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Chapter 13 : Nitrification in the Ocean

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Abstract:

This chapter focuses on very recent developments and their implications for nitrogen cycling in the marine environment. Nitrification does not influence the net N inventory of the ocean directly except by small losses to the gaseous pool of nitrous oxide, but it does determine the distribution of N among important dissolved inorganic nitrogen pools. The ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) oxidize ammonium to nitrite, and nitrite oxidizers, convert the nitrite to nitrate, which can be a very important N source for many kinds of phytoplankton. The only cultivated ammonia oxidizers were bacteria. These cultures have provided the basis of physiological inferences about ecological niches and environmental regulation of nitrification in the ocean. The most important development in the study of nitrification in the ocean in the last decade is the discovery of AOA. The implications of this discovery may not result in big changes in our understanding of the rates and distribution of nitrification in the ocean. Despite their somewhat restricted phylogenetic range, the bacterial nitrifiers are polyphyletic, and the phenotype has apparently arisen independently numerous times. Recent discoveries in the marine nitrogen cycle and in nitrification, in particular, point out the important gaps in our understanding, both at the level of microorganisms and at the ecosystem level.

Citation: Ward B. 2011. Nitrification in the Ocean, p 325-345. In Ward B, Arp D, Klotz M (ed), Nitrification. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817145.ch13

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Bacteria and Archaea
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Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation
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Nitrogen Cycle
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Microbial Ecosystems
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Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

The biological nitrogen cycle, showing the role of nitrification in linking the oxidized and reduced components of the dissolved inorganic nitrogen pools.

Citation: Ward B. 2011. Nitrification in the Ocean, p 325-345. In Ward B, Arp D, Klotz M (ed), Nitrification. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817145.ch13
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Schematic of the role of nitrification in the surface ocean. Plankton, phytoplankton and zooplankton, the grazing food web; PN, particulate nitrogen, living or dead; DON, dissolved organic nitrogen. (Left) Nitrification occurs in the deep ocean, and nitrate is supplied to the euphotic zone by mixing. This physical separation between the processes of nitrate assimilation and regeneration, as described in the New Production Paradigm ( ), means that at steady state, the rate of nitrate assimilation is equivalent to the rate of export production (sinking or otherwise removal of PN from the euphotic zone). (Right) Nitrification occurs in the euphotic zone as well as at depth, implying that nitrate assimilation cannot be equated to export production. Other processes that complicate the simple application of the New Production Paradigm are also shown: DON is a much greater flux than previously imagined, and nitrogen fixation can be a significant source of new production is some regions of the ocean.

Citation: Ward B. 2011. Nitrification in the Ocean, p 325-345. In Ward B, Arp D, Klotz M (ed), Nitrification. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817145.ch13
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Possible linkages between nitrification and denitrification, including anammox, across an oxic/anoxic interface. The interface could be at the sediment/water interface or in the gradient at the upper boundary of an open ocean OMZ. P/DON, particulate/dissolved organic nitrogen, which is supplied to the system by primary production in overlying waters. The dashed lines imply diffusion, while the solid arrows represent microbial transformations of dissolved nitrogen compounds.

Citation: Ward B. 2011. Nitrification in the Ocean, p 325-345. In Ward B, Arp D, Klotz M (ed), Nitrification. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817145.ch13
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