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Chapter 15 : Nitrification in Inland Waters

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Abstract:

This chapter presents the latest information on nitrification in inland waters, and deals mostly with ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) as they are primarily important for the onset of the process of nitrification, although their activity might be influenced by the presence of active nitrite-oxidizing bacteria, especially after starvation for ammonium. Nitrification in lakes takes place in the sediment as well as in the water column. As in lakes, nitrification in streams and rivers occurs primarily in the oxic surface layers of the sediment. The use of the gene led to quite different results: no gene fragments related to the lineage were found in any of the compartments; whereas the pelagic and the epiphytic compartments had only gene fragments of the lineage, and the benthic compartments contained a mixture of fragments of the , , and sp. Nm143 lineages. In summary, nitrification in streams and rivers appears to be associated with particles, and the nature of the particles may determine the size of the nitrification rate. Overall, members of the lineage are most numerous among the ammonia-oxidizing betaproteobacteria, both in rivers and lakes. After being detected in large numbers in soils and marine environments, the first observations of crenarchaea containing the gene are published, but their role in nitrification in inland waters still has to be demonstrated.

Citation: Laanbroek H, Bollmann A. 2011. Nitrification in Inland Waters, p 385-403. In Ward B, Arp D, Klotz M (ed), Nitrification. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817145.ch15

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Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation
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Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis
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Figures

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FIGURE 1

Numbers of gene copy numbers obtained by quantitative PCR from the epiphyton on macrophytes (gray bars), the water column (white bars), and the sediment (black bars) from three eutrophic lakes in The Netherlands.

Citation: Laanbroek H, Bollmann A. 2011. Nitrification in Inland Waters, p 385-403. In Ward B, Arp D, Klotz M (ed), Nitrification. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817145.ch15
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Growth rates (day) of freshwater (white bars) and brackish (gray bars) inoculums containing AOB from the Scheldt estuary in medium of different compositions.

Citation: Laanbroek H, Bollmann A. 2011. Nitrification in Inland Waters, p 385-403. In Ward B, Arp D, Klotz M (ed), Nitrification. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817145.ch15
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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Observed rates of nitrification in epilimnion and hypolimnion of a selected number of lakes

Citation: Laanbroek H, Bollmann A. 2011. Nitrification in Inland Waters, p 385-403. In Ward B, Arp D, Klotz M (ed), Nitrification. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817145.ch15
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Distribution of ammonia-oxidizing betaproteobacteria in inland waters as detected by molecular analyses based on either the 16S rRNA or the gene

Citation: Laanbroek H, Bollmann A. 2011. Nitrification in Inland Waters, p 385-403. In Ward B, Arp D, Klotz M (ed), Nitrification. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817145.ch15
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

Biomass of the submerged macrophyte , seston weight, and community composition of aerobic AOB in microcosms incubated for 35 days at 20 to 23C and a 12-h dark-light cycle (light intensity, 225 µmol s m)

Citation: Laanbroek H, Bollmann A. 2011. Nitrification in Inland Waters, p 385-403. In Ward B, Arp D, Klotz M (ed), Nitrification. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817145.ch15

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