1887

Chapter 41 : and Other Uncommon Members of the Complex

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

and Other Uncommon Members of the Complex, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817138/9781555815134_Chap41-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817138/9781555815134_Chap41-2.gif

Abstract:

The species along with other organisms together form the so- called complex, with important differences among these organisms in epidemiology, microbiology, and even therapy. Human disease caused by is indistinguishable clinically or pathologically from the disease caused by . In the last decades, DNA probes became the most common molecular-based tool for identification of pathogenic mycobacterial isolates. The current recommended regimen for the treatment of tuberculosis includes the use of isoniazid, rifampin, and pyrazinamide for 2 months, followed by isoniazid and rifampin for 4 months. The bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) strain of is a laboratory-obtained attenuated strain described by Albert Calmette and Camille Guérin in 1922. is a species from the complex that includes strains which share phenotypic characteristics with and . Strains of this species have been isolated in sub- Saharan African countries, where it is the cause of human tuberculosis with variable percentages. However, in developed countries, isolation is uncommon and is associated with immigrant patients from Africa; such patients can infect immigrants from other countries and even autochthonous patients. Disease caused by is identical to that caused by . There are reports which evaluate both diseases: one of them showed no differences between the two species, except for less clustering of cases than cases, and the appearance of lower lobe lung disease less frequently in cases.

Citation: Esteban J, Alonso-Rodríguez N. 2011. and Other Uncommon Members of the Complex, p 607-617. In Schlossberg D (ed), Tuberculosis and Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817138.ch41

Key Concept Ranking

Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
0.4434517
0.4434517
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of Figure 1.
Figure 1.

Spoligotyping pattern of . Spacers in the DR locus are indicated by the numbers 1 to 43.

Citation: Esteban J, Alonso-Rodríguez N. 2011. and Other Uncommon Members of the Complex, p 607-617. In Schlossberg D (ed), Tuberculosis and Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817138.ch41
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 2.
Figure 2.

Nuclear magnetic resonance of vertebral tuberculosis due to .

Citation: Esteban J, Alonso-Rodríguez N. 2011. and Other Uncommon Members of the Complex, p 607-617. In Schlossberg D (ed), Tuberculosis and Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817138.ch41
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of Figure 3.
Figure 3.

Microcolonies of in Middlebrook 7H11 after 1 week of incubation at 37°C. Magnification, ×10.

