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Chapter 3 : Pure Cultures, New Yeast Species, and Cell-Free Extracts, 1880 to 1900

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Pure Cultures, New Yeast Species, and Cell-Free Extracts, 1880 to 1900, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

This chapter concentrates on the years 1880 to 1900, when pure yeast cultures were first obtained, many new species were described, cell-free yeast extracts that could ferment sugars were made, and much was learned about sugar metabolism by yeasts. Some species were discovered by examining the traditional fermented drinks of various countries. Pasteur’s method of cultivating yeasts had not given pure cultures, since he transferred a small portion of a culture by means of a sterile instrument to sterile liquid medium and, when fresh growth occurred, he used this new growth to again inoculate sterile medium. The development of techniques for producing pure cultures also made the reliable descriptions of new species practicable, and about 130 kinds of yeast were reported or described between 1880 and 1900. To be consistent, perhaps yeast taxonomists should reattribute certain species, such as some species of the genus , as they too were described before the use of pure cultures became practicable. As well as beer and wine, other traditional fermented drinks examined microbiologically included ginger beer from England, sake from Japan, and kefir from the Caucasus. A markedly different method of obtaining active cell-free extracts of yeasts was developed by Henry Dixon and William Atkins at Trinity College Dublin: they extracted “zymase” from a Guinness brewery yeast by freezing it in liquid air.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Pure Cultures, New Yeast Species, and Cell-Free Extracts, 1880 to 1900, p 26-40. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch3

Key Concept Ranking

Alcoholic Fermentation
0.45330253
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
0.43333334
Chemicals
0.4261609
0.45330253
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Figures

Image of FIGURE 3.1
FIGURE 3.1

Emil Fischer (1852–1919), about 1900. The original photograph is in the Collection of Emil Fischer Papers in the Bancroft Library at the University of California, Berkeley. Courtesy of F. W. Lichtenthaler.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Pure Cultures, New Yeast Species, and Cell-Free Extracts, 1880 to 1900, p 26-40. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch3
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Image of FIGURE 3.2
FIGURE 3.2

Eduard Buchner (1860–1917), about 1900.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Pure Cultures, New Yeast Species, and Cell-Free Extracts, 1880 to 1900, p 26-40. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch3
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Image of FIGURE 3.3
FIGURE 3.3

Emil Christian Hansen (1842–1909), about 1875. Courtesy of Carlsberg Laboratory, Copenhagen.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Pure Cultures, New Yeast Species, and Cell-Free Extracts, 1880 to 1900, p 26-40. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch3
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Image of FIGURE 3.4
FIGURE 3.4

Hansen’s illustration made in 1883 (834, 835) of Böttcher’s moist chamber. (a) Coverglass; (b) drop of yeast suspension; (c) glass ring; (d) layer of water that prevents evaporation.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Pure Cultures, New Yeast Species, and Cell-Free Extracts, 1880 to 1900, p 26-40. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch3
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Image of FIGURE 3.5
FIGURE 3.5

Intercalary teliospores of , a drawing from von Wettstein’s paper of 1885 (2259).

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Pure Cultures, New Yeast Species, and Cell-Free Extracts, 1880 to 1900, p 26-40. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch3
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Image of FIGURE 3.6
FIGURE 3.6

Drawings of cells of by Max Reess, published in 1870 (1806, Plate I).

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Pure Cultures, New Yeast Species, and Cell-Free Extracts, 1880 to 1900, p 26-40. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch3
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Image of FIGURE 3.7
FIGURE 3.7

One of the earliest published figures showing in cells from pus, stained with Heidenhain’s iron hematoxylin and observed with a dry Zeiss apochromatic objective (numerical aperture, 0.95; 3 mm). Reprinted from Busse’s paper of 1895 (245). The original is superb and in color; see reference 85, p. 369.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Pure Cultures, New Yeast Species, and Cell-Free Extracts, 1880 to 1900, p 26-40. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch3
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Image of FIGURE 3.8
FIGURE 3.8

Lindner’s drawings of the cells of , published in 1893 (1295).

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Pure Cultures, New Yeast Species, and Cell-Free Extracts, 1880 to 1900, p 26-40. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch3
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Image of FIGURE 3.9
FIGURE 3.9

The Einhorn tube or Smith tube. Photographed by Lesley Robertson for the Kluyver Laboratory Collection.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Pure Cultures, New Yeast Species, and Cell-Free Extracts, 1880 to 1900, p 26-40. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch3
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Image of FIGURE 3.10
FIGURE 3.10

Durham tube. Reproduced from reference 509.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Pure Cultures, New Yeast Species, and Cell-Free Extracts, 1880 to 1900, p 26-40. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch3
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Image of FIGURE 3.11
FIGURE 3.11

Fischer and Thierfelder’s apparatus for semimicro assays of sugar fermentation by yeasts; the total height is about 6 cm. (a) Fermentation flask, (b) S-trap for CO generated, (c) aqueous Ba(OH). The flask would contain, for example, 70 mg of sugar in 0.35 ml of HO + 0.35 ml of aqueous yeast extract and 13 mg of the purified yeast to be tested. Incubation was for 3 to 10 days at 24 to 28°C (635).

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Pure Cultures, New Yeast Species, and Cell-Free Extracts, 1880 to 1900, p 26-40. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch3
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Image of FIGURE 3.12
FIGURE 3.12

Straight-chain formulae of four sugars tested for fermentability by Emil Fischer (635).

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Pure Cultures, New Yeast Species, and Cell-Free Extracts, 1880 to 1900, p 26-40. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch3
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References

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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 3.1

Summary of some of Emil Fischer’s observations between 1888 and 1892 on the fermentative action by beer yeast sugars

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Pure Cultures, New Yeast Species, and Cell-Free Extracts, 1880 to 1900, p 26-40. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch3

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