1887

Chapter 2 : The Beginnings of Yeast Physiology, 1850 to 1880

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

The Beginnings of Yeast Physiology, 1850 to 1880, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817152/9781555815165_Chap02-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817152/9781555815165_Chap02-2.gif

Abstract:

We know that an analogous decomposition of salicin is produced by emulsin; neither in the one case nor in the other, is it possible to detect a physiological act. But between 1855 and 1875 Pasteur established unequivocally (i) the role of yeast in alcoholic fermentation, (ii) fermentation as a physiological phenomenon, and (iii) differences between the aerobic and anaerobic utilization of sugar by yeasts. The first part of Pasteur's paper deals with the changes in sugar which are brought about by alcoholic fermentation. The second part considers especially the "ferment", its nature, and the transformations it undergo. Pasteur's work on beer and wine yeasts gives some account of different yeasts, although he was never much interested in taxonomy. Indeed, his work described some elegant experiments on yeasts associated with wine grapes, probably carried out in the autumn of 1872. In 1862 Pasteur had discussed the sources of wine yeasts, describing how yeasts could be found in different fruit juices of high acidity, although if the juices were less acidic, bacteria would grow too. By 1880, alcoholic fermentation as a sign of the physiological activity of yeasts was not quite yet scientific orthodoxy. Up to that time, the finding of independent enzymic activity, separated from that of living cells, impeded understanding of the role of enzymes in cellular activity.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. The Beginnings of Yeast Physiology, 1850 to 1880, p 12-25. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch2

Key Concept Ranking

Lactic Acid Fermentation
0.66924584
Alcoholic Fermentation
0.5506936
Succinic Acid
0.44396263
0.66924584
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 2.1
FIGURE 2.1

The young Louis Pasteur (1822–1895). Courtesy of Edouard Drouhet.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. The Beginnings of Yeast Physiology, 1850 to 1880, p 12-25. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch2
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2.2
FIGURE 2.2

Pierre Eugène Marcellin Berthelot (1827–1907). Courtesy of the Wellcome Library, London.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. The Beginnings of Yeast Physiology, 1850 to 1880, p 12-25. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch2
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2.3
FIGURE 2.3

Pasteur’s apparatus for sterilizing and removing oxygen from a sugar solution in flask A. After the flask was cooled, the end of the curved tube was placed under mercury, as in Fig. 2.4 (1704, Fig. 60).

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. The Beginnings of Yeast Physiology, 1850 to 1880, p 12-25. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch2
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2.4
FIGURE 2.4

Double-neck flask, with one neck drawn out and placed under mercury (1704, Fig. 59).

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. The Beginnings of Yeast Physiology, 1850 to 1880, p 12-25. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch2
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2.5
FIGURE 2.5

(A) One neck of a flask drawn to a fine point (a). (B) Fine point of the flask thrust into a grape (1704, Fig. 9A and B).

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. The Beginnings of Yeast Physiology, 1850 to 1880, p 12-25. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch2
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2.6
FIGURE 2.6

Glass bulb used by Pasteur to examine yeast cells under a microscope. A tube is blown out into a flat bulb, the sides of which in the center are sufficiently close together to contain only a thin layer of liquid (1704, Fig. 31).

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. The Beginnings of Yeast Physiology, 1850 to 1880, p 12-25. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch2
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2.7
FIGURE 2.7

Glass bulb ( Fig. 2.6 ) in situ on the microscope stage (1704, Fig. 71).

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. The Beginnings of Yeast Physiology, 1850 to 1880, p 12-25. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch2
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2.8
FIGURE 2.8

Pasteur’s drawings of the cells of two kinds of yeast found in fermenting grape must: he called the small lemon-shaped yeast and the larger round-celled yeast or (1704, Fig. 27).

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. The Beginnings of Yeast Physiology, 1850 to 1880, p 12-25. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch2
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555817152.ch02

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 2.1

Berthelot’s experiments on the glucose-producing fermentation of cane sugar (149)

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. The Beginnings of Yeast Physiology, 1850 to 1880, p 12-25. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch2
Generic image for table
Untitled

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. The Beginnings of Yeast Physiology, 1850 to 1880, p 12-25. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch2

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error