Citation: Esteban J, Alonso-Rodríguez N. 2011. and Other Uncommon Members of the Complex, p 607-617. In Schlossberg D (ed), Tuberculosis and Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817138.ch41
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555817138.ch41
1. Abramowsky, C.,, B. Gonzalez, and, R. U. Sorensen. 1993. Disseminated bacillus Calmette-Guerin infections in patients with primary immunodeficiencies. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 100:5256.
2. Allix, C.,, K. Walravens,, C. Saegerman,, J. Godfroid,, P. Supply, and, M. Fauville-Dufaux. 2006. Evaluation of the epidemiological relevance of variable-number tandem-repeat genotyping of Mycobacterium bovis and comparison of the method with IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and spoligotyping. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44:19511962.
3. Alonso-Rodriguez, N.,, M. Martinez-Lirola,, M. L. Sanchez,, M. Herranz,, T. Penafiel,, M. D. Bonillo,, M. Gonzalez-Rivera,, J. Martinez,, T. Cabezas,, L. F. Diez-Garcia,, E. Bouza, and, D. Garcia de Viedma. 2009. Prospective universal application of MIRU-VNTR to characterize Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates for fast identification of clustered and orphan cases. J. Clin. Microbiol. 47:20262032.
4. Alonso-Rodriguez, N.,, F. Chaves,, J. Inigo,, E. Bouza,, D. Garcia de Viedma,, S. Andres,, R. Cias,, R. Daza,, D. Domingo,, J. Esteban,, J. Garcia,, E. Gomez Mampaso,, M. Herranz,, E. Palenque, and, M. J. Ruiz Serrano. 2009. Transmission permeability of tuberculosis involving immigrants, revealed by a multicentre analysis of clusters. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 15:435442.
5. Aranaz, A.,, D. Cousins,, A. Mateos, and, L. Dominguez. 2003. Elevation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis subsp. caprae Aranaz et al. 1999 to species rank as Mycobacterium caprae comb. nov., sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 53:17851789.
6. Aranaz, A.,, L. De Juan,, N. Montero,, C. Sanchez,, M. Galka,, C. Delso,, J. Alvarez,, B. Romero,, J. Bezos,, A. I. Vela,, V. Briones,, A. Mateos, and, L. Dominguez. 2004. Bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) in wildlife in Spain. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:26022608.
7. Aranaz, A.,, E. Liebana,, E. Gomez-Mampaso,, J. C. Galan,, D. Cousins,, A. Ortega,, J. Blazquez,, F. Baquero,, A. Mateos,, G. Suarez, and, L. Dominguez. 1999. Mycobacterium tuberculosis subsp. caprae subsp. nov.: a taxonomic study of a new member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolated from goats in Spain. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 49(Pt. 3):12631273.
8. Ashford, D. A.,, E. Whitney,, P. Raghunathan, and, O. Cosivi. 2001. Epidemiology of selected mycobacteria that infect humans and other animals. Rev. Sci. Tech. 20:325337.
9. Ayele, W. Y.,, S. D. Neill,, J. Zinsstag,, M. G. Weiss, and, I. Pavlik. 2004. Bovine tuberculosis: an old disease but a new threat to Africa. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 8:924937.
10. Azzopardi, P.,, C. M. Bennett,, S. M. Graham, and, T. Duke. 2009. Bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccine-related disease in HIV-infected children: a systematic review. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 13:13311344.
11. Barnes, P. F.,, and M. D. Cave. 2003. Molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis. N. Engl. J. Med. 349:11491156.
12. Blazquez, J.,, L. E. Espinosa de Los Monteros,, S. Samper,, C. Martin,, A. Guerrero,, J. Cobo,, J. Van Embden,, F. Baquero, and, E. Gomez-Mampaso. 1997. Genetic characterization of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium bovis strains from a hospital outbreak involving human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:13901393.
13. Brosch, R.,, S. V. Gordon,, M. Marmiesse,, P. Brodin,, C. Buchrieser,, K. Eiglmeier,, T. Garnier,, C. Gutierrez,, G. Hewinson,, K. Kremer,, L. M. Parsons,, A. S. Pym,, S. Samper,, D. van Soolingen, and, S. T. Cole. 2002. A new evolutionary scenario for the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 99:36843689.
14. Byarugaba, F.,, E. M. Charles-Etter,, S. Godreuil, and, P. Grimaud. 2009. Pulmonary tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis, Uganda. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 15:124125.
15. Calmette, A. 1936. L’Infection Bacillaire et la Tuberculose, 4th ed. Masson et Cie, Paris, France.
