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is a pathogenic mycobacterium, which makes it, along with its related species , distinct from the other nontuberculous mycobacterium (NTM) that are opportunistic pathogens. The Esx secretion system is critical for virulence of both and and is highly conserved between the two species. When multilocus sequence analysis applied to 22 strains, it was found that significant molecular differences separated clinical isolates from the piscine isolates. Molecular biology techniques have been successfully applied to identification of mycobacteria. Scarce cases of infection occurring in patients treated with tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitor therapy have been reported since 2002. Therefore, it is not possible to draw any conclusions regarding the frequency or the severity of infection in this population. Instead, preventive strategies are recommended especially for those patients. Distal aspects of the upper limbs, such as the finger/hand, are the most common sites of infection in relation to fish/water animal exposure. From the studies dealing with a large number of strains and applying a standard method of testing, has a natural multidrug resistance pattern. Broth microdilution susceptibility testing is recommended by CLSI and may use the commercially available Sensititre MIC plates. Patients infected with M. marinum are usually treated with antibiotics. A variety of antibiotics have been used, including tetracyclines, co-trimoxazole, rifampin plus ethambutol, and more rarely clarithromycin, levofloxacin, and amikacin. The chapter describes epidemiology and prevention of .

Citation: Cambau E, Aubry A. 2011. , p 586-600. In Schlossberg D (ed), Tuberculosis and Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817138.ch39

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Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha
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Image of Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Typical photochromogenic colonies of grown on Löwenstein-Jensen solid medium.

Citation: Cambau E, Aubry A. 2011. , p 586-600. In Schlossberg D (ed), Tuberculosis and Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817138.ch39
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Image of Figure 2.
Figure 2.

Sporotrichoid form of skin lesions typical of infection. (Courtesy of Hervé Darie, Noisy le Grand, France.)

Citation: Cambau E, Aubry A. 2011. , p 586-600. In Schlossberg D (ed), Tuberculosis and Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817138.ch39
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Image of Figure 3.
Figure 3.

Active disease histopathologic section of tissue from a patient with an infection. The lesion shows granulomatous infiltrate with epithelioid and giant cells. (Courtesy of Bernard Cribier, Strasbourg, France.)

Citation: Cambau E, Aubry A. 2011. , p 586-600. In Schlossberg D (ed), Tuberculosis and Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817138.ch39
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Figure 4.

Microbiological diagnosis of human infection due to .

Citation: Cambau E, Aubry A. 2011. , p 586-600. In Schlossberg D (ed), Tuberculosis and Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817138.ch39
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Table 1.

Published studies of M. marinum infections that include more than 10 patients

Citation: Cambau E, Aubry A. 2011. , p 586-600. In Schlossberg D (ed), Tuberculosis and Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817138.ch39
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Table 2.

MICs of 17 antibiotics against 54 strains of determined by the agar dilution method

Citation: Cambau E, Aubry A. 2011. , p 586-600. In Schlossberg D (ed), Tuberculosis and Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817138.ch39

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