A. Weltman,, O. V. Nainan,, V. Dato,, G. Xia,, K. Waller,, J. Amon,, T. M. Lee,, A. Highbaugh-Battle,, C. Hembree,, S. Evenson,, M. A. Ruta,, I. T. Williams,, A. E. Fiore, and, B. P. Bell. 2005. An outbreak of hepatitis A associated with green onions. N. Engl. J. Med. 353:890897.
86. World Health Organization. 2000. Hepatitis A vaccines: WHO position paper. Wkly. Epidemiol. Rec. 75:3842.
87. Yoneyama, T.,, T. Kiyohara,, N. Shimasaki,, G. Kobayashi,, Y. Ota,, T. Notomi,, A. Totsuka, and, T. Wakita. 2007. Rapid and real-time detection of hepatitis A virus by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay. J. Virol. Methods 145:162168.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

HAV outbreaks associated with produce and RTE foods

Citation: D’Souza D, Kniel K, Jaykus L. 2011. Hepatitis A Virus in Ready-To-Eat Foods, p 393-410. In Hoorfar J (ed), Rapid Detection, Characterization, and Enumeration of Foodborne Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817121.ch27
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Processing technologies for inactivation of HAV

Citation: D’Souza D, Kniel K, Jaykus L. 2011. Hepatitis A Virus in Ready-To-Eat Foods, p 393-410. In Hoorfar J (ed), Rapid Detection, Characterization, and Enumeration of Foodborne Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817121.ch27
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

Viral concentration methods for RTE foods

Citation: D’Souza D, Kniel K, Jaykus L. 2011. Hepatitis A Virus in Ready-To-Eat Foods, p 393-410. In Hoorfar J (ed), Rapid Detection, Characterization, and Enumeration of Foodborne Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817121.ch27
Generic image for table
TABLE 4

Traditional RT-PCR primers for the detection of HAV in RTE foods

Citation: D’Souza D, Kniel K, Jaykus L. 2011. Hepatitis A Virus in Ready-To-Eat Foods, p 393-410. In Hoorfar J (ed), Rapid Detection, Characterization, and Enumeration of Foodborne Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817121.ch27
Generic image for table
TABLE 5

Representative real-time RT-PCR approaches for HAV detection

Citation: D’Souza D, Kniel K, Jaykus L. 2011. Hepatitis A Virus in Ready-To-Eat Foods, p 393-410. In Hoorfar J (ed), Rapid Detection, Characterization, and Enumeration of Foodborne Pathogens. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817121.ch27

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error