16. Casanova, J. L.,, S. Blanche,, J. F. Emile,, E. Jouanguy,, S. Lamhamedi,, F. Altare,, J. L. Stephan,, F. Bernaudin,, P. Bordigoni,, D. Turck,, A. Lachaux,, M. Albertini,, A. Bourrillon,, J. P. Dommergues,, M. A. Pocidalo,, F. Le Deist,, J. L. Gaillard,, C. Griscelli, and, A. Fischer. 1996. Idiopathic disseminated bacillus Calmette-Guerin infection: a French national retrospective study. Pediatrics 98:774778.
17. Chen, Y.,, Y. Chao,, Q. Deng,, T. Liu,, J. Xiang,, J. Chen,, J. Zhou,, Z. Zhan,, Y. Kuang,, H. Cai,, H. Chen, and, A. Guo. 2009. Potential challenges to the Stop TB Plan for humans in China; cattle maintain M. bovis and M. tuberculosis. Tuberculosis (Edinburgh) 89:95100.
18. Christianson, S.,, J. Wolfe,, P. Orr,, J. Karlowsky,, P. N. Levett,, G. B. Horsman,, L. Thibert,, P. Tang, and, M. K. Sharma. Evaluation of 24 locus MIRU-VNTR genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in Canada. Tuberculosis (Edinburgh) 90:3138.
19. Cleaveland, S.,, D. J. Shaw,, S. G. Mfinanga,, G. Shirima,, R. R. Kazwala,, E. Eblate, and, M. Sharp. 2007. Mycobacterium bovis in rural Tanzania: risk factors for infection in human and cattle populations. Tuberculosis (Edinburgh) 87:3043.
20. Coleman, J. D.,, and M. M. Cooke. 2001. Mycobacterium bovis infection in wildlife in New Zealand. Tuberculosis (Edinburgh) 81:191202.
21. Collins, D. M.,, J. M. Grange, and, M. D. Yates. 1997. Tuberculosis Bacteriology: Organization and Practice, 2nd ed. Butterworth Heinemann, Oxford, United Kingdom.
22. Collins, J. D. 2006. Tuberculosis in cattle: strategic planning for the future. Vet. Microbiol. 112:369381.
23. Cosivi, O.,, J. M. Grange,, C. J. Daborn,, M. C. Raviglione,, T. Fujikura,, D. Cousins,, R. A. Robinson,, H. F. Huchzermeyer,, I. de Kantor, and, F. X. Meslin. 1998. Zoonotic tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis in developing countries. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 4:5970.
24. Cosivi, O.,, F. X. Meslin,, C. J. Daborn, and, J. M. Grange. 1995. Epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis infection in animals and humans, with particular reference to Africa. Rev. Sci. Tech. 14:733746.
25. Cousins, D. V. 2001. Mycobacterium bovis infection and control in domestic livestock. Rev. Sci. Tech. 20:7185.
26. Cousins, D. V.,, R. Bastida,, A. Cataldi,, V. Quse,, S. Redrobe,, S. Dow,, P. Duignan,, A. Murray,, C. Dupont,, N. Ahmed,, D. M. Collins,, W. R. Butler,, D. Dawson,, D. Rodriguez,, J. Loureiro,, M. I. Romano,, A. Alito,, M. Zumarraga, and, A. Bernardelli. 2003. Tuberculosis in seals caused by a novel member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex: Mycobacterium pinnipedii sp. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 53:13051314.
27. Cousins, D. V.,, and D. J. Dawson. 1999. Tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis in the Australian population: cases recorded during 1970-1994. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 3:715721.
28. Cvetnic, Z.,, V. Katalinic-Jankovic,, B. Sostaric,, S. Spicic,, M. Obrovac,, S. Marjanovic,, M. Benic,, B. K. Kirin, and, I. Vickovic. 2007. Mycobacterium caprae in cattle and humans in Croatia. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 11:652658.
29. Dalovisio, J. R.,, M. Stetter, and, S. Mikota-Wells. 1992. Rhinoceros’ rhinorrhea: cause of an outbreak of infection due to airborne Mycobacterium bovis in zookeepers. Clin. Infect. Dis. 15:598600.
30. Dankner, W. M.,, N. J. Waecker,, M. A. Essey,, K. Moser,, M. Thompson, and, C. E. Davis. 1993. Mycobacterium bovis infections in San Diego: a clinicoepidemiologic study of 73 patients and a historical review of a forgotten pathogen. Medicine (Baltimore) 72:1137.
31. de Jong, B. C.,, I. Adetifa,, B. Walther,, P. C. Hill,, M. Antonio,, M. Ota, and, R. A. Adegbola. 2010. Differences between tuberculosis cases infected with Mycobacterium africanum, West African type 2, relative to Euro-American Mycobacterium tuberculosis: an update. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 58:102105.
32. de Jong, B. C.,, P. C. Hill,, R. H. Brookes,, J. K. Otu,, K. L. Peterson,, P. M. Small, and, R. A. Adegbola. 2005. Mycobacterium africanum: a new opportunistic pathogen in HIV infection? AIDS 19:17141715.
33. de Jong, E.,, R. J. Rentenaar,, R. van Pelt,, W. de Lange,, W. Schreurs,, D. van Soolingen, and, P. D. Sturm. 2009. Two cases of Mycobacterium microti-induced culture-negative tuberculosis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 47:30383040.
34. de Kantor, I. N.,, M. Ambroggi,, S. Poggi,, N. Morcillo,, M. A. Da Silva Telles,, M. Osorio Ribeiro,, M. C. Garzon Torres,, C. Llerena Polo,, W. Ribon,, V. Garcia,, D. Kuffo,, L. Asencios,, L. M. Vasquez Campos,, C. Rivas, and, J. H. de Waard. 2008. Human Mycobacterium bovis infection in ten Latin American countries. Tuberculosis (Edinburgh) 88:358365.
35. de la Rua-Domenech, R. 2006. Human Mycobacterium bovis infection in the United Kingdom: incidence, risks, control measures and review of the zoonotic aspects of bovine tuberculosis. Tuberculosis (Edinburgh) 86:77109.
36. de Lisle, G. W.,, C. G. Mackintosh, and, R. G. Bengis. 2001. Mycobacterium bovis in free-living and captive wildlife, including farmed deer. Rev. Sci. Tech. 20:86111.
37. Desmond, E.,, A. T. Ahmed,, W. S. Probert,, J. Ely,, Y. Jang,, C. A. Sanders,, S. Y. Lin, and, J. Flood. 2004. Mycobacterium africanum cases, California. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 10:921923.
38. Doherty, T. M.,, and P. Andersen. 2005. Vaccines for tuberculosis: novel concepts and recent progress. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 18:687702.
39. Esteban, J.,, P. Robles,, M. Soledad Jimenez, and, M. L. Fernandez Guerrero. 2005. Pleuropulmonary infections caused by Mycobacterium bovis: a re-emerging disease. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 11:840843.
40. Reference deleted.
41. Evans, J. T.,, E. G. Smith,, A. Banerjee,, R. M. Smith,, J. Dale,, J. A. Innes,, D. Hunt,, A. Tweddell,, A. Wood,, C. Anderson,, R. G. Hewinson,, N. H. Smith,, P. M. Hawkey, and, P. Sonnenberg. 2007. Cluster of human tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis: evidence for person-to-person transmission in the UK. Lancet 369:12701276.
42. Fanning, A.,, and S. Edwards. 1991. Mycobacterium bovis infection in human beings in contact with elk (Cervus elaphus) in Alberta, Canada. Lancet 338:12531255.
43. Fortun, J.,, P. Martin-Davila,, E. Navas,, M. J. Perez-Elias,, J. Cobo,, M. Tato,, E. G. De la Pedrosa,, E. Gomez-Mampaso, and, S. Moreno. 2005. Linezolid for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 56:180185.
44. Foudraine, N. A.,, D. van Soolingen,, G. T. Noordhoek, and, P. Reiss. 1998. Pulmonary tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium microti in a human immunodeficiency virus-infected patient. Clin. Infect. Dis. 27:15431544.
45. Frothingham, R.,, and W. A. Meeker-O’Connell. 1998. Genetic diversity in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex based on variable numbers of tandem DNA repeats. Microbiology 144(Pt. 5):11891196.
46. Gallagher, J.,, R. H. Muirhead,, J. M. Daykin,, J. A. Smith,, S. D. Beavan,, J. Kirkham,, A. T. Turnball, and, J. I. Davies. 2005. Bovine tuberculosis and badgers. Vet. Rec. 156:555556.
47. Garnier, T.,, K. Eiglmeier,, J. C. Camus,, N. Medina,, H. Mansoor,, M. Pryor,, S. Duthoy,, S. Grondin,, C. Lacroix,, C. Monsempe,, S. Simon,, B. Harris,, R. Atkin,, J. Doggett,, R. Mayes,, L. Keating,, P. R. Wheeler,, J. Parkhill,, B. G. Barrell,, S. T. Cole,, S. V. Gordon, and, R. G. Hewinson. 2003. The complete genome sequence of Mycobacterium bovis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100:78777882.
48. Gori, A.,, G. Marchetti,, L. Catozzi,, C. Nigro,, G. Ferrario,, M. C. Rossi,, A. Degli Esposti,, A. Orani, and, F. Franzetti. 1998. Molecular epidemiology characterization of a multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium bovis outbreak amongst HIV-positive patients. AIDS 12:445446.
49. Grange, J. M. 1998. Complications of bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination and immunotherapy and their management. Commun. Dis. Public Health 1:8488.
50. Grange, J. M.,, and M. D. Yates. 1994. Zoonotic aspects of Mycobacterium bovis infection. Vet. Microbiol. 40:137151.
51. Guerrero, A.,, J. Cobo,, J. Fortun,, E. Navas,, C. Quereda,, A. Asensio,, J. Canon,, J. Blazquez, and, E. Gomez-Mampaso. 1997. Nosocomial transmission of Mycobacterium bovis resistant to 11 drugs in people with advanced HIV-1 infection. Lancet 350:17381742.
52. Haddad, N.,, M. Masselot, and, B. Durand. 2004. Molecular differentiation of Mycobacterium bovis isolates. Review of main techniques and applications. Res. Vet. Sci. 76:118.
53. Hines, N.,, J. B. Payeur, and, L. J. Hoffman. 2006. Comparison of the recovery of Mycobacterium bovis isolates using the BACTEC MGIT 960 system, BACTEC 460 system, and Middlebrook 7H10 and 7H11 solid media. J. Vet. Diagn. Investig. 18:243250.
54. Hlavsa, M. C.,, P. K. Moonan,, L. S. Cowan,, T. R. Navin,, J. S. Kammerer,, G. P. Morlock,, J. T. Crawford, and, P. A. Lobue. 2008. Human tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis in the United States, 1995-2005. Clin. Infect. Dis. 47:168175.
55. Horstkotte, M. A.,, I. Sobottka,, C. K. Schewe,, P. Schafer,, R. Laufs,, S. Rusch-Gerdes, and, S. Niemann. 2001. Mycobacterium microti llama-type infection presenting as pulmonary tuberculosis in a human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:406407.
56. Javed, M. T.,, A. Aranaz,, L. de Juan,, J. Bezos,, B. Romero,, J. Alvarez,, C. Lozano,, A. Mateos, and, L. Dominguez. 2007. Improvement of spoligotyping with additional spacer sequences for characterization of Mycobacterium bovis and M. caprae isolates from Spain. Tuberculosis (Edinburgh) 87:437445.
57. Kamerbeek, J.,, L. Schouls,, A. Kolk,, M. van Agterveld,, D. van Soolingen,, S. Kuijper,, A. Bunschoten,, H. Molhuizen,, R. Shaw,, M. Goyal, and, J. van Embden. 1997. Simultaneous detection and strain differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis for diagnosis and epidemiology. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:907914.
58. Kanduma, E.,, T. D. McHugh, and, S. H. Gillespie. 2003. Molecular methods for Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain typing: a users guide. J. Appl. Microbiol. 94:781791.
59. Kiers, A.,, A. Klarenbeek,, B. Mendelts,, D. Van Soolingen, and, G. Koeter. 2008. Transmission of Mycobacterium pinnipedii to humans in a zoo with marine mammals. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 12:14691473.
60. Kremer, K.,, D. van Soolingen,, R. Frothingham,, W. H. Haas,, P. W. Hermans,, C. Martin,, P. Palittapongarnpim,, B. B. Plikaytis,, L. W. Riley,, M. A. Yakrus,, J. M. Musser, and, J. D. van Embden. 1999. Comparison of methods based on different molecular epidemiological markers for typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex strains: interlaboratory study of discriminatory power and reproducibility. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:26072618.
61. Kremer, K.,, D. van Soolingen,, J. van Embden,, S. Hughes,, J. Inwald, and, G. Hewinson. 1998. Mycobacterium microti: more widespread than previously thought. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36:27932794.
62. Kubica, T.,, R. Agzamova,, A. Wright,, G. Rakishev,, S. Rusch-Gerdes, and, S. Niemann. 2006. Mycobacterium bovis isolates with M. tuberculosis specific characteristics. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 12:763765.
63. Kubica, T.,, S. Rusch-Gerdes, and, S. Niemann. 2003. Mycobacterium bovis subsp. caprae caused one-third of human M. bovis-associated tuberculosis cases reported in Germany between 1999 and 2001. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:30703077.
64. Lamm, D. L. 2000. Efficacy and safety of bacille Calmette-Guérin immunotherapy in superficial bladder cancer. Clin. Infect. Dis. 31:S86S90.
65. Lamm, D. L.,, P. M. van der Meijden,, A. Morales,, S. A. Brosman,, W. J. Catalona,, H. W. Herr,, M. S. Soloway,, A. Steg, and, F. M. Debruyne. 1992. Incidence and treatment of complications of bacillus Calmette-Guerin intravesical therapy in superficial bladder cancer. J. Urol. 147:596600.
66. Le Fleche, P.,, M. Fabre,, F. Denoeud,, J. L. Koeck, and, G. Vergnaud. 2002. High resolution, on-line identification of strains from the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex based on tandem repeat typing. BMC Microbiol. 2:37.
67. Liss, G. M.,, L. Wong,, D. C. Kittle,, A. Simor,, M. Naus,, P. Martiquet, and, C. R. Misener. 1994. Occupational exposure to Mycobacterium bovis infection in deer and elk in Ontario. Can. J. Public Health 85:326329.
68. Mathema, B.,, N. E. Kurepina,, P. J. Bifani, and, B. N. Kreiswirth. 2006. Molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis: current insights. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 19:658685.
69. McParland, C.,, D. J. Cotton,, K. S. Gowda,, V. H. Hoeppner,, W. T. Martin, and, P. F. Weckworth. 1992. Miliary Mycobacterium bovis induced by intravesical bacille Calmette-Guerin immunotherapy. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 146:13301333.
70. Menzies, F. D.,, and S. D. Neill. 2000. Cattle-to-cattle transmission of bovine tuberculosis. Vet. J. 160:92106.
71. Meyer, C. G.,, G. Scarisbrick,, S. Niemann,, E. N. Browne,, M. A. Chinbuah,, J. Gyapong,, I. Osei,, E. Owusu-Dabo,, T. Kubica,, S. Rusch-Gerdes,, T. Thye, and, R. D. Horstmann. 2008. Pulmonary tuberculosis: virulence of Mycobacterium africanum and relevance in HIV co-infection. Tuberculosis (Edinburgh) 88:482489.
72. Michel, A. L.,, R. G. Bengis,, D. F. Keet,, M. Hofmeyr,, L. M. Klerk,, P. C. Cross,, A. E. Jolles,, D. Cooper,, I. J. Whyte,, P. Buss, and, J. Godfroid. 2006. Wildlife tuberculosis in South African conservation areas: implications and challenges. Vet. Microbiol. 112:91100.
73. Mignard, S.,, C. Pichat, and, G. Carret. 2006. Mycobacterium bovis infection, Lyon, France. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 12:14311433.
74. Miltgen, J.,, M. Morillon,, J. L. Koeck,, A. Varnerot,, J. F. Briant,, G. Nguyen,, D. Verrot,, D. Bonnet, and, V. Vincent. 2002. Two cases of pulmonary tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis subsp canetti. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8:13501352.
75. Morales, A.,, D. Eidinger, and, A. W. Bruce. 1976. Intracavitary Bacillus Calmette-Guerin in the treatment of superficial bladder tumors. J. Urol. 116:180183.
76. Morgan, M. B.,, and M. D. Iseman. 1996. Mycobacterium bovis vertebral osteomyelitis as a complication of intravesical administration of Bacille Calmette-Guerin. Am. J. Med. 100:372373.
77. Morris, R. S.,, D. U. Pfeiffer, and, R. Jackson. 1994. The epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis infections. Vet. Microbiol. 40:153177.
78. Musial, C. E.,, L. S. Tice,, L. Stockman, and, G. D. Roberts. 1988. Identification of mycobacteria from culture by using the Gen-Probe rapid diagnostic system for Mycobacterium avium complex and Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. J. Clin. Microbiol. 26:21202123.
79. Niemann, S.,, T. Kubica,, F. C. Bange,, O. Adjei,, E. N. Browne,, M. A. Chinbuah,, R. Diel,, J. Gyapong,, R. D. Horstmann,, M. L. Joloba,, C. G. Meyer,, R. D. Mugerwa,, A. Okwera,, I. Osei,, E. Owusu-Darbo,, S. K. Schwander, and, S. Rusch-Gerdes. 2004. The species Mycobacterium africanum in the light of new molecular markers. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:39583962.
80. Niemann, S.,, E. Richter, and, S. Rusch-Gerdes. 2002. Biochemical and genetic evidence for the transfer of Mycobacterium tuberculosis subsp. caprae Aranaz et al. 1999 to the species Mycobacterium bovis Karlson and Lessel 1970 (approved lists 1980) as Mycobacterium bovis subsp. caprae comb. nov. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 52:433436.
81. Nikaido, T.,, K. Ishibashi,, K. Otani,, S. Yabuki,, S. Konno,, S. Mori,, K. Ohashi,, T. Ishida,, M. Nakano,, O. Yamaguchi,, T. Suzutani, and, S. Kikuchi. 2007. Mycobacterium bovis BCG vertebral osteomyelitis after intravesical BCG therapy, diagnosed by PCR-based genomic deletion analysis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45:40854087.
82. Nolan, A.,, and J. W. Wilesmith. 1994. Tuberculosis in badgers (Meles meles). Vet. Microbiol. 40:179191.
83. Oelemann, M. C.,, R. Diel,, V. Vatin,, W. Haas,, S. Rusch-Gerdes,, C. Locht,, S. Niemann, and, P. Supply. 2007. Assessment of an optimized mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit variable-number tandem-repeat typing system combined with spoligotyping for population-based molecular epidemiology studies of tuberculosis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45:691697.
84. Ojo, O.,, S. Sheehan,, G. D. Corcoran,, M. Okker,, K. Gover,, V. Nikolayevsky,, T. Brown,, J. Dale,, S. V. Gordon,, F. Drobniewski, and, M. B. Prentice. 2008. Mycobacterium bovis strains causing smear-positive human tuberculosis, Southwest Ireland. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 14:19311934.
85. O’Reilly, L. M.,, and C. J. Daborn. 1995. The epidemiology of Mycobacterium bovis infections in animals and man: a review. Tuber. Lung Dis. 76(Suppl. 1):146.
86. Palenque, E.,, V. Villena,, M. J. Rebollo,, M. S. Jimenez, and, S. Samper. 1998. Transmission of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium bovis to an immunocompetent patient. Clin. Infect. Dis. 26:995996.
87. Palmer, M. 2007. Tuberculosis: a reemerging disease at the interface of domestic animals and wild life. Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol. 315:195215.
88. Parreiras, P. M.,, F. C. Lobato,, A. P. Alencar,, T. Figueiredo,, H. M. Gomes,, N. Boechat,, A. P. Lage,, R. A. Assis,, M. A. Pereira,, P. R. Souza,, P. M. Mota, and, P. N. Suffys. 2004. Drug susceptibility of Brazilian strains of Mycobacterium bovis using traditional and molecular techniques. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz 99:749752.
89. Prodinger, W. M.,, A. Brandstatter,, L. Naumann,, M. Pacciarini,, T. Kubica,, M. L. Boschiroli,, A. Aranaz,, G. Nagy,, Z. Cvetnic,, M. Ocepek,, A. Skrypnyk,, W. Erler,, S. Niemann,, I. Pavlik, and, I. Moser. 2005. Characterization of Mycobacterium caprae isolates from Europe by mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit genotyping. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:49844992.
90. Richter, E.,, M. Weizenegger,, A. M. Fahr, and, S. Rusch-Gerdes. 2004. Usefulness of the GenoType MTBC assay for differentiating species of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in cultures obtained from clinical specimens. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:43034306.
91. Rivero, A.,, M. Marquez,, J. Santos,, A. Pinedo,, M. A. Sanchez,, A. Esteve,, S. Samper, and, C. Martin. 2001. High rate of tuberculosis reinfection during a nosocomial outbreak of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis strain B. Clin. Infect. Dis. 32:159161.
92. Robert, J.,, F. Boulahbal,, D. Trystram,, C. Truffot-Pernot,, A. C. de Benoist,, V. Vincent,, V. Jarlier, and, J. Grosset. 1999. A national survey of human Mycobacterium bovis infection in France. Network of Microbiology Laboratories in France. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 3:711714.
93. Rodriguez, E.,, L. P. Sanchez,, S. Perez,, L. Herrera,, M. S. Jimenez,, S. Samper, and, M. J. Iglesias. 2009. Human tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis and M. caprae in Spain, 2004-2007. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 13:15361541.
94. Roring, S.,, A. Scott,, D. Brittain,, I. Walker,, G. Hewinson,, S. Neill, and, R. Skuce. 2002. Development of variable-number tandem repeat typing of Mycobacterium bovis: comparison of results with those obtained by using existing exact tandem repeats and spoligotyping. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:21262133.
95. Samper, S.,, C. Martin,, A. Pinedo,, A. Rivero,, J. Blazquez,, F. Baquero,, D. van Soolingen, and, J. van Embden. 1997. Transmission between HIV-infected patients of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis. AIDS 11:12371242.
96. Scorpio, A.,, and Y. Zhang. 1996. Mutations in pncA, a gene encoding pyrazinamidase/nicotinamidase, cause resistance to the antituberculous drug pyrazinamide in tubercle bacillus. Nat. Med. 2:662667.
97. Sjogren, I.,, and O. Hillerdal. 1978. Bovine tuberculosis in man--reinfection or endogenous exacerbation. Scand. J. Respir. Dis. 59:167170.
98. Skuce, R. A.,, D. Brittain,, M. S. Hughes, and, S. D. Neill. 1996. Differentiation of Mycobacterium bovis isolates from animals by DNA typing. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34:24692474.
99. Skuce, R. A.,, T. P. McCorry,, J. F. McCarroll,, S. M. Roring,, A. N. Scott,, D. Brittain,, S. L. Hughes,, R. G. Hewinson, and, S. D. Neill. 2002. Discrimination of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex bacteria using novel VNTR-PCR targets. Microbiology 148:519528.
100. Sreevatsan, S.,, P. Escalante,, X. Pan,, D. A. Gillies II,, S. Siddiqui,, C. N. Khalaf,, B. N. Kreiswirth,, P. Bifani,, L. G. Adams,, T. Ficht,, V. S. Perumaalla,, M. D. Cave,, J. D. van Embden, and, J. M. Musser. 1996. Identification of a polymorphic nucleotide in oxyR specific for Mycobacterium bovis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34:20072010.
101. Supply, P.,, C. Allix,, S. Lesjean,, M. Cardoso-Oelemann,, S. Rusch-Gerdes,, E. Willery,, E. Savine,, P. de Haas,, H. van Deutekom,, S. Roring,, P. Bifani,, N. Kurepina,, B. Kreiswirth,, C. Sola,, N. Rastogi,, V. Vatin,, M. C. Gutierrez,, M. Fauville,, S. Niemann,, R. Skuce,, K. Kremer,, C. Locht, and, D. van Soolingen. 2006. Proposal for standardization of optimized mycobacterial interspersed repetitive unit-variable-number tandem repeat typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44:44984510.
102. Supply, P.,, J. Magdalena,, S. Himpens, and, C. Locht. 1997. Identification of novel intergenic repetitive units in a mycobacterial two-component system operon. Mol. Microbiol. 26:9911003.
103. Supply, P.,, E. Mazars,, S. Lesjean,, V. Vincent,, B. Gicquel, and, C. Locht. 2000. Variable human minisatellite-like regions in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome. Mol. Microbiol. 36:762771.
104. Talbot, E. A.,, M. D. Perkins,, S. F. Silva, and, R. Frothingham. 1997. Disseminated bacille Calmette-Guerin disease after vaccination: case report and review. Clin. Infect. Dis. 24:11391146.
105. Thoen, C.,, P. Lobue, and, I. de Kantor. 2006. The importance of Mycobacterium bovis as a zoonosis. Vet. Microbiol. 112:339345.
106. Thompson, P. J.,, D. V. Cousins,, B. L. Gow,, D. M. Collins,, B. H. Williamson, and, H. T. Dagnia. 1993. Seals, seal trainers, and mycobacterial infection. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 147:164167.
107. van der Zanden, A. G.,, K. Kremer,, L. M. Schouls,, K. Caimi,, A. Cataldi,, A. Hulleman,, N. J. Nagelkerke, and, D. van Soolingen. 2002. Improvement of differentiation and interpretability of spoligotyping for Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates by introduction of new spacer oligonucleotides. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:46284639.
108. van Deutekom, H.,, Y. M. Smulders,, K. J. Roozendaal, and, D. van Soolingen. 1996. Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) meningitis in an AIDS patient 12 years after vaccination with BCG. Clin. Infect. Dis. 22:870871.
109. van Embden, J. D.,, T. van Gorkom,, K. Kremer,, R. Jansen,, B. A. van Der Zeijst, and, L. M. Schouls. 2000. Genetic variation and evolutionary origin of the direct repeat locus of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex bacteria. J. Bacteriol. 182:23932401.
110. van Soolingen, D.,, T. Hoogenboezem,, P. E. de Haas,, P. W. Hermans,, M. A. Koedam,, K. S. Teppema,, P. J. Brennan,, G. S. Besra,, F. Portaels,, J. Top,, L. M. Schouls, and, J. D. van Embden. 1997. A novel pathogenic taxon of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, Canetti: characterization of an exceptional isolate from Africa. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 47:12361245.
111. van Soolingen, D.,, A. G. van der Zanden,, P. E. de Haas,, G. T. Noordhoek,, A. Kiers,, N. A. Foudraine,, F. Portaels,, A. H. Kolk,, K. Kremer, and, J. D. van Embden. 1998. Diagnosis of Mycobacterium microti infections among humans by using novel genetic markers. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36:18401845.
112. Vera-Cabrera, L.,, S. T. Howard,, A. Laszlo, and, W. M. Johnson. 1997. Analysis of genetic polymorphism in the phospholipase region of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:11901195.
113. Waecker, N. J., Jr.,, R. Stefanova,, M. D. Cave,, C. E. Davis, and, W. M. Dankner. 2000. Nosocomial transmission of Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin to children receiving cancer therapy and to their health care providers. Clin. Infect. Dis. 30:356362.
114. Wilkins, M. J.,, P. C. Bartlett,, B. Frawley,, D. J. O’Brien,, C. E. Miller, and, M. L. Boulton. 2003. Mycobacterium bovis (bovine TB) exposure as a recreational risk for hunters: results of a Michigan Hunter Survey, 2001. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 7:10011009.
115. Wilkins, M. J.,, J. Meyerson,, P. C. Bartlett,, S. L. Spieldenner,, D. E. Berry,, L. B. Mosher,, J. B. Kaneene,, B. Robinson-Dunn,, M. G. Stobierski, and, M. L. Boulton. 2008. Human Mycobacterium bovis infection and bovine tuberculosis outbreak, Michigan, 1994-2007. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 14:657660.
116. Witjes, J. A.,, J. Palou,, M. Soloway,, D. Lammd,, M. Brausi,, J. R. Spermon,, R. Persad,, R. Buckley,, H. Akaza,, M. Colombel, and, A. Böhle. 2008. Clinical practice recommendations for the prevention and management of intravesical therapy–associated adverse events. Eur. Urol. Suppl. 7:667674.
117. Xavier Emmanuel, F.,, A. L. Seagar,, C. Doig,, A. Rayner,, P. Claxton, and, I. Laurenson. 2007. Human and animal infections with Mycobacterium microti, Scotland. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 13:19241927.

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 1.

Members of the complex

Citation: Esteban J, Alonso-Rodríguez N. 2011. and Other Uncommon Members of the Complex, p 607-617. In Schlossberg D (ed), Tuberculosis and Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections, Sixth Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817138.ch41

